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Brain vascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467462/hipsc-derived-neural-stem-cells-from-patients-with-schizophrenia-induce-an-impaired-angiogenesis
#1
Bárbara S Casas, Gabriela Vitória, Marcelo N do Costa, Rodrigo Madeiro da Costa, Pablo Trindade, Renata Maciel, Nelson Navarrete, Stevens K Rehen, Verónica Palma
Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by cerebral connectivity impairment and loss of gray matter. It was described in adult schizophrenia patients (SZP) that concentration of VEGFA, a master angiogenic factor, is decreased. Recent evidence suggests cerebral hypoperfusion related to a dysfunctional Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) in SZP. Since neurogenesis and blood-vessel formation occur in a coincident and coordinated fashion, a defect in neurovascular development could result in increased vascular permeability and, therefore, in poor functionality of the SZP's neurons...
February 22, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464565/ryanodine-receptor-structure-and-function-in-health-and-disease
#2
Gaetano Santulli, Daniel Lewis, Amedee des Georges, Andrew R Marks, Joachim Frank
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are ubiquitous intracellular calcium (Ca2+ ) release channels required for the function of many organs including heart and skeletal muscle, synaptic transmission in the brain, pancreatic beta cell function, and vascular tone. In disease, defective function of RyRs due either to stress (hyperadrenergic and/or oxidative overload) or genetic mutations can render the channels leaky to Ca2+ and promote defective disease-causing signals as observed in heat failure, muscular dystrophy, diabetes mellitus, and neurodegerative disease...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463847/small-vessel-vasculopathy-due-to-aberrant-autophagy-in-lamp-2-deficiency
#3
Huan T Nguyen, Satoru Noguchi, Kazuma Sugie, Yoshiyuki Matsuo, Chuyen T H Nguyen, Hitoshi Koito, Ichiro Shiojima, Ichizo Nishino, Hiroyasu Tsukaguchi
Lysosomal associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) is physiologically implicated in autophagy. A genetic LAMP2 defect causes Danon disease, which consists of two major phenotypes of myopathy and cardiomyopathy. In addition, arteriopathy may manifest on rare occasions but the pathological basis remains unknown. We encountered two Danon families that developed small-vessel vasculopathy in the coronary or cerebral arteries. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, we characterized the biological features of LAMP-2-deficient mice and cultured cells...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462373/the-role-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-3-in-the-doxycycline-attenuation-of-intracranial-venous-hypertension-induced-angiogenesis
#4
Xiang Zou, Zehan Wu, Jun Huang, Peixi Liu, Xuanfeng Qin, Liang Chen, Wei Zhu, Yao Zhao, Peiliang Li, Jianping Song, Guo-Yuan Yang, Ying Mao
BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanism of brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) is largely unknown. Intracranial venous hypertension (VH) may enhance focal angiogenesis and promote BAVM development and progression. A rat VH model effectively simulates the hemodynamic microenvironment of this disease. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of doxycycline in VH-related angiogenesis, as well as the role of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and other molecular factors. METHODS: A rat VH model was generated by common carotid artery and distal external jugular vein anastomosis...
February 16, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460889/-cerebral-infarctions-in-vertebrobasilar-artery-atherosclerosis
#5
P L Anufriev, A N Evdokimenko, T S Gulevskaya
AIM: to obtain more specific information on the morphology and pathogenesis of cerebral infarctions occurring in vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) atherosclerosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Macro- and microscopic investigations of the brain, its arterial system, and heart were conducted in 69 autopsy cases with infarctions located in the vertebrobasilar system (VBS) in atherosclerosis. RESULTS: 69 cases were found to have 206 VBA infarctions of various extent and locations...
2018: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459625/molecular-subtypes-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Giuseppe Di Fede, Marcella Catania, Emanuela Maderna, Roberta Ghidoni, Luisa Benussi, Elisa Tonoli, Giorgio Giaccone, Fabio Moda, Anna Paterlini, Ilaria Campagnani, Stefano Sorrentino, Laura Colombo, Adriana Kubis, Edoardo Bistaffa, Bernardino Ghetti, Fabrizio Tagliavini
Protein misfolding and aggregation is a central feature of several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which assemblies of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides accumulate in the brain in the form of parenchymal and/or vascular amyloid. A widely accepted concept is that AD is characterized by distinct clinical and neuropathological phenotypes. Recent studies revealed that Aβ assemblies might have structural differences among AD brains and that such pleomorphic assemblies can correlate with distinct disease phenotypes...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455904/hypoglossal-nerve-paralysis-in-a-child-after-a-dental-procedure
#7
Simona D Marino, Laura Schiavone, Flavia M C La Mendola, Tiziana Timpanaro, Maria Elena Cucuzza, Filippo Greco, Pierluigi Smilari, Agata Fiumara, Andrea Domenico Praticò
Unilateral palsy of the hypoglossal nerve is a rare complication of orthodontic procedures. The main reported causes of HNP are: orthopedic and otorhinolaryngology surgical interventions, and in particular maneuvers involving compression or overstretching of the hypoglossal nerve, dental procedures and traumas, and also infections, motoneuron disorders, tumors, vascular diseases. Diagnosis is usually performed by electrophysiology studies (EMG-VCN), and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to exclude other causes...
February 6, 2018: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454932/preserved-canonicality-of-the-bold-hemodynamic-response-reflects-healthy-cognition-insights-into-the-healthy-brain-through-the-window-of-multiple-sclerosis
#8
REVIEW
Monroe P Turner, Nicholas A Hubbard, Dinesh K Sivakolundu, Lyndahl M Himes, Joanna L Hutchison, John Hart, Jeffrey Spence, Elliot Frohman, Teresa Frohman, Darin Okuda, Bart Rypma
The hemodynamic response function (HRF), a model of brain blood-flow changes in response to neural activity, reflects communication between neurons and the vasculature that supplies these neurons in part by means of glial cell intermediaries (e.g., astrocytes). Intact neural-vascular communication might play a central role in optimal cognitive performance. This hypothesis can be tested by comparing healthy individuals to those with known white-matter damage and impaired performance, as seen in Multiple Sclerosis (MS)...
February 15, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454381/human-cerebrovascular-function-in-health-and-disease-insights-from-integrative-approaches
#9
REVIEW
Erin D Ozturk, Can Ozan Tan
BACKGROUND: The marked increase in the size of the brain, and consequently, in neural processing capability, throughout human evolution is the basis of the higher cognitive function in humans. However, greater neural, and thus information processing capability, comes at a significant metabolic cost; despite its relatively small size, the modern human brain consumes almost a quarter of the glucose and oxygen supply in the human body. Fortunately, several vascular mechanisms ensure sufficient delivery of glucose and oxygen to the active neural tissue (neurovascular coupling), prompt removal of neural metabolic by-products (cerebral vasoreactivity), and constant global blood supply despite daily variations in perfusion pressure (cerebral autoregulation)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453933/myt1l-induced-direct-reprogramming-of-pericytes-into-cholinergic-neurons
#10
Xing-Guang Liang, Chao Tan, Cheng-Kun Wang, Rong-Rong Tao, Yu-Jie Huang, Kui-Fen Ma, Kohji Fukunaga, Ming-Zhu Huang, Feng Han
OBJECTIVE: The cholinergic deficit is thought to underlie progressed cognitive decline in Alzheimer Disease. The lineage reprogramming of somatic cells into cholinergic neurons may provide strategies toward cell-based therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we found that a combination of neuronal transcription factors, including Ascl1, Myt1l, Brn2, Tlx3, and miR124 (5Fs) were capable of directly converting human brain vascular pericytes (HBVPs) into cholinergic neuronal cells...
February 17, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452906/extracranial-arterial-wall-volume-is-increased-and-shows-relationships-with-vascular-mri-measures-in-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Stephen Ball, Sarah Al-Bachari, Laura M Parkes, Hedley C A Emsley, Charles N McCollum
OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, often complicated by dementia. Cardiovascular risk factors and spontaneous cerebral emboli (SCE) are strongly associated with Alzheimer's (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). We measured SCE in the middle cerebral artery and arterial wall volume in the extracranial arteries in patients with IPD and controls, and explored the relationships with structural and physiological MRI brain neurovascular measures...
February 10, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452265/characterizing-the-modulation-of-resting-state-fmri-metrics-by-baseline-physiology
#12
Powell P W Chu, Ali M Golestani, Jonathan B Kwinta, Yasha B Khatamian, J Jean Chen
The blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal is commonly used to assess functional connectivity across brain regions, particularly in the resting state (rs-fMRI). However, the BOLD fMRI signal is not merely a representation of neural activity, but a combination of neural activity and vascular response. These aspects of the BOLD signal are easily influenced by systemic physiology, potentially biasing BOLD-based functional connectivity measurements. In this work, we focus on the following physiological modulators of the BOLD signal: cerebral blood flow (CBF), venous blood oxygenation, and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR)...
February 13, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451817/the-impact-of-pulse-pressure-on-cerebrovascular-events-leading-to-age-related-cognitive-decline
#13
Nathalie Thorin-Trescases, Olivia de Montgolfier, Anthony Pinçon, Adeline Raignault, Laurie Caland, Pauline Labbé, Eric Thorin
Aging is a modern concept: human life expectancy has more than doubled in less than 150 years in Western countries. Longer lifespan, however, reveals age-related diseases, including cerebrovascular diseases. The vascular system is a prime target of aging: the "wear and tear" of large elastic arteries exposed to a life-long pulsatile pressure causes arterial stiffening by fragmentation of elastin fibers and replacement by stiffer collagen. This arterial stiffening increases in return the amplitude of the pulse pressure (PP), its wave penetrating deeper into the microcirculation of low resistance, high flow organs such as the brain...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446769/vascular-cognitive-impairment
#14
REVIEW
Wiesje M van der Flier, Ingmar Skoog, Julie A Schneider, Leonardo Pantoni, Vincent Mok, Christopher L H Chen, Philip Scheltens
The term vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) was introduced around the start of the new millennium and refers to the contribution of vascular pathology to any severity of cognitive impairment, ranging from subjective cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Although vascular pathology is common in elderly individuals with cognitive decline, pure vascular dementia (that is, dementia caused solely by vascular pathology) is uncommon. Indeed, most patients with vascular dementia also have other types of pathology, the most common of which is Alzheimer disease (specifically, the diffuse accumulation of amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles composed of tau)...
February 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444850/neurovascular-dysfunction-in-dementia-human-cellular-models-and-molecular-mechanisms
#15
REVIEW
Isobel Parkes, Satyan Chintawar, M Zameel Cader
From the earliest stages of development, when cerebral angiogenesis and neurogenesis are entwined, to the end of life, the interplay between vascular and neural systems of the brain is critical in health and disease. Cerebral microvascular endothelial cells constitute the blood-brain barrier and in concert with pericytes or smooth muscle cells, glia and neurons, integrate into a functional neurovascular unit (NVU). This multicellular NVU maintains homoeostasis of the brain's microenvironment by restricting the entry of systemic pathogens and neurotoxins as well as meeting the metabolic demands of neural activity...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444659/right-to-left-shunt-and-subclinical-ischemic-brain-lesions-in-chinese-migraineurs-a-multicentre-mri-study
#16
Xiao-Han Jiang, Si-Bo Wang, Qian Tian, Chi Zhong, Guan-Ling Zhang, Ya-Jie Li, Pan Lin, Yong You, Rong Guo, Ying-Hua Cui, Ying-Qi Xing
BACKGROUND: Migraine is considered as a risk factor for subclinical brain ischemic lesions, and right-to-left shunt (RLS) is more common among migraineurs. This cross-sectional study assessed the association of RLS with the increased prevalence of subclinical ischemic brain lesions in migraineurs. METHODS: We enrolled 334 migraineurs from a multicentre study from June 2015 to August 2016. Participants were all evaluated using contrast-enhanced transcranial Doppler, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and completed a questionnaire covering demographics, the main risk factors of vascular disease, and migraine status...
February 14, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444212/loss-of-function-mutations-in-ephb4-are-responsible-for-vein-of-galen-aneurysmal-malformation
#17
Alexandre Vivanti, Augustin Ozanne, Cynthia Grondin, Guillaume Saliou, Loic Quevarec, Helène Maurey, Patrick Aubourg, Alexandra Benachi, Marta Gut, Ivo Gut, Jelena Martinovic, Marie Victoire Sénat, Marcel Tawk, Judith Melki
Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation is a congenital anomaly of the cerebral vasculature representing 30% of all paediatric vascular malformations. We conducted whole exome sequencing in 19 unrelated patients presenting this malformation and subsequently screened candidate genes in a cohort of 32 additional patients using either targeted exome or Sanger sequencing. In a cohort of 51 patients, we found five affected individuals with heterozygous mutations in EPHB4 including de novo frameshift (p.His191Alafs*32) or inherited deleterious splice or missense mutations predicted to be pathogenic by in silico tools...
February 9, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443965/a-molecular-atlas-of-cell-types-and-zonation-in-the-brain-vasculature
#18
Michael Vanlandewijck, Liqun He, Maarja Andaloussi Mäe, Johanna Andrae, Koji Ando, Francesca Del Gaudio, Khayrun Nahar, Thibaud Lebouvier, Bàrbara Laviña, Leonor Gouveia, Ying Sun, Elisabeth Raschperger, Markus Räsänen, Yvette Zarb, Naoki Mochizuki, Annika Keller, Urban Lendahl, Christer Betsholtz
Cerebrovascular disease is the third most common cause of death in developed countries, but our understanding of the cells that compose the cerebral vasculature is limited. Here, using vascular single-cell transcriptomics, we provide molecular definitions for the principal types of blood vascular and vessel-associated cells in the adult mouse brain. We uncover the transcriptional basis of the gradual phenotypic change (zonation) along the arteriovenous axis and reveal unexpected cell type differences: a seamless continuum for endothelial cells versus a punctuated continuum for mural cells...
February 14, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439338/multi-parametric-classification-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-the-impact-of-diverse-cerebrovascular-injury-biomarkers
#19
Brittany Lang, Mark S Kindy, F Andrew Kozel, Susan K Schultz, Saeid Taheri
Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is a diagnostic term applied to cognitively impaired individuals with heterogeneous cerebrovascular conditions affecting large and/or small vessels. Individual biomarkers have been identified as instrumental in relating VCID to specific underlying pathologies to better characterize this syndrome. Emerging research to refine panels of biomarkers will increase classification sensitivity and specificity. Refined VCID clustering based on the severity and pathology of vascular injury will permit the development of optimal prevention and treatment strategies...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439330/hypoxia-induced-signaling-activation-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-targets-for-new-therapeutic-strategies
#20
Niraj Kumar Jha, Saurabh Kumar Jha, Renu Sharma, Dhiraj Kumar, Rashmi K Ambasta, Pravir Kumar
For the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and energy metabolism, an uninterrupted supply of oxygen (O2) is routinely required in the brain. However, under the impaired level of O2 (hypoxia) or reduced blood flow (ischemia), the tissues are not sufficiently oxygenated, which triggers disruption of cellular homeostasis in the brain. Hypoxia is known to have a notable effect on controlling the expression of proteins involved in a broad range of biological processes varying from energy metabolism, erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, neurogenesis to mitochondrial trafficking and autophagy, thus facilitating neuronal cells to endure in deprived O2...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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