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Brain vascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335021/mri-visible-perivascular-space-location-is-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease-independently-of-amyloid-burden
#1
Gargi Banerjee, Hee Jin Kim, Zoe Fox, H Rolf Jäger, Duncan Wilson, Andreas Charidimou, Han Kyu Na, Duk L Na, Sang Won Seo, David J Werring
Perivascular spaces that are visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are a neuroimaging marker of cerebral small vessel disease. Their location may relate to the type of underlying small vessel pathology: those in the white matter centrum semi-ovale have been associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy, while those in the basal ganglia have been associated with deep perforating artery arteriolosclerosis. As cerebral amyloid angiopathy is an almost invariable pathological finding in Alzheimer's disease, we hypothesized that MRI-visible perivascular spaces in the centrum semi-ovale would be associated with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, whereas those in the basal ganglia would be associated with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment...
February 17, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334869/emerging-concepts-in-sporadic-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#2
Andreas Charidimou, Gregoire Boulouis, M Edip Gurol, Cenk Ayata, Brian J Bacskai, Matthew P Frosch, Anand Viswanathan, Steven M Greenberg
Sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a common, well-defined small vessel disease and a largely untreatable cause of intracerebral haemorrhage and contributor to age-related cognitive decline. The term 'cerebral amyloid angiopathy' now encompasses not only a specific cerebrovascular pathological finding, but also different clinical syndromes (both acute and progressive), brain parenchymal lesions seen on neuroimaging and a set of diagnostic criteria-the Boston criteria, which have resulted in increasingly detected disease during life...
March 13, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330942/primary-angiitis-of-the-central-nervous-system-magnetic-resonance-imaging-spectrum-of-parenchymal-meningeal-and-vascular-lesions-at-baseline
#3
Grégoire Boulouis, Hubert de Boysson, Mathieu Zuber, Loïc Guillevin, Eric Meary, Vincent Costalat, Christian Pagnoux, Olivier Naggara
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Primary angiitis of the central nervous system remains challenging. To report an overview and pictorial review of brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in adult primary angiitis of the central nervous system and to determine the distribution of parenchymal, meningeal, and vascular lesions in a large multicentric cohort. METHODS: Adult patients from the French COVAC cohort (Cohort of Patients With Primary Vasculitis of the Central Nervous System), with biopsy or angiographically proven primary angiitis of the central nervous system and brain magnetic resonance imaging available at the time of diagnosis were included...
March 22, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328134/somatic-pik3ca-mutations-in-seven-patients-with-pik3ca-related-overgrowth-spectrum
#4
Kit San Yeung, Janice Jing Kun Ip, Chin Pang Chow, Evelyn Yue Ling Kuong, Paul Kwong-Hang Tam, Godfrey Chi-Fung Chan, Brian Hon-Yin Chung
Somatic mutations in PIK3CA cause many overgrowth syndromes that have been recently coined the "PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum." Here, we present seven molecularly confirmed patients with PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum, including patients with Congenital Lipomatous Overgrowth, Vascular Malformations, Epidermal Nevi, Scoliosis/Skeletal and Spinal syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, lymphatic malformation and two with atypical phenotypes that cannot be classified into existing disease categories. The literature on PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum, suggests that PIK3CA c...
April 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327608/kdm4b-histone-demethylase-and-g9a-regulate-expression-of-vascular-adhesion-proteins-in-cerebral-microvessels
#5
Ji-Young Choi, Sang-Sun Yoon, Sang-Eun Kim, Sangmee Ahn Jo
Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) mediates the adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes across the endothelium, promoting inflammation. We investigated the epigenetic mechanism regulating ICAM1 expression. The pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α dramatically increased ICAM1 mRNA and protein levels in human brain microvascular endothelial cells and mouse brain microvessels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that TNF-α reduced methylation of histone H3 at lysines 9 and 27 (H3K9 and H3K27), well-known residues involved in gene suppression...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327577/metabolic-profiling-of-idh-mutation-and-malignant-progression-in-infiltrating-glioma
#6
Llewellyn E Jalbert, Adam Elkhaled, Joanna J Phillips, Evan Neill, Aurelia Williams, Jason C Crane, Marram P Olson, Annette M Molinaro, Mitchel S Berger, John Kurhanewicz, Sabrina M Ronen, Susan M Chang, Sarah J Nelson
Infiltrating low grade gliomas (LGGs) are heterogeneous in their behavior and the strategies used for clinical management are highly variable. A key factor in clinical decision-making is that patients with mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) oncogenes are more likely to have a favorable outcome and be sensitive to treatment. Because of their relatively long overall median survival, more aggressive treatments are typically reserved for patients that have undergone malignant progression (MP) to an anaplastic glioma or secondary glioblastoma (GBM)...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324341/beta-amyloid-deposition-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-with-differing-levels-of-treatment-resistance-a-pilot-study
#7
Peng Li, Ing-Tsung Hsiao, Chia-Yih Liu, Chia-Hsiang Chen, She-Yao Huang, Tzu-Chen Yen, Kuan-Yi Wu, Kun-Ju Lin
BACKGROUND: Lack of treatment response in patients with late-life depression is common. The role of brain beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in treatment outcome in subjects with late-life depression remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate brain Aβ deposition in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with differing treatment outcomes in vivo using (18)F-florbetapir imaging. This study included 62 MDD patients and 18 healthy control subjects (HCs).We first employed the Maudsley staging method (MSM) to categorize MDD patients into two groups according to treatment response: mild treatment resistance (n = 29) and moderate-to-severe treatment resistance (n = 33)...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323163/cerebrospinal-and-interstitial-fluid-transport-via-the-glymphatic-pathway-modeled-by-optimal-mass-transport
#8
Vadim Ratner, Yi Gao, Hedok Lee, Rena Elkin, Maiken Nedergaard, Helene Benveniste, Allen Tannenbaum
The glymphatic pathway is a system which facilitates continuous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange and plays a key role in removing waste products from the rodent brain. Dysfunction of the glymphatic pathway may be implicated in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Intriguingly, the glymphatic system is most active during deep wave sleep general anesthesia. By using paramagnetic tracers administered into CSF of rodents, we previously showed the utility of MRI in characterizing a macroscopic whole brain view of glymphatic transport but we have yet to define and visualize the specific flow patterns...
March 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323122/exome-analysis-of-the-evolutionary-path-of-hepatocellular-adenoma-carcinoma-transition-vascular-invasion-and-brain-dissemination
#9
Sílvia Vilarinho, Zeynep Erson-Omay, Kisha Mitchell-Richards, Charles Cha, Carol Nelson-Williams, Akdes Serin Harmancı, Katsuhito Yasuno, Murat Günel, Tamar H Taddei
Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is a rare benign liver tumor, predominantly seen in young women. Its major complications are malignant transformation, spontaneous hemorrhage, and rupture. We describe a case of a young female with no underlying liver disease who presented with acute abdominal pain and was found to have a 17 cm heterogeneous mass in the left lobe of the liver. She underwent left hepatectomy and pathology revealed a 14 cm moderately differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) arising in a shell of a HCA...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320113/alzheimer-s-disease-elevated-pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-is-mostly-of-systemic-origin
#10
Veronika Lang, Marietta Zille, Carmen Infante-Duarte, Sven Jarius, Holger Jahn, Friedemann Paul, Klemens Ruprecht, Ana Luisa Pina
Pigment-epithelium derived factor (PEDF) is a neurotrophic factor with neuroprotective, anti-tumorigenic, and anti-angiogenic effects. Elevated levels of PEDF have previously been proposed as a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker for Alzheimer's disease. However, the origin of PEDF in CSF, i.e. whether it is derived from the brain or from the systemic circulation, and the specificity of this finding hitherto remained unclear. Here, we analyzed levels of PEDF in paired CSF and serum samples by ELISA in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=12), frontotemporal dementia (FTD, n=6), vascular dementia (n=4), bacterial meningitis (n=8), multiple sclerosis (n=32), pseudotumor cerebri (n=36), and diverse non-inflammatory neurological diseases (n=19)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316055/a-comparison-of-accelerated-and-non-accelerated-mri-scans-for-brain-volume-and-boundary-shift-integral-measures-of-volume-change-evidence-from-the-adni-dataset
#11
Emily N Manning, Kelvin K Leung, Jennifer M Nicholas, Ian B Malone, M Jorge Cardoso, Jonathan M Schott, Nick C Fox, Josephine Barnes
The aim of this study was to assess whether the use of accelerated MRI scans in place of non-accelerated scans influenced brain volume and atrophy rate measures in controls and subjects with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. We used data from 861 subjects at baseline, 573 subjects at 6 months and 384 subjects at 12 months from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). We calculated whole-brain, ventricular and hippocampal atrophy rates using the k-means boundary shift integral (BSI)...
March 18, 2017: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303161/a-systematic-review-of-intervention-studies-examining-nutritional-and-herbal-therapies-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-using-neuroimaging-methods-study-characteristics-and-intervention-efficacy
#12
REVIEW
Genevieve Z Steiner, Danielle C Mathersul, Freya MacMillan, David A Camfield, Nerida L Klupp, Sai W Seto, Yong Huang, Mark I Hohenberg, Dennis H Chang
Neuroimaging facilitates the assessment of complementary medicines (CMs) by providing a noninvasive insight into their mechanisms of action in the human brain. This is important for identifying the potential treatment options for target disease cohorts with complex pathophysiologies. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate study characteristics, intervention efficacy, and the structural and functional neuroimaging methods used in research assessing nutritional and herbal medicines for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303140/netosis-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
Enrica Caterina Pietronigro, Vittorina Della Bianca, Elena Zenaro, Gabriela Constantin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive deterioration of cognitive functions. Its neuropathological features include amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation, the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, and the loss of neurons and synapses. Neuroinflammation is a well-established feature of AD pathogenesis, and a better understanding of its mechanisms could facilitate the development of new therapeutic approaches. Recent studies in transgenic mouse models of AD have shown that neutrophils adhere to blood vessels and migrate inside the parenchyma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302914/new-insights-into-mechanisms-of-small-vessel-disease-stroke-from-genetics
#14
REVIEW
Rhea Tan, Matthew Traylor, Loes Rutten-Jacobs, Hugh Markus
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common cause of lacunar strokes, vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and vascular dementia. SVD is thought to result in reduced cerebral blood flow, impaired cerebral autoregulation and increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying SVD are incompletely understood. Recent studies in monogenic forms of SVD, such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), and 'sporadic' SVD have shed light on possible disease mechanisms in SVD...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302047/neuroinflammation-as-a-common-mechanism-associated-with-the-modifiable-risk-factors-for-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases
#15
Jordan Alexander McKenzie, Lindsay J Spielman, Caitlin B Pointer, Jessica R Lowry, Ekta Bajwa, Carolyn W Lee, Andis Klegeris
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are among the most common causes of dementia, which increasingly contribute to morbidity and mortality worldwide. A common hallmark in the pathogenesis of these two diseases is neuroinflammation, which is initially triggered by the presence of pathological structures associated with these disorders. Chronic neuroinflammation is sustained by persistent and aberrant microglial activation in the brain, which results in damage and death of neighboring cells, including neurons and glial cells...
March 15, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301218/retinal-pathology-is-associated-with-increased-blood-retina-barrier-permeability-in-a-diabetic-and-hypercholesterolaemic-pig-model-beneficial-effects-of-the-lppla2-inhibitor-darapladib
#16
Nimish K Acharya, Xin Qi, Eric L Goldwaser, George A Godsey, Hao Wu, Mary C Kosciuk, Theresa A Freeman, Colin H Macphee, Robert L Wilensky, Venkat Venkataraman, Robert G Nagele
Using a porcine model of diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia, we previously showed that diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia is associated with a chronic increase in blood-brain barrier permeability in the cerebral cortex, leading to selective binding of immunoglobulin G and deposition of amyloid-beta1-42 peptide in pyramidal neurons. Treatment with Darapladib (GlaxoSmithKline, SB480848), an inhibitor of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase-A2, alleviated these effects. Here, investigation of the effects of chronic diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia on the pig retina revealed a corresponding increased permeability of the blood-retina barrier coupled with a leak of plasma components into the retina, alterations in retinal architecture, selective IgG binding to neurons in the ganglion cell layer, thinning of retinal layers due to cell loss and increased glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in Müller cells, all of which were curtailed by treatment with Darapladib...
March 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298841/etiological-profile-of-noncompressive-myelopathies-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-northeast-india
#17
Ashok Kumar Kayal, Munindra Goswami, Marami Das, Lakhshya Jyoti Basumatary, Suvorit Subhas Bhowmick, Baiakmenlang Synmon
BACKGROUND: The discovery of antibodies against aquaporin-4 and evolving concepts of noncompressive myelopathies in the 21(st) century have made a major impact on the etiological profile of these diseases, with few cases turning out to be idiopathic. OBJECTIVE: To find causes of noncompressive myelopathy in a tertiary care hospital of Northeast India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational study was carried out in the Neurology Department of Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, from September 2013 to February 2016...
January 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298143/p450-eicosanoids-and-ros-interplay-in-brain-injury-and-neuroprotection
#18
Xuehong Liu, Catherine M Davis, Nabil J Alkayed
<b>Significance</b>. Eicosanoids are endogenous lipid mediators that play important roles in brain function and disease. Acute brain injury such as that occurs in stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases the formation of eicosanoids, which in return exacerbate or diminish injury. In chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD), eicosanoid synthetic and metabolizing enzymes are altered, disrupting the balance between neuroprotective and neurotoxic eicosanoids...
March 16, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296539/high-salt-induced-activation-and-expression-of-inflammatory-cytokines-in-cultured-astrocytes
#19
Zhezhi Deng, Yuge Wang, Li Zhou, Yilong Shan, Sha Tan, Wei Cai, Siyuan Liao, Lisheng Peng, Zhengqi Lu
Salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) accumulation in the brain is associated with various diseases of central nervous system (CNS). Activation of astrocytes is an important manifestation of pathophysiological processes in the CNS. However, the direct impact of high salt (HS) environment on astrocytes is unclear. In the current study, we found that high salt treatment can induce activation of astrocytes both in vivo and in vitro, manifested as morphological alteration coupled with increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)...
March 15, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291299/-neurosyphilis-in-psychiatric-settings-three-case-reports
#20
Erhan Akıncı, Fatih Öncü, Barış Topçular
Syphilis is a generally sexually transmitted and multisystem disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. All of the organs of the body may be involved during the course of the disease. Neurosyphilis is a clinical form of syphilis with the central nervous system (CNS) involvement. While primarily meningeal and vascular structures are involved in early neurosyphilis, a parenchymal affection of the brain and spinal cord emerges at later stages of neurosyphilis. It presents with symptoms of meningitis, meningovasculitis and parenchymal neurosyphilis (presenting as tabes dorsalis and general paresis)...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
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