keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Immunopathology of viral

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637387/immunopathology-of-chikungunya-virus-infection-lessons-learned-from-patients-and-animal-models
#1
Lisa F P Ng
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus that causes acute and chronic arthritis. The virus reemerged in the Indian Ocean islands in 2005-2006 and is responsible for outbreaks in the Caribbean islands and the Americas since late 2013. Despite the wealth of research over the past 10 years, there are no commercially available antiviral drugs or vaccines. Treatment usually involves analgesics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care. Most studies have been focused on understanding the pathogenesis of CHIKV infection through clinical observation and with animal models...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615708/epitope-mapping-and-kinetics-of-cd4-t-cell-immunity-to-pneumonia-virus-of-mice-in-the-c57bl-6-strain
#2
Lana Vandersarren, Cedric Bosteels, Manon Vanheerswynghels, James J Moon, Andrew J Easton, Gert Van Isterdael, Sophie Janssens, Bart N Lambrecht, Mary J van Helden
Pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) infection has been widely used as a rodent model to study the closely related human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). While T cells are indispensable for viral clearance, they also contribute to immunopathology. To gain more insight into mechanistic details, novel tools are needed that allow to study virus-specific T cells in C57BL/6 mice as the majority of transgenic mice are only available on this background. While PVM-specific CD8 T cell epitopes were recently described, so far no PVM-specific CD4 T cell epitopes have been identified within the C57BL/6 strain...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613916/human-cd8-t-cells-damage-non-infected-epithelial-cells-during-influenza-virus-infection-in-vitro
#3
Carolien E van de Sandt, Montserrat Bárcena, Abraham J Koster, Jennifer Kasper, Charles J Kirkpatrick, Dana P Scott, Rory D de Vries, Susanne Herold, Guus F Rimmelzwaan, Thijs Kuiken, Kirsty R Short
During severe influenza A virus (IAV) infections a large amount of damage to the pulmonary epithelium is the result of the anti-viral immune response. Specifically, whilst CD8+ T cells are important for killing IAV-infected cells, during a severe IAV infection they can damage uninfected epithelial cells. At present, the mechanisms by which this occurs are unclear. Here, we used a novel in vitro co-culture model of human NCl-H441 cells and CD8+ T cells in order to provide a new insight into how CD8+ T cells may affect uninfected epithelial cells during severe IAV infections...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603559/three-immune-mediated-disease-models-induced-by-theiler-s-virus-multiple-sclerosis-seizures-and-myocarditis
#4
Ikuo Tsunoda, Fumitaka Sato, Seiichi Omura, Mitsugu Fujita, Namie Sakiyama, Ah-Mee Park
Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection has been used as a viral model for multiple sclerosis (MS), as TMEV can induce chronic inflammatory demyelinating lesions with viral persistence in the spinal cord of SJL/J mice. In contrast, when C57BL/6 mice are infected with TMEV, the mice can clear the virus from the central nervous system (CNS), without viral persistence or demyelination, but develop seizures and hippocampal sclerosis, which has been used as a viral model for seizures/epilepsy. In the two TMEV-induced CNS disease models, not only viral infection, but also immune responses contribute to the pathogenesis...
November 2016: Clinical & Experimental Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582800/regulation-of-cd4-t-cells-and-their-effects-on-immunopathological-inflammation-following-viral-infection
#5
Mitra Bhattacharyya, Patrick Madden, Nathan Henning, Shana Gregory, Malika Aid, Amanda Martinot, Dan H Barouch, Pablo Penaloza-MacMaster
CD4 T cells help immune responses, but knowledge of how memory CD4 T cells are regulated and how they regulate adaptive immune responses and induce immunopathology is limited. Using adoptive transfer of virus-specific CD4 T cells, we show that naïve CD4 T cells undergo substantial expansion following infection, but can induce lethal TH1-driven inflammation. In contrast, memory CD4 T cells exhibit a biased proliferation of T follicular helper (Tfh) cell subsets and were able to improve adaptive immune responses in the context of minimal tissue damage...
June 5, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576981/stat1-represses-cytokine-producing-group-2-and-group-3-innate-lymphoid-cells-during-viral-infection
#6
Matthew T Stier, Kasia Goleniewska, Jacqueline Y Cephus, Dawn C Newcomb, Taylor P Sherrill, Kelli L Boyd, Melissa H Bloodworth, Martin L Moore, Kong Chen, Jay K Kolls, R Stokes Peebles
The appropriate orchestration of different arms of the immune response is critical during viral infection to promote efficient viral clearance while limiting immunopathology. However, the signals and mechanisms that guide this coordination are not fully understood. IFNs are produced at high levels during viral infection and have convergent signaling through STAT1. We hypothesized that STAT1 signaling during viral infection regulates the balance of innate lymphoid cells (ILC), a diverse class of lymphocytes that are poised to respond to environmental insults including viral infections with the potential for both antiviral or immunopathologic functions...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576126/effective-treatment-of-sivcpz-induced-immunodeficiency-in-a-captive-western-chimpanzee
#7
Hannah J Barbian, Raven Jackson-Jewett, Corrine S Brown, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Gerald H Learn, Timothy Decker, Edward F Kreider, Yingying Li, Thomas N Denny, Paul M Sharp, George M Shaw, Jeffrey Lifson, Edward P Acosta, Michael S Saag, Katharine J Bar, Beatrice H Hahn
BACKGROUND: Simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz), the progenitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), is associated with increased mortality and AIDS-like immunopathology in wild-living chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Surprisingly, however, similar findings have not been reported for chimpanzees experimentally infected with SIVcpz in captivity, raising questions about the intrinsic pathogenicity of this lentivirus. FINDINGS: Here, we report progressive immunodeficiency and clinical disease in a captive western chimpanzee (P...
June 2, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555383/new-fronts-emerge-in-the-influenza-cytokine-storm
#8
REVIEW
Xi-Zhi J Guo, Paul G Thomas
Influenza virus is a significant pathogen in humans and animals with the ability to cause extensive morbidity and mortality. Exuberant immune responses induced following infection have been described as a "cytokine storm," associated with excessive levels of proinflammatory cytokines and widespread tissue damage. Recent studies have painted a more complex picture of cytokine networks and their contributions to clinical outcomes. While many cytokines clearly inflict immunopathology, others have non-pathological delimited roles in sending alarm signals, facilitating viral clearance, and promoting tissue repair, such as the IL-33-amphiregulin axis, which plays a key role in resolving some types of lung damage...
May 29, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514692/interferon-%C3%AE-mediates-non-redundant-front-line-antiviral-protection-against-influenza-virus-infection-without-compromising-host-fitness
#9
Ioanna E Galani, Vasiliki Triantafyllia, Evridiki-Evangelia Eleminiadou, Ourania Koltsida, Athanasios Stavropoulos, Maria Manioudaki, Dimitris Thanos, Sean E Doyle, Sergei V Kotenko, Kalliopi Thanopoulou, Evangelos Andreakos
Lambda interferons (IFNλs) or type III IFNs share homology, expression patterns, signaling cascades, and antiviral functions with type I IFNs. This has complicated the unwinding of their unique non-redundant roles. Through the systematic study of influenza virus infection in mice, we herein show that IFNλs are the first IFNs produced that act at the epithelial barrier to suppress initial viral spread without activating inflammation. If infection progresses, type I IFNs come into play to enhance viral resistance and induce pro-inflammatory responses essential for confronting infection but causing immunopathology...
May 16, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487311/egr2-and-3-control-adaptive-immune-responses-by-temporally-uncoupling-expansion-from-t-cell-differentiation
#10
Tizong Miao, Alistair L J Symonds, Randeep Singh, Janine D Symonds, Ane Ogbe, Becky Omodho, Bo Zhu, Suling Li, Ping Wang
Egr2 and 3 are important for maintaining immune homeostasis. Here we define a fundamental function of Egr2 and 3 operating as a checkpoint that controls the transition between clonal expansion and differentiation of effector T cells. Egr2 and 3 deficiency resulted in defective clonal expansion but hyperactivation and excessive differentiation of T cells in response to viral infection. Conversely, sustained Egr2 expression enhanced expansion but severely impaired effector differentiation. Egr2 bound to and controlled the expression of genes regulating proliferation (Myc and Myb) and differentiation repressors (Bcl6, Id3), while repressing transcription factors required for effector function (Zeb2, RORa, RORc, and Bhlhe40)...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459437/host-dna-released-by-netosis-promotes-rhinovirus-induced-type-2-allergic-asthma-exacerbation
#11
Marie Toussaint, David J Jackson, Dawid Swieboda, Anabel Guedán, Theodora-Dorita Tsourouktsoglou, Yee Man Ching, Coraline Radermecker, Heidi Makrinioti, Julia Aniscenko, Michael R Edwards, Roberto Solari, Frédéric Farnir, Venizelos Papayannopoulos, Fabrice Bureau, Thomas Marichal, Sebastian L Johnston
Respiratory viral infections represent the most common cause of allergic asthma exacerbations. Amplification of the type-2 immune response is strongly implicated in asthma exacerbation, but how virus infection boosts type-2 responses is poorly understood. We report a significant correlation between the release of host double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) following rhinovirus infection and the exacerbation of type-2 allergic inflammation in humans. In a mouse model of allergic airway hypersensitivity, we show that rhinovirus infection triggers dsDNA release associated with the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), known as NETosis...
June 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448566/il-33-st2-pathway-drives-regulatory-t-cell-dependent-suppression-of-liver-damage-upon-cytomegalovirus-infection
#12
Branka Popovic, Mijo Golemac, Jürgen Podlech, Jelena Zeleznjak, Lidija Bilic-Zulle, Miodrag L Lukic, Luka Cicin-Sain, Matthias J Reddehase, Tim Sparwasser, Astrid Krmpotic, Stipan Jonjic
Regulatory T (Treg) cells dampen an exaggerated immune response to viral infections in order to avoid immunopathology. Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) are herpesviruses usually causing asymptomatic infection in immunocompetent hosts and induce strong cellular immunity which provides protection against CMV disease. It remains unclear how these persistent viruses manage to avoid induction of immunopathology not only during the acute infection but also during life-long persistence and virus reactivation. This may be due to numerous viral immunoevasion strategies used to specifically modulate immune responses but also induction of Treg cells by CMV infection...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406797/m1-like-monocytes-are-a-major-immunological-determinant-of-severity-in-previously-healthy-adults-with-life-threatening-influenza
#13
Suzanne L Cole, Jake Dunning, Wai Ling Kok, Kambez Hajipouran Benam, Adel Benlahrech, Emmanouela Repapi, Fernando O Martinez, Lydia Drumright, Timothy J Powell, Michael Bennett, Ruth Elderfield, Catherine Thomas, Tao Dong, John McCauley, Foo Y Liew, Stephen Taylor, Maria Zambon, Wendy Barclay, Vincenzo Cerundolo, Peter J Openshaw, Andrew J McMichael, Ling-Pei Ho
In each influenza season, a distinct group of young, otherwise healthy individuals with no risk factors succumbs to life-threatening infection. To better understand the cause for this, we analyzed a broad range of immune responses in blood from a unique cohort of patients, comprising previously healthy individuals hospitalized with and without respiratory failure during one influenza season, and infected with one specific influenza A strain. This analysis was compared with similarly hospitalized influenza patients with known risk factors (total of n = 60 patients recruited)...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405622/m1-like-monocytes-are-a-major-immunological-determinant-of-severity-in-previously-healthy-adults-with-life-threatening-influenza
#14
Suzanne L Cole, Jake Dunning, Wai Ling Kok, Kambez Hajipouran Benam, Adel Benlahrech, Emmanouela Repapi, Fernando O Martinez, Lydia Drumright, Timothy J Powell, Michael Bennett, Ruth Elderfield, Catherine Thomas, Tao Dong, John McCauley, Foo Y Liew, Stephen Taylor, Maria Zambon, Wendy Barclay, Vincenzo Cerundolo, Peter J Openshaw, Andrew J McMichael, Ling-Pei Ho
In each influenza season, a distinct group of young, otherwise healthy individuals with no risk factors succumbs to life-threatening infection. To better understand the cause for this, we analyzed a broad range of immune responses in blood from a unique cohort of patients, comprising previously healthy individuals hospitalized with and without respiratory failure during one influenza season, and infected with one specific influenza A strain. This analysis was compared with similarly hospitalized influenza patients with known risk factors (total of n = 60 patients recruited)...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386004/reovirus-infection-triggers-inflammatory-responses-to-dietary-antigens-and-development-of-celiac-disease
#15
Romain Bouziat, Reinhard Hinterleitner, Judy J Brown, Jennifer E Stencel-Baerenwald, Mine Ikizler, Toufic Mayassi, Marlies Meisel, Sangman M Kim, Valentina Discepolo, Andrea J Pruijssers, Jordan D Ernest, Jason A Iskarpatyoti, Léa M M Costes, Ian Lawrence, Brad A Palanski, Mukund Varma, Matthew A Zurenski, Solomiia Khomandiak, Nicole McAllister, Pavithra Aravamudhan, Karl W Boehme, Fengling Hu, Janneke N Samsom, Hans-Christian Reinecker, Sonia S Kupfer, Stefano Guandalini, Carol E Semrad, Valérie Abadie, Chaitan Khosla, Luis B Barreiro, Ramnik J Xavier, Aylwin Ng, Terence S Dermody, Bana Jabri
Viral infections have been proposed to elicit pathological processes leading to the initiation of T helper 1 (TH1) immunity against dietary gluten and celiac disease (CeD). To test this hypothesis and gain insights into mechanisms underlying virus-induced loss of tolerance to dietary antigens, we developed a viral infection model that makes use of two reovirus strains that infect the intestine but differ in their immunopathological outcomes. Reovirus is an avirulent pathogen that elicits protective immunity, but we discovered that it can nonetheless disrupt intestinal immune homeostasis at inductive and effector sites of oral tolerance by suppressing peripheral regulatory T cell (pTreg) conversion and promoting TH1 immunity to dietary antigen...
April 7, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384338/peripheral-and-central-immune-cell-reservoirs-in-tissues-from-asymptomatic-cats-chronically-infected-with-feline-immunodeficiency-virus
#16
C D Eckstrand, E E Sparger, K A Pitt, B G Murphy
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in cats results in life-long viral persistence and progressive immunopathology. We have previously described a cohort of experimentally infected cats demonstrating a progressive decline of peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell over six years in the face of apparent peripheral viral latency. More recently we reported findings from this same cohort that revealed popliteal lymph node tissue as sites for ongoing viral replication suggesting that tissue reservoirs are important in FIV immunopathogenesis during the late asymptomatic phase of infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384263/universal-vaccine-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-a-and-b-subtypes
#17
Jeong-Yoon Lee, Jun Chang
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants, young children, and the elderly. Two subtypes of RSV, A and B, circulate alternately at 1-2-year intervals during epidemics. The attachment glycoprotein (G protein) of RSV is one of the major targets for immune responses. In this study, we generated a recombinant fusion protein, GcfAB, which consists of the central regions (a.a. residues 131-230) of the G proteins of both RSV A (A2 strain) and B (B1 strain) subtypes, and investigated immunogenicity, protective efficacy, and immunopathology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351919/contribution-of-the-purinergic-receptor-p2x7-to-development-of-lung-immunopathology-during-influenza-virus-infection
#18
Victor H Leyva-Grado, Megan E Ermler, Michael Schotsaert, Ma G Gonzalez, Virginia Gillespie, Jean K Lim, Adolfo García-Sastre
An exacerbated immune response is one of the main causes of influenza-induced lung damage during infection. The molecular mechanisms regulating the fate of the initial immune response to infection, either as a protective response or as detrimental immunopathology, are not well understood. The purinergic receptor P2X7 is an ionotropic nucleotide-gated ion channel receptor expressed on immune cells that has been implicated in induction and maintenance of excessive inflammation. Here, we analyze the role of this receptor in a mouse model of influenza virus infection using a receptor knockout (KO) mouse strain...
March 28, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344581/type-i-interferons-as-regulators-of-lung-inflammation
#19
REVIEW
Spyridon Makris, Michelle Paulsen, Cecilia Johansson
Immune responses to lung infections must be tightly regulated in order to permit pathogen eradication while maintaining organ function. Exuberant or dysregulated inflammation can impair gas exchange and underlies many instances of lung disease. An important driver of inflammation in the lung is the interferon (IFN) response. Type I IFNs are antiviral cytokines that induce a large range of proteins that impair viral replication in infected cells. This cell-intrinsic action plays a crucial role in protecting the lungs from spread of respiratory viruses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337195/nk-cells-uncertain-allies-against-malaria
#20
REVIEW
Asia-Sophia Wolf, Samuel Sherratt, Eleanor M Riley
Until recently, studies of natural killer (NK) cells in infection have focused almost entirely on their role in viral infections. However, there is an increasing awareness of the potential for NK cells to contribute to the control of a wider range of pathogens, including intracellular parasites such as Plasmodium spp. Given the high prevalence of parasitic diseases in the developing world and the devastating effects these pathogens have on large numbers of vulnerable people, investigating interactions between NK cells and parasitized host cells presents the opportunity to reveal novel immunological mechanisms with the potential to aid efforts to eradicate these diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
keyword
keyword
104888
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"