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Immunopathology of viral

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768180/dietary-fiber-confers-protection-against-flu-by-shaping-ly6c-patrolling-monocyte-hematopoiesis-and-cd8-t-cell-metabolism
#1
Aurélien Trompette, Eva S Gollwitzer, Céline Pattaroni, Isabel C Lopez-Mejia, Erika Riva, Julie Pernot, Niki Ubags, Lluis Fajas, Laurent P Nicod, Benjamin J Marsland
Dietary fiber protects against chronic inflammatory diseases by dampening immune responses through short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Here we examined the effect of dietary fiber in viral infection, where the anti-inflammatory properties of SCFAs in principle could prevent protective immunity. Instead, we found that fermentable dietary fiber increased survival of influenza-infected mice through two complementary mechanisms. High-fiber diet (HFD)-fed mice exhibited altered bone marrow hematopoiesis, characterized by enhanced generation of Ly6c- patrolling monocytes, which led to increased numbers of alternatively activated macrophages with a limited capacity to produce the chemokine CXCL1 in the airways...
May 15, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761104/platelets-in-immune-response-to-virus-and-immunopathology-of-viral-infections
#2
REVIEW
Eugenio D Hottz, Fernando A Bozza, Patrícia T Bozza
Platelets are essential effector cells in hemostasis. Aside from their role in coagulation, platelets are now recognized as major inflammatory cells with key roles in the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Activated platelets have key thromboinflammatory functions linking coagulation to immune responses in various infections, including in response to virus. Recent studies have revealed that platelets exhibit several pattern recognition receptors (PRR) including those from the toll-like receptor, NOD-like receptor, and C-type lectin receptor family and are first-line sentinels in detecting and responding to pathogens in the vasculature...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743346/pgd2-dp2-receptor-activation-promotes-severe-viral-bronchiolitis-by-suppressing-ifn-%C3%AE-production
#3
Rhiannon B Werder, Jason P Lynch, Jennifer C Simpson, Vivian Zhang, Nick H Hodge, Matthew Poh, Elizabeth Forbes-Blom, Christina Kulis, Mark L Smythe, John W Upham, Kirsten Spann, Mark L Everard, Simon Phipps
Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) signals through PGD2 receptor 2 (DP2, also known as CRTH2) on type 2 effector cells to promote asthma pathogenesis; however, little is known about its role during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis, a major risk factor for asthma development. We show that RSV infection up-regulated hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase expression and increased PGD2 release by cultured human primary airway epithelial cells (AECs). Moreover, PGD2 production was elevated in nasopharyngeal samples from young infants hospitalized with RSV bronchiolitis compared to healthy controls...
May 9, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740793/immune-checkpoint-receptors-homeostatic-regulators-of-immunity
#4
REVIEW
Antonio Riva, Shilpa Chokshi
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is an escalating global problem accounting for more than 3 million deaths annually. Bacterial infections are diagnosed in 25-47% of hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and represent the most important trigger for acute decompensation, multi-organ failure, septic shock and death. Current guidelines recommend intensive antibiotic therapy, but this has led to the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria, which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates. As such, there is a pressing need to explore new paradigms for anti-infective therapy and host-directed immunomodulatory therapies are a promising approach...
May 8, 2018: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732405/broad-and-diverse-mechanisms-used-by-deubiquitinase-family-members-in-regulating-the-type-i-interferon-signaling-pathway-during-antiviral-responses
#5
Qingxiang Liu, Yaoxing Wu, Yunfei Qin, Jiajia Hu, Weihong Xie, F Xiao-Feng Qin, Jun Cui
The innate immune response conferred by type I interferons is essential for host defense against viral infection but needs to be tightly controlled to avoid immunopathology. We performed a systematic functional screening by CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9) knockout and overexpression to investigate the roles of the deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) family in regulating antiviral immunity. We demonstrated that the expression of a large fraction of DUBs underwent complex temporal alteration, suggesting a dynamic program of feedback regulation...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724957/c1q-restrains-autoimmunity-and-viral-infection-by-regulating-cd8-t-cell-metabolism
#6
Guang Sheng Ling, Greg Crawford, Norzawani Buang, Istvan Bartok, Kunyuan Tian, Nicole M Thielens, Isabelle Bally, James A Harker, Philip G Ashton-Rickardt, Sophie Rutschmann, Jessica Strid, Marina Botto
Deficiency of C1q, the initiator of the complement classical pathway, is associated with the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Explaining this association in terms of abnormalities in the classical pathway alone remains problematic because C3 deficiency does not predispose to SLE. Here, using a mouse model of SLE, we demonstrate that C1q, but not C3, restrains the response to self-antigens by modulating the mitochondrial metabolism of CD8+ T cells, which can themselves propagate autoimmunity...
May 4, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681974/baicalin-downregulates-rlrs-signaling-pathway-to-control-influenza-a-virus-infection-and-improve-the-prognosis
#7
Peng Pang, Ke Zheng, Sizhi Wu, Huachong Xu, Li Deng, Yucong Shi, Xiaoyin Chen
The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of baicalin on controlling the pulmonary infection and improving the prognosis in influenza A virus (IAV) infection. PCR and western blot were used to measure the changes of some key factors in RLRs signaling pathway. MSD electrochemiluminescence was used to measure the expression of pulmonary inflammatory cytokines including IFN- γ , TNF- α , IL-1 β , IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, and KC/GRO. Flow cytometry was used to detect the proportion of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648649/infectious-inflammatory-and-autoimmune-male-factor-infertility-how-do-rodent-models-inform-clinical-practice
#8
Monika Fijak, Adrian Pilatz, Mark P Hedger, Nour Nicolas, Sudhanshu Bhushan, Vera Michel, Kenneth S K Tung, Hans-Christian Schuppe, Andreas Meinhardt
BACKGROUND: Infection and inflammation of the reproductive tract are significant causes of male factor infertility. Ascending infections caused by sexually transmitted bacteria or urinary tract pathogens represent the most frequent aetiology of epididymo-orchitis, but viral, haematogenous dissemination is also a contributory factor. Limitations in adequate diagnosis and therapy reflect an obvious need for further understanding of human epididymal and testicular immunopathologies and their contribution to infertility...
April 10, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626271/bursal-immunopathology-responses-of-specific-pathogen-free-chickens-and-red-jungle-fowl-infected-with-very-virulent-infectious-bursal-disease-virus
#9
Mohd Isa Farhanah, Abdul Rahaman Yasmin, Nguyen Phuc Khanh, Swee Keong Yeap, Mohd Hair-Bejo, Abdul Rahman Omar
Very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) targets B lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius (BF), causing immunosuppression and increased mortality rates in young birds. There have been few studies on the host immune response following vvIBDV infection at different inoculum doses in chickens with different genetic backgrounds. In this study, we characterized the immune responses of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and Malaysian red jungle fowl following infection with vvIBDV strain UPM0081 at 103...
April 6, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621732/c5a-receptor1-inhibition-alleviates-influenza-virus-induced-acute-lung-injury
#10
Nianping Song, Pei Li, Yuting Jiang, Hong Sun, Jing Cui, Guangyu Zhao, Dan Li, Yan Guo, Yuehong Chen, Jimin Gao, Shihui Sun, Yusen Zhou
Influenza A virus is an important human pathogen that causes 3 to 5 million severe cases of influenza worldwide each year. An aberrant innate immune response, particularly hypercytokinemia, is thought to play an important role in the disease, although the pathogenesis of severe influenza virus infection remains unclear and no specific and efficacious immunotherapy is available. This study reports dysregulated complement activation in mice after infection with A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8). C5aR1-deficient mice and mice treated with an anti-C5aR1 antibody were used as models to study the C5a-C5aR1 axis during acute lung injury (ALI) induced by influenza virus infection...
April 2, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616036/cd1-restricted-t-cells-during-persistent-virus-infections-sympathy-for-the-devil
#11
REVIEW
Günther Schönrich, Martin J Raftery
Some of the clinically most important viruses persist in the human host after acute infection. In this situation, the host immune system and the viral pathogen attempt to establish an equilibrium. At best, overt disease is avoided. This attempt may fail, however, resulting in eventual loss of viral control or inadequate immune regulation. Consequently, direct virus-induced tissue damage or immunopathology may occur. The cluster of differentiation 1 (CD1) family of non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I molecules are known to present hydrophobic, primarily lipid antigens...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593047/il-27r-signalling-mediates-early-viral-containment-and-impacts-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-after-chronic-lymphocytic-choriomeningitis-virus-infection
#12
James A Harker, Kurt A Wong, Simone Dallari, Phuc Bao, Aleksandr Dolgoter, Yeara Jo, Ellen J Wehrens, Monica Macal, Elina I Zuniga
Chronic viral infections represent a major challenge to host's immune response and a unique network of immunological elements, including cytokines, are required for their containment. By using a model persistent infection with the natural murine pathogen lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus clone 13 (LCMV Cl13) we investigated the role of one such cytokine, interleukin 27 (IL-27), in the control of chronic infection. We found that IL-27R signalling promoted control of LCMV Cl13 as early as day 1 and 5 after infection and that il27p28 transcripts were rapidly elevated in multiple subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) and myeloid cells...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590614/oral-antibiotic-treatment-of-mice-exacerbates-the-disease-severity-of-multiple-flavivirus-infections
#13
Larissa B Thackray, Scott A Handley, Matthew J Gorman, Subhajit Poddar, Prachi Bagadia, Carlos G Briseño, Derek J Theisen, Qing Tan, Barry L Hykes, Hueylie Lin, Tiffany M Lucas, Chandni Desai, Jeffrey I Gordon, Kenneth M Murphy, Herbert W Virgin, Michael S Diamond
Although the outcome of flavivirus infection can vary from asymptomatic to lethal, environmental factors modulating disease severity are poorly defined. Here, we observed increased susceptibility of mice to severe West Nile (WNV), Dengue, and Zika virus infections after treatment with oral antibiotics (Abx) that depleted the gut microbiota. Abx treatment impaired the development of optimal T cell responses, with decreased levels of WNV-specific CD8+ T cells associated with increased infection and immunopathology...
March 27, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543540/immunopathology-of-virus-induced-anterior-uveitis
#14
Jolanda D F De Groot-Mijnes, Anita S Y Chan, Soon-Phaik Chee, Georges M G M Verjans
Herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, human cytomegalovirus, and rubella virus are the most common causes of virus-induced anterior uveitis. They can present in a variety of entities not only with typical but also overlapping clinical characteristics. These viral infections are commonly associated with ocular infiltration of T cells and B/plasma cells, and expression of cytokines and chemokines typical of a proinflammatory immune response. The infections differ in that the herpes viruses cause an acute lytic infection and inflammation, whereas rubella virus is a chronic low-grade infection with slowly progressing immunopathological responses...
2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538464/congenital-cytomegalovirus-parvovirus-and-enterovirus-infection-in-mozambican-newborns-at-birth-a-cross-sectional-survey
#15
Lola Madrid, Rosauro Varo, Sonia Maculuve, Tacilta Nhampossa, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Enrique J Calderón, Cristina Esteva, Carla Carrilho, Mamudo Ismail, Begoña Vieites, Vicente Friaza, María Del Carmen Lozano-Dominguez, Clara Menéndez, Quique Bassat
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most prevalent congenital infection acquired worldwide, with higher incidence in developing countries and among HIV-exposed children. Less is known regarding vertical transmission of parvovirus B19 (B19V) and enterovirus (EV). We aimed to assess the prevalence of CMV, B19V and EV vertical transmission and compare results of screening of congenital CMV obtained from two different specimens in a semirural Mozambican maternity...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530126/-advances-in-application-of-jurkat-cell-model-in-research-on-infectious-diseases
#16
Jing-Lun Chen, Guang-Min Nong
Infectious diseases can be caused by multiple pathogens, which can produce specific immune response in human body. The immune response produced by T cells is cellular immunity, which plays an important role in the anti-infection process of human body, and can participate in immunological protection and cause immunopathology. The outcome of various infectious diseases is closely related to cellular immune function, especially the function of T cells. Jurkat cells belong to the human acute T lymphocyte leukemia cell line...
March 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514912/adenovirus-vector-vaccination-impacts-nk-cell-rheostat-function-following-lymphocytic-choriomeningitis-virus-infection
#17
Eryn Blass, Malika Aid, Amanda J Martinot, Rafael A Larocca, Zi Han Kang, Alexander Badamchi-Zadeh, Pablo Penaloza-MacMaster, R Keith Reeves, Dan H Barouch
Natural killer (NK) cells respond rapidly as a first line of defense against infectious pathogens. In addition, NK cells may provide a "rheostat" function and have been shown to reduce the magnitude of antigen-specific T cell responses following infection to avoid immunopathology. However, it remains unknown whether NK cells similarly modulate vaccine-elicited T cell responses following virus challenge. We used the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) clone 13 infection model to address whether NK cells regulate T cell responses in adenovirus vector-vaccinated mice following challenge...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461978/surface-receptor-toso-controls-b-cell-mediated-regulation-of-t-cell-immunity
#18
Jinbo Yu, Vu Huy Hoang Duong, Katrin Westphal, Andreas Westphal, Abdulhadi Suwandi, Guntram A Grassl, Korbinian Brand, Andrew C Chan, Niko Föger, Kyeong-Hee Lee
The immune system is tightly controlled by regulatory processes that allow for the elimination of invading pathogens, while limiting immunopathological damage to the host. In the present study, we found that conditional deletion of the cell surface receptor Toso on B cells unexpectedly resulted in impaired proinflammatory T cell responses, which led to impaired immune protection in an acute viral infection model and was associated with reduced immunopathological tissue damage in a chronic inflammatory context...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461930/the-role-of-cannabinoid-receptor-1-in-the-immunopathology-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#19
Alireza Tahamtan, Masoumeh Tavakoli-Yaraki, Azadeh Shadab, Farhad Rezaei, Sayed Mahdi Marashi, Fazel Shokri, Talat Mokhatri-Azad, Vahid Salimi
Endocannabinoid system plays an important role in pathophysiologic processes such as immune functions and impacts on disease severity. Our previous study showed that cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) affects clinical course of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. In this study, we investigated the role of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) in RSV immunopathology and its therapeutic potential in mice model. To study the role of CB1 receptors in the immunopathology of RSV, CB1 was blocked daily with AM281 as a selective antagonist in Balb/c mice and were infected by intranasal inoculation of RSV-A2 24 h following the first dose of antagonist administration...
May 2018: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447279/regulatory-t-cells-in-retroviral-infections
#20
REVIEW
Kim J Hasenkrug, Claire A Chougnet, Ulf Dittmer
Tight regulation of immune responses is not only critical for preventing autoimmune diseases but also for preventing immunopathological damage during infections in which overactive immune responses may be more harmful for the host than the pathogen itself. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in this regulation, which was discovered using the Friend retrovirus (FV) mouse model. Subsequent FV studies revealed basic biological information about Tregs, including their suppressive activity on effector cells as well as the molecular mechanisms of virus-induced Treg expansion...
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
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