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Immunopathology of viral

Jolanda D F De Groot-Mijnes, Anita S Y Chan, Soon-Phaik Chee, Georges M G M Verjans
Herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, human cytomegalovirus, and rubella virus are the most common causes of virus-induced anterior uveitis. They can present in a variety of entities not only with typical but also overlapping clinical characteristics. These viral infections are commonly associated with ocular infiltration of T cells and B/plasma cells, and expression of cytokines and chemokines typical of a proinflammatory immune response. The infections differ in that the herpes viruses cause an acute lytic infection and inflammation, whereas rubella virus is a chronic low-grade infection with slowly progressing immunopathological responses...
March 15, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Lola Madrid, Rosauro Varo, Sonia Maculuve, Tacilta Nhampossa, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Enrique J Calderón, Cristina Esteva, Carla Carrilho, Mamudo Ismail, Begoña Vieites, Vicente Friaza, María Del Carmen Lozano-Dominguez, Clara Menéndez, Quique Bassat
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most prevalent congenital infection acquired worldwide, with higher incidence in developing countries and among HIV-exposed children. Less is known regarding vertical transmission of parvovirus B19 (B19V) and enterovirus (EV). We aimed to assess the prevalence of CMV, B19V and EV vertical transmission and compare results of screening of congenital CMV obtained from two different specimens in a semirural Mozambican maternity...
2018: PloS One
Jing-Lun Chen, Guang-Min Nong
Infectious diseases can be caused by multiple pathogens, which can produce specific immune response in human body. The immune response produced by T cells is cellular immunity, which plays an important role in the anti-infection process of human body, and can participate in immunological protection and cause immunopathology. The outcome of various infectious diseases is closely related to cellular immune function, especially the function of T cells. Jurkat cells belong to the human acute T lymphocyte leukemia cell line...
March 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Eryn Blass, Malika Aid, Amanda J Martinot, Rafael A Larocca, Zi Han Kang, Alexander Badamchi-Zadeh, Pablo Penaloza-MacMaster, R Keith Reeves, Dan H Barouch
Natural killer (NK) cells respond rapidly as a first line of defense against infectious pathogens. In addition, NK cells may provide a "rheostat" function and have been shown to reduce the magnitude of antigen-specific T cell responses following infection to avoid immunopathology. However, it remains unknown whether NK cells similarly modulate vaccine-elicited T cell responses following viral challenge. We used the LCMV clone 13 infection model to address whether NK cells regulate T cell responses in adenovirus vector vaccinated mice following challenge...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
Jinbo Yu, Vu Huy Hoang Duong, Katrin Westphal, Andreas Westphal, Abdulhadi Suwandi, Guntram A Grassl, Korbinian Brand, Andrew C Chan, Niko Föger, Kyeong-Hee Lee
The immune system is tightly controlled by regulatory processes that allow for the elimination of invading pathogens, while limiting immunopathological damage to the host. In the present study, we found that conditional deletion of the cell surface receptor Toso on B cells unexpectedly resulted in impaired proinflammatory T cell responses, which led to impaired immune protection in an acute viral infection model, while, in a chronic inflammatory context, was associated with reduced immunopathological tissue damage...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Alireza Tahamtan, Masoumeh Tavakoli-Yaraki, Azadeh Shadab, Farhad Rezaei, Sayed Mahdi Marashi, Fazel Shokri, Talat Mokhatri-Azad, Vahid Salimi
Endocannabinoid system plays an important role in pathophysiologic processes such as immune functions and impacts on disease severity. Our previous study showed that cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) affects clinical course of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. In this study, we investigated the role of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) in RSV immunopathology and its therapeutic potential in mice model. To study the role of CB1 receptors in the immunopathology of RSV, CB1 was blocked daily with AM281 as a selective antagonist in Balb/c mice and were infected by intranasal inoculation of RSV-A2 24 h following the first dose of antagonist administration...
February 20, 2018: Viral Immunology
Kim J Hasenkrug, Claire A Chougnet, Ulf Dittmer
Tight regulation of immune responses is not only critical for preventing autoimmune diseases but also for preventing immunopathological damage during infections in which overactive immune responses may be more harmful for the host than the pathogen itself. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in this regulation, which was discovered using the Friend retrovirus (FV) mouse model. Subsequent FV studies revealed basic biological information about Tregs, including their suppressive activity on effector cells as well as the molecular mechanisms of virus-induced Treg expansion...
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Diogo Kuczera, João Paulo Assolini, Fernanda Tomiotto-Pellissier, Wander Rogério Pavanelli, Guilherme Ferreira Silveira
Infection with dengue virus (DENV) can lead to a wide spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from asymptomatic infection to death. It is estimated that the disease manifests only in 90 million cases out of the total 390 million yearly infections. Even though research has not yet elucidated which are the precise pathophysiological mechanisms that trigger severe forms of dengue, the infection elicits a critical immune response significant for dengue pathogenesis development. Understanding how the immune response to DENV is established and how it can resolve the infection or turn into an immunopathology is of great importance in DENV research...
February 2018: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
Ahmad Karkhah, Mostafa Javanian, Soheil Ebrahimpour
Two hepatotropic viruses hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) have been considered as the main cause of chronic viral infections. In addition, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system by eradication of some white blood cell (T-helper cell). The role of Tregs in HCV, HBV and HIV infections ranges from suppressing antiviral T cell responses to protecting tissues as liver and immune cells from immune mediated injury. In this review, we discuss the influence of regulatory T cells in immunopathology of specific viral infections including HCV, HBV and HIV by focusing on targeting Tregs as novel approach in vaccinology against viral infections...
April 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Jennifer A Pickens, Ralph A Tripp
Two primary causes of respiratory tract infections are respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza viruses, both of which remain major public health concerns. There are a limited number of antiviral drugs available for the treatment of RSV and influenza, each having limited effectiveness and each driving selective pressure for the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. Novel broad-spectrum antivirals are needed to circumvent problems with current disease intervention strategies, while improving the cytokine-induced immunopathology associated with RSV and influenza infections...
January 21, 2018: Viruses
Raghubendra Singh Dagur, Weimin Wang, Yan Cheng, Edward Makarov, Murali Ganesan, Hiroshi Suemizu, Catherine L Gebhart, Santhi Gorantla, Natalia Osna, Larisa Y Poluektova
HIV-1 infection impairs liver function, and liver diseases have become a leading cause of morbidity in infected patients. The immunopathology of liver damage caused by HIV-1 remains unclear. We used chimeric mice dually reconstituted with a human immune system and hepatocytes to address the relevance of the model to pathobiology questions related to human hepatocytes survival in the presence of systemic infection. TK-NOG males were transplanted with mismatched human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and hepatocytes; human albumin concentration and the presence of human immune cells in blood were monitored for hepatocytes and immune reconstitution; and mice were infected with HIV-1...
January 22, 2018: Biology Open
Caterina Veroni, Barbara Serafini, Barbara Rosicarelli, Corrado Fagnani, Francesca Aloisi
BACKGROUND: It is debated whether multiple sclerosis (MS) might result from an immunopathological response toward an active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection brought into the central nervous system (CNS) by immigrating B cells. Based on this model, a relationship should exist between the local immune milieu and EBV infection status in the MS brain. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed expression of viral and cellular genes in brain-infiltrating immune cells. METHODS: Twenty-three postmortem snap-frozen brain tissue blocks from 11 patients with progressive MS were selected based on good RNA quality and prominent immune cell infiltration...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Naveen K Rajasagi, Barry T Rouse
HSV-1 ocular infection can cause herpes stromal keratitis (SK), an immunopathological lesion. Frequent recurrences can lead to progressive corneal scaring which can result in vision impairment if left untreated. Currently, the acute and epithelial forms of SK are usually controlled using anti-viral drugs. However, chronic forms of SK which are inflammatory in nature, require the addition of a topical corticosteroid to the anti-viral treatment regimen. In this review, we highlight the essential events involved in SK pathogenesis which can be targeted for improved therapy...
January 9, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Pei-Chun Hsu, Bin-Hao Chiou, Chun-Ming Huang
Ebola virus, a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus, causes severe viral hemorrhagic fever and has a high mortality rate. Histopathological and immunopathological analyses of Ebola virus have revealed that histopathological changes in skin tissue are associated with various degrees of endothelial cell swelling and necrosis. The interactions of microbes within or on a host are a crucial for the skin immune shield. The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) in Ebola virus implies that immune escape, endothelial cell rupture, and tissue dissolution during Ebola virus infection are a result of the effects of Ebola virus miRNAs...
2018: PeerJ
Jennifer S Tsau, Xin Huang, Chen-Yen Lai, Stephen M Hedrick
Caspase-8 (CASP8) is known as an executioner of apoptosis, but more recent studies have shown that it participates in the regulation of necroptosis and innate immunity. In this study, we show that CASP8 negatively regulates retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling such that, in its absence, stimulation of the RIG-I pathway in dendritic cells (DCs) produced modestly enhanced activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 with correspondingly greater amounts of proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, mice lacking DC-specific CASP8 (dcCasp8-/- mice) develop age-dependent symptoms of autoimmune disease characterized by hyperactive DCs and T cells, spleen and liver immunopathology, and the appearance of Th1-polarized CD4+ T cells...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Hui Li, Konrad C Bradley, Jason S Long, Rebecca Frise, Jonathan W Ashcroft, Lorian C Hartgroves, Holly Shelton, Spyridon Makris, Cecilia Johansson, Bin Cao, Wendy S Barclay
The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 influenza virus has been a public health concern for more than a decade because of its frequent zoonoses and the high case fatality rate associated with human infections. Severe disease following H5N1 influenza infection is often associated with dysregulated host innate immune response also known as cytokine storm but the virological and cellular basis of these responses has not been clearly described. We rescued a series of 6:2 reassortant viruses that combined a PR8 HA/NA pairing with the internal gene segments from human adapted H1N1, H3N2, or avian H5N1 viruses and found that mice infected with the virus with H5N1 internal genes suffered severe weight loss associated with increased lung cytokines but not high viral load...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Nadine Althof, Carl Christoph Goetzke, Meike Kespohl, Karolin Voss, Arnd Heuser, Sandra Pinkert, Ziya Kaya, Karin Klingel, Antje Beling
Severe heart pathology upon virus infection is closely associated with the immunological equipment of the host. Since there is no specific treatment available, current research focuses on identifying new drug targets to positively modulate predisposing immune factors. Utilizing a murine model with high susceptibility to coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis, this study describes ONX 0914-an immunoproteasome-specific inhibitor-as highly protective during severe heart disease. Represented by reduced heart infiltration of monocytes/macrophages and diminished organ damage, ONX 0914 treatment reversed fulminant pathology...
January 2, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Yuan Li, Hanyu Hu, Zongli Qi, Jingying Sun, Yan Li, Qing Feng, Chunyan Guo, Haifang Wang, Penghua Zhao, Yang Liu, Xiangrong Zhao, Guanghua Wang, Hai Zhang, Libin Liu, Jun Hu
Influenza is the most common infectious disease and is caused by influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Hemagglutinin (HA) is an important viral protein of influenza A and is a major component of current IAV vaccines. The side effects associated with IAV vaccination are well studied; however, the HA‑induced immunopathological changes have remained largely elusive. The primary objective of the present study was to determine the tissue cross‑reactive epitopes of HA proteins. Monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) were generated according to traditional methods using purified HA proteins from influenza vaccine lysates...
December 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Jason P Lynch, Rhiannon B Werder, Zhixuan Loh, Md Al Amin Sikder, Bodie Curren, Vivian Zhang, Matthew J Rogers, Katie Lane, Jennifer Simpson, Stuart B Mazzone, Kirsten Spann, John Hayball, Kerrilyn Diener, Mark L Everard, Christopher C Blyth, Christian Forstner, Paul G Dennis, Nida Murtaza, Mark Morrison, Páraic Ó Cuív, Ping Zhang, Ashraful Haque, Geoffrey R Hill, Peter D Sly, John W Upham, Simon Phipps
Respiratory syncytial virus-bronchiolitis is a major independent risk factor for subsequent asthma, but the causal mechanisms remain obscure. We identified that transient plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) depletion during primary Pneumovirus infection alone predisposed to severe bronchiolitis in early life and subsequent asthma in later life after reinfection. pDC depletion ablated interferon production and increased viral load; however, the heightened immunopathology and susceptibility to subsequent asthma stemmed from a failure to expand functional neuropilin-1+ regulatory T (T reg) cells in the absence of pDC-derived semaphorin 4a (Sema4a)...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Ellen Brisse, Maya Imbrechts, Tania Mitera, Jessica Vandenhaute, Carine H Wouters, Robert Snoeck, Graciela Andrei, Patrick Matthys
BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare immunological disorder caused by unbridled activation of T cells and macrophages, culminating in a life-threatening cytokine storm. A genetic and acquired subtype are distinguished, termed primary and secondary HLH, respectively. Clinical manifestations of both forms are frequently preceded by a viral infection, predominantly with herpesviruses. The exact role of the viral infection in the development of the hemophagocytic syndrome remains to be further elucidated...
December 19, 2017: Virology Journal
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