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Brain vascular disease

F Heran Dreyfus, O Galatoire, P Koskas, F Lafitte, E Nau, O Bergès
Orbito-palpebral vascular pathology represents 10% of all the diseases of this area. The lesion may be discovered during a brain CT scan or MRI, or because it causes clinical symptoms such as orbital mass, visual or oculomotor alteration, pain, proptosis, or acute bleeding due to a complication of the lesion (hemorrhage, thrombosis). We present these lesions using an anatomical, clinical, imaging and therapeutic approach. We distinguish four different entities. Vascular tumors have common imaging characteristics (hypersignal on T2 sequence, contrast enhancement, abnormal vascularization well depicted with ultrasound and Doppler, and possible bleeding)...
October 18, 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Qian Lu, Jihong Wang, Junshu Jiang, Shengnan Wang, Qilan Jia, Yue Wang, Weiping Li, Qin Zhou, Li Lv, Qingwei Li
BACKGROUND: The RGD-toxin protein Lj-RGD3 is a naturally occurring 118 amino acid peptide that can be obtained from the salivary gland of the Lampetra japonica fish. This unique peptide contains 3 RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motifs in its primary structure. Lj-RGD3 is available in recombinant form (rLj-RGD3) and can be produced in large quantities using DNA recombination techniques. The pharmacology of the three RGD motif-containing peptides has not been studied. This study investigated the protective effects of rLj-RGD3, a novel polypeptide, against ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage to the brain caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in a rat stroke model...
2016: PloS One
Prashanthi Vemuri, David S Knopman, Clifford R Jack, Emily S Lundt, Stephen D Weigand, Samantha M Zuk, Kaely B Thostenson, Robert I Reid, Kejal Kantarci, Yelena Slinin, Kamakshi Lakshminarayan, Cynthia S Davey, Anne Murray
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) studies have reported variable prevalence of brain pathologies, in part due to low inclusion of participants with moderate to severe CKD. OBJECTIVE: To measure the association between kidney function biomarkers and brain MRI findings in CKD. METHODS: In the BRINK (BRain IN Kidney Disease) study, MRI was used to measure gray matter volumes, cerebrovascular pathologies (white matter hyperintensity (WMH), infarctions, microhemorrhages), and microstructural changes using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
K Rygiel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, in which an accumulation of toxic amyloid beta in the brain precedes the emergence of clinical symptoms. AD spectrum consists of presymptomatic, early symptomatic, and symptomatic phase of dementia. At present, no pharmacotherapy exists to modify or reverse a course of AD, and only symptomatic treatments are available. Many elderly patients, diagnosed with multiple medical conditions (such as cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cerebrovascular diseases) are at increased risk of the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, and vascular dementia...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Tilman Schubert, Yijing Wu, Kevin M Johnson, Oliver Wieben, Jane Maksimovic, Charles Mistretta, Patrick Turski
OBJECTIVES: Time-of-arrival (TOA) maps can be derived from high-resolution 4-dimensional (4D) contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) data sets to provide a quantitative description of contrast material arrival time in each voxel. This information can further be processed to create a compressed time evolution curve that virtually shortens the contrast bolus (virtual bolus [VB]). The purpose of this project was to determine whether TOA-enhanced 4D MRA and/or VB imaging improve the display of contrast kinetics in patients with vascular disease...
November 2016: Investigative Radiology
Jeremy J Pruzin, Julie A Schneider, Ana W Capuano, Sue E Leurgans, Lisa L Barnes, Rexford S Ahima, Steven E Arnold, David A Bennett, Zoe Arvanitakis
We examined the relationship of diabetes and hemoglobin A1C (A1C) to 2 common causes of dementia. The study included 1228 subjects who underwent annual clinical evaluations and a brain autopsy at death, as part of a Rush longitudinal cohort study of aging. A total of 433 subjects had A1C data available. Neuropathologic evaluations documented the size and location of infarcts. Modified silver stain-based Alzheimer disease (AD) measures included global and regional scores. We used regression analyses to examine associations of diabetes and A1C with overall and regional neuropathology...
October 17, 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Thomas Unger
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the initiation and progression of tissue injuries in the cardiovascular and nervous systems. The detrimental actions of the AT1 receptor (AT1R) in hypertension and vascular injury, myocardial infarction and brain ischemia are well established. In the past twenty-five years, protective actions of the RAS, not only in the cardiovascular- but also in the nervous system, have been demonstrated. The so-called protective arm of the RAS includes AT2- and Mas receptors (AT2R and MasR) and is characterized by effects different from and often opposing those of the AT1R...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Junichiro Hashimoto
Arterial structure and function change progressively with advancing age. Owing to long-lasting repetitive stretch with intermittent cardiac contraction, elastic fibers in the tunica media of large arteries gradually degenerate and are replaced by collagenous fibers. Such medial degeneration causes elastic arteries to stiffen and dilate. However, the speed of the vascular aging varies considerably among individuals; a discrepancy often exists between the chronological age of an individual and the biological age of his or her arteries...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Mohan Raizada
Hypertension (HTN) is the most prevalent modifiable risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and disorders directly influencing CVD (i.e. obesity, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, etc.). About one billion people worldwide have HTN, with American adults having 90% lifetime risk of developing HTN. Despite aggressive campaign for lifestyle changes and advances in drug therapy, HTN remains an immense health, emotional, and economic challenge. This is due, in part, to the fact that ∼50% of HTN patients' blood pressure remains uncontrolled and ∼20% of HTN patients are resistant to or require > antihypertensive drugs...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Clive Rosendorff
Many guidelines for the management of hypertension have recommended that the goal of antihypertensive treatment in the elderly (usually specified as 80 years or above) should be less than 150/90 mmHg. SPRINT included subjects 50 years or above, and a substantial proportion of subjects 75 years and older. These are individuals at high risk for adverse cardiovascular events because of high prevalence of hypertension and atherosclerotic disease. The less stringent BP goals have been based on a percieved danger of lowering BP to levels that threaten vital organ pefusion (myocardium, brain, kidney)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Lin Shi
According to the seventh report of Joint National Committee (JNC 7), hypertensive emergency (HE), a kind of hypertensive crisis, is defined as a sudden and abrupt elevation in blood pressure so as to cause acute target organ dysfunctions, including central nervous system, cardiovascular system or kidneys. Patients with HE require immediate reduction in markedly elevated blood pressure. Currently, there are no international guidelines for children HE, so the JNC definition is commonly used. Hypertensive emergency in children is rare but a life-threatening emergency...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Kimika Arakawa, Ai Ibaraki, Yuki Kawamoto, Minako Inoue, Emi Oishi, Mitsuhiro Tominaga, Takuya Tsuchihashi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the average and variability in urinary salt excretion in treated hypertensive outpatients during several years (median follow-up is 2 years). DESIGN AND METHOD: In our previous research, the subjects were 200 hypertensive patients who underwent at least three measurement of USALT from Sep 2012 to Mar 2013. We extended the follow-up period until Aug 2015 and the subjects were 68 hypertensive patients who were measured USALT 10 times over (65...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Dawid Walas, Karol Nowicki-Osuch, Dominic Alibhai, Julian Paton
OBJECTIVE: Cerebrovascular remodeling in the SHR may be causative to the known brainstem hypoperfusion. Using RNA sequencing, we examined age-related processes that may govern remodeling of the cerebral arteries in the SHR. DESIGN AND METHOD: In SHR and their progenitor (normotensive) control (Wistar Kyoto, WKY), RNA-seq was performed at three ages: 5, 9, 13 weeks old. Cerebral arteries were flushed and peeled off the brain, stripped of meninges, snap frozen and RNA extracted...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Sadayoshi Ito
The presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a strong risk factor not only for end stage kidney disease (ESKD) but also cerebro-cardiovascular disease (CVD). CKD is defined as GFR < 60ml/min/1.73m and/or the evidence of renal damages for more than 3 months. Epidemiological studies have shown that albuminuria even as little as 10mg/gCr is a strong risk factor for CVD, especially stroke. The significance of albuminuria can be recognized when we think of the fact that the amount of albumin in 24 hour-GFR is as large as 6 kg (4...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Patricia A Boyle, Lei Yu, Debra A Fleischman, Sue Leurgans, Jingyun Yang, Robert S Wilson, Julie A Schneider, Zoe Arvanitakis, Konstantinos Arfanakis, David A Bennett
OBJECTIVE: Examine the association of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) with risk of incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and rate of decline in multiple cognitive systems in community-based older persons. METHODS: Participants (n = 354) were older persons initially free of cognitive impairment from two ongoing longitudinal epidemiologic studies of aging. All underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantification of WMH and gray matter volumes and detailed annual clinical evaluations including 17 cognitive tests...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Leroy L Cooper, Gary F Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Aortic stiffness is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and cognitive decline. This mini-review focuses on relations of aortic stiffness with microvascular dysfunction and discusses the contribution of abnormal pulsatile hemodynamics to cerebrovascular damage and cognitive decline. We also provide a rationale for considering aortic stiffness as a putative and important contributor to memory impairment in older individuals. SUMMARY: Aging is associated with stiffening of the aorta but not the muscular arteries, which reduces wave reflection and increases the transmission of pulsatility into the periphery...
September 2016: Pulse (Basel, Switzerland)
Yuandong Li, Woo June Choi, Wan Qin, Utku Baran, Lauren M Habenicht, Ruikang K Wang
BACKGROUND: Arteriogenesis describes the active growth of the pre-existing collateral arterioles, which is a crucial tissue-saving process in occlusive vascular diseases. NEW METHOD: We propose to use optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based microangiography (OMAG) to monitor arteriogenesis following artery transection in mouse ear and focal stroke in mouse brain. RESULTS: Our longitudinal mouse ear study shows that the growth phase of arteriogenesis, indicated by changes in collateral vessel diameter and velocity, occurs between 12-24hours after vessel occlusion...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Brittany A Potz, M Ruhul Abid, Frank W Sellke
Calpains are a 15-member class of calcium activated nonlysosomal neutral proteases which are involved in a broad range of cellular function. Calpains are usually localized to the cytosol and within mitochondria. Calpastatin is an endogenous protein that specifically binds to and inhibits calpain. Overactivation of calpain has been implicated in a number of disease processes of the brain, eyes, heart, lungs, pancreas, kidneys, vascular system and skeletal muscle. Therefore, calpain may serve as a potential therapeutic target for a wide variety of disease processes...
2016: Journal of Nature and Science
Concetta Scimone, Placido Bramanti, Alessia Ruggeri, Luigi Donato, Concetta Alafaci, Concetta Crisafulli, Massimo Mucciardi, Carmela Rinaldi, Antonina Sidoti, Rosalia D'Angelo
BACKGROUND: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular anomalies of the nervous system mostly located in the brain presenting sporadically or familial. Causes of familial forms are mutations in CCM1 (Krit1), CCM2 (MGC4607) and CCM3 (PDCD10) genes. Sporadic forms with no affected relative most often have only one lesion and no germ line mutations. However, a number of sporadic cases with multiple lesions have been reported and are indeed genetic cases with a de novo mutation or a mutation inherited from an asymptomatic parent...
October 13, 2016: BMC Medical Genetics
Sangmi Lee, Menna Elaskandrany, Afruja Ahad, Brahim Chaqour
The retina is a complex neurovascular structure that conveys light/visual image through the optic nerve to the visual cortex of the brain. Neuronal and vascular activities in the retina are physically and functionally intertwined, and vascular alterations are consequential to the proper function of the entire visual system. In particular, alteration of the structure and barrier function of the retinal vasculature is commonly associated with the development of vasoproliferative ischemic retinopathy, a set of clinically well-defined chronic ocular microvascular complications causing blindness in all age groups...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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