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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934563/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#1
Hanny Al-Samkari, Nancy Berliner
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a life-threatening disorder characterized by unbridled activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages resulting in hypercytokinemia and immunemediated injury of multiple organ systems. It is seen in both children and adults and is recognized as primary (driven by underlying genetic mutations that abolish critical proteins required for normal function of cytotoxic T cells and NK cells) or secondary (resulting from a malignant, infectious, or autoimmune stimulus without an identifiable underlying genetic trigger)...
September 13, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916353/outcomes-of-adults-with-in-hospital-cardiac-arrest-after-implementation-of-the-2010-resuscitation-guidelines
#2
Chih-Hung Wang, Chien-Hua Huang, Wei-Tien Chang, Min-Shan Tsai, Ping-Hsun Yu, Yen-Wen Wu, Wen-Jone Chen
BACKGROUND: The 2015 guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are based on an update of the 2010 guidelines with minor revisions. It is important to assess the 2010 guidelines to ensure their efficacy, which may help promote widespread adoption of the 2015 guidelines. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study in a single center that evaluated patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) between 2006 and 2014. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between independent variables and outcomes...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798922/practical-approach-to-the-patient-with-acute-neuromuscular-weakness
#3
REVIEW
Rajeev Nayak
Acute neuromuscular paralysis (ANMP) is a clinical syndrome characterized by rapid onset muscle weakness progressing to maximum severity within several days to weeks (less than 4 wk). Bulbar and respiratory muscle weakness may or may not be present. It is a common neurological emergency which requires immediate and careful investigations to determine the etiology because accurate diagnosis has significant impact on therapy and prognosis. Respiratory failure caused by neuromuscular weakness is considered as more critical than lung disease because its development may be insidious or subtle until sudden decompensation leads to life threatening hypoxia...
July 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724012/health-surveillance-and-response-on-a-regional-scale-a-preliminary-study-of-the-zika-virus-fever-case
#4
Flávia Thedim Costa Bueno
Although awareness of the Zika virus has existed since the 1950s, only recently has it attracted the interest of the international community. In 2015 and 2016, the virus spread throughout Brazil and suspicions on the possible relation between parallel increases in neurological disorders and the infection arose. By November 2015, this concern had developed into a National Public Health Emergency. On February 1, 2016, WHO formally declared its suspicion that this was a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), and sent a response in accordance with International Health Regulations (2005)...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586272/pharmacological-treatment-options-for-cryopyrin-associated-periodic-syndromes
#5
REVIEW
Emmanuelle C Landmann, Ulrich A Walker
Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) are rare monogenic autoinflammatory diseases, comprising a spectrum of phenotypes of varying severity. CAPS are associated with gain-of-function mutations in the NLRP3 inflammasome, a multiprotein complex critical for the activation of IL-1ß, and are characterized by episodes of fever, urticaria-like rash, musculoskeletal, ocular, and neurological symptoms. Areas covered: Accounting for the pivotal role of IL-1ß in the pathogenesis of CAPS, three therapeutic options, all blocking the action of IL-1ß, are currently approved: anakinra, a recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist, the IL-1 trap rilonacept and canakinumab, a monoclonal anti-IL-1ß antibody...
August 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435744/diagnosis-of-spinal-epidural-abscess-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
Chidinma Chima-Melton, Michelle Pearl, Marni Scheiner
INTRODUCTION: Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare but serious cause of back pain in the critical care setting. It occurs most commonly in adults in their fifth and sixth decades of life. Risk factors include diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, AIDS or other immunocompromised states, cancer, intravenous drug use, trauma and spinal surgery. The clinical presentation can be non-specific but the classical triad includes back pain, fever and neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420442/updated-systematic-review-associations-between-proximity-to-animal-feeding-operations-and-health-of-individuals-in-nearby-communities
#7
REVIEW
Annette M O'Connor, Brent W Auvermann, Rungano S Dzikamunhenga, Julie M Glanville, Julian P T Higgins, Shelley P Kirychuk, Jan M Sargeant, Sarah C Totton, Hannah Wood, Susanna G Von Essen
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to update a systematic review of associations between living near an animal feeding operation (AFO) and human health. METHODS: The MEDLINE® and MEDLINE® In-Process, Centre for Agricultural Biosciences Abstracts, and Science Citation Index databases were searched. Reference lists of included articles were hand-searched. Eligible studies reported exposure to an AFO and an individual-level human health outcome. Two reviewers performed study selection and data extraction...
April 18, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187816/multimodal-neurologic-monitoring
#8
REVIEW
G Korbakis, P M Vespa
Neurocritical care has two main objectives. Initially, the emphasis is on treatment of patients with acute damage to the central nervous system whether through infection, trauma, or hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke. Thereafter, attention shifts to the identification of secondary processes that may lead to further brain injury, including fever, seizures, and ischemia, among others. Multimodal monitoring is the concept of using various tools and data integration to understand brain physiology and guide therapeutic interventions to prevent secondary brain injury...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033271/a-simple-and-practical-score-model-for-predicting-the-mortality-of-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-patients
#9
Shue Xiong, Wenjing Zhang, Mingyue Li, Yan Xiong, Mengmeng Li, Hua Wang, Dongliang Yang, Cheng Peng, Xin Zheng
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging disease with a high fatality rate. The risk factors for death are not clearly identified, and there is no clinical score model to predict the prognosis. We retrospectively collected the clinical information of clinical symptoms and laboratory parameters of SFTS patients on admission. After analyzing the clinical characteristics of 179 SFTS patients, we found that an elevated level of neurologic symptoms, respiratory symptoms, viral load, and a lower level of monocyte percentage were the critical risk factors for mortality...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018923/spinal-epidural-abscess-in-adults-a-10-year-clinical-experience-at-a-tertiary-care-academic-medical-center
#10
Andrew W Artenstein, Jennifer Friderici, Adam Holers, Deirdre Lewis, Jan Fitzgerald, Paul Visintainer
Background.  Delayed recognition of spinal epidural abscess (SEA) contributes to poor outcomes from this highly morbid and potentially lethal infection. We performed a case-control study in a regional, high-volume, tertiary care, academic medical center over the years 2005-2015 to assess the potential changing epidemiology, clinical and laboratory manifestations, and course of this disorder and to identify factors that might lead to early identification of SEA. Methods.  Diagnostic billing codes consistent with SEA were used to identify inpatient admissions for abstraction...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992852/paracetamol-in-fever-in-critically-ill-patients-an-update
#11
REVIEW
D Chiumello, M Gotti, G Vergani
Fever, which is arbitrary defined as an increase in body temperature above 38.3°C, can affect up to 90% of patients admitted in intensive care unit. Induction of fever is mediated by the release of pyrogenic cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1, interleukin 6, and interferons). Fever is associated with increased length of stay in intensive care unit and with a worse outcome in some subgroups of patients (mainly neurocritically ill patients). Although fever can increase oxygen consumption in unstable patients, on the contrary, it can activate physiologic systems that are involved in pathogens clearance...
April 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856098/gastric-perforation-and-critical-illness-polyneuropathy-after-steroid-treatment-in-a-patient-with-encephalitis-encephalopathy-with-transient-splenial-lesion
#12
Mitsuru Ikeno, Shinpei Abe, Hirokazu Kurahashi, Michihiko Takasu, Toshiaki Shimizu, Akihisa Okumura
The outcome of mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with reversible splenial lesion (MERS) is favorable whether or not specific treatment is performed. We report a patient with MERS treated with methylprednisolone, complicated by gastric perforation followed by critical illness polyneuropathy. The patient was a 14-year-old male with mildly impaired consciousness and hyponatremia who was treated with methylprednisolone pulse therapy. High fever appeared after methylprednisolone pulse therapy and free air was recognized on an abdomen roentgenogram...
April 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581757/pyrexia-aetiology-in-the-icu
#13
REVIEW
Daniel J Niven, Kevin B Laupland
Elevation in core body temperature is one of the most frequently detected abnormal signs in patients admitted to adult ICUs, and is associated with increased mortality in select populations of critically ill patients. The definition of an elevated body temperature varies considerably by population and thermometer, and is commonly defined by a temperature of 38.0 °C or greater. Terms such as hyperthermia, pyrexia, and fever are often used interchangeably. However, strictly speaking hyperthermia refers to the elevation in body temperature that occurs without an increase in the hypothalamic set point, such as in response to specific environmental (e...
September 1, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435906/neurocritical-care-of-emergent-large-vessel-occlusion-the-era-of-a-new-standard-of-care
#14
Fawaz Al-Mufti, Elie Dancour, Krishna Amuluru, Charles Prestigiacomo, Stephan A Mayer, E Sander Connolly, Jan Claassen, Joshua Z Willey, Philip M Meyers
Acute ischemic stroke continues to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent advances in mechanical thrombectomy techniques combined with prereperfusion computed tomographic angiography for patient selection have revolutionized stroke care in the past year. Peri- and postinterventional neurocritical care of the patient who has had an emergent large-vessel occlusion is likely an equally important contributor to the outcome but has been relatively neglected. Critical periprocedural management issues include streamlining care to speed intervention, blood pressure optimization, reversal of anticoagulation, management of agitation, and selection of anesthetic technique (ie, general vs monitored anesthesia care)...
July 19, 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27296393/predicting-zika-virus-structural-biology-challenges-and-opportunities-for-intervention
#15
Bryan D Cox, Richard A Stanton, Raymond F Schinazi
BACKGROUND: Zika virus is an emerging crisis as infection is implicated in severe neurological disorders-Guillain-Barré syndrome and fetal microcephaly. There are currently no treatment options available for Zika virus infection. This virus is part of the flavivirus genus and closely related to Dengue Fever Virus, West Nile Virus, and Japanese Encephalitis Virus. Like other flaviviruses, the Zika virus genome encodes three structural proteins (capsid, precursor membrane, and envelope) and seven nonstructural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, and NS5)...
August 2015: Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27165581/dengue-fever-with-diffuse-cerebral-hemorrhages-subdural-hematoma-and-cranial-diabetes-insipidus
#16
Nayomi Shermila Jayasinghe, Eranga Thalagala, Milanka Wattegama, Kanapathipillai Thirumavalavan
BACKGROUND: Neurological manifestations in dengue fever occur in <1 % of the patients and known to be due to multisystem dysfunction secondary to vascular leakage. Occurrence of wide spread cerebral haemorrhages with subdural hematoma during the leakage phase without profound thrombocytopenia and occurrence of cranial diabetes insipidus are extremely rare and had not been reported in published literature earlier, thus we report the first case. CASE PRESENTATION: A 24 year old previously healthy lady was admitted on third day of fever with thrombocytopenia...
May 10, 2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111888/crystal-structure-of-the-prefusion-surface-glycoprotein-of-the-prototypic-arenavirus-lcmv
#17
Kathryn M Hastie, Sébastien Igonet, Brian M Sullivan, Pierre Legrand, Michelle A Zandonatti, James E Robinson, Robert F Garry, Félix A Rey, Michael B Oldstone, Erica Ollmann Saphire
Arenaviruses exist worldwide and can cause hemorrhagic fever and neurologic disease. A single glycoprotein expressed on the viral surface mediates entry into target cells. This glycoprotein, termed GPC, contains a membrane-associated signal peptide, a receptor-binding subunit termed GP1 and a fusion-mediating subunit termed GP2. Although GPC is a critical target of antibodies and vaccines, the structure of the metastable GP1-GP2 prefusion complex has remained elusive for all arenaviruses. Here we describe the crystal structure of the fully glycosylated prefusion GP1-GP2 complex of the prototypic arenavirus LCMV at 3...
June 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26755836/a-retrospective-study-of-clinical-profile-and-outcomes-of-critically-ill-patients-with-heat-related-illness
#18
M S Kalaiselvan, M K Renuka, A S Arunkumar
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Heat-related illness (HRI) due to high ambient temperatures is a common feature during the Indian summer. HRI often results in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admissions and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, published report on the effects of HRI among the Indian population is lacking. This study was undertaken to identify the profile of patients admitted to ICU with clinical features of HRI and study their clinical outcomes. METHODS: This was a retrospective case series of patients admitted with features of HRI during the summer of 2012 in our multidisciplinary ICU...
November 2015: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26746342/therapeutic-hypothermia-and-targeted-temperature-management-in-traumatic-brain-injury-clinical-challenges-for-successful-translation
#19
REVIEW
W Dalton Dietrich, Helen M Bramlett
The use of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) and targeted temperature management (TTM) for severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been tested in a variety of preclinical and clinical situations. Early preclinical studies showed that mild reductions in brain temperature after moderate to severe TBI improved histopathological outcomes and reduced neurological deficits. Investigative studies have also reported that reductions in post-traumatic temperature attenuated multiple secondary injury mechanisms including excitotoxicity, free radical generation, apoptotic cell death, and inflammation...
June 1, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26605113/what-are-we-waiting-for-an-argument-for-early-surgery-for-spinal-epidural-abscesses
#20
Nancy E Epstein
BACKGROUND: In the article: Timing and prognosis of surgery for spinal epidural abscess (SEA): A review, Epstein raises one major point; it is imperative that spinal surgeons "take back decision-making" from our medical cohorts and reinstitute early surgery (<24 h) to better treat SEAs. METHODS: Spine surgeons recognize the clinical triad (e.g., fever [50%], spinal pain [92-100%], and neurological deficits [47%]) for establishing the diagnosis of an SEA. We also appreciate the multiple major risk factors for developing SEA; diabetes (15-30%), elevated white blood cell count (>12...
2015: Surgical Neurology International
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