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Brain vascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546103/neurological-manifestations-of-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease-case-report-and-literature-review
#1
Alba López Bravo, Carlos Parra Soto, Elena Bellosta Diago, Álvaro Cecilio Irazola, Sonia Santos-Lasaosa
Neurological involvement in Behçet's disease is rare, especially at the onset. It can present in the form of parenchymal changes or as damage to the vascular structures in its nonparenchymal form. The coexistence of both kinds of manifestations in the same patient is exceptional. We report the case of a 32-year-old patient with a history of deep venous thrombosis, who was being treated for holocranial headache, apathy, and oral and genital ulcers. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed hyperintense lesions in the basal ganglia and white matter, and the vascular study evidenced venous thrombosis of the left transverse sinus...
May 22, 2017: Reumatología Clinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544855/descriptive-study-of-relationship-between-cardio-ankle-vascular-index-and-biomarkers-in-vascular-related-diseases
#2
Jinbo Liu, Huan Liu, Hongwei Zhao, Guangyun Shang, Yingyan Zhou, Lihong Li, Hongyu Wang
BACKGROUND: Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) was supposed to be an independent predictor for vascular-related events. Biomarkers such as homocysteine (Hcy), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and urine albumin(microalbumin) (UAE) have involved the pathophysiological development of arteriosclerosis. The present study was to investigate relationship between CAVI and biomarkers in vascular-related diseases. METHODS: A total of 656 subjects (M/F 272/384) from department of Vascular Medicine were enrolled into our study...
May 25, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543098/brain-endothelial-cell-expression-of-sparcl-1-is-specific-to-chronic-multiple-sclerosis-lesions-and-is-regulated-by-inflammatory-mediators-in-vitro
#3
C Bridel, M J A Koel-Simmelink, L Peferoen, C Derada Troletti, S Durieux, R Gorter, E Nutma, P Gami, E Iacobeus, L Brundin, J Kuhle, H Vrenken, J Killestein, S R Piersma, T V Pham, H E De Vries, S Amor, C R Jimenez, C E Teunissen
AIMS: Cell matrix modulating protein SPARCL-1 is highly expressed by astrocytes during CNS development and following acute CNS damage. Applying NanoLC-MS/MS to CSF of RRMS and SPMS patients, we identified SPARCL-1 as differentially expressed between these two stages of MS, suggesting a potential as CSF biomarker to differentiate RRMS from SPMS and a role in MS pathogenesis. METHODS: This study examines the potential of SPARCL-1 as CSF biomarker discriminating RRMS from SPMS in 3 independent cohorts (n=249), analyses its expression pattern in MS lesions (n= 26), and studies its regulation in cultured human brain microvasculature endothelial cells (BEC) after exposure to MS-relevant inflammatory mediators...
May 24, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541444/blood-brain-barrier-pericyte-importance-in-malignant-gliomas-what-we-can-learn-from-stroke-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Sadhana Jackson, Ayman ElAli, Daniela Virgintino, Mark R Gilbert
The pericyte, a constitutive component of the central nervous system, is a poorly understood cell type that envelops the endothelial cell with the intended purpose of regulating vascular flow and endothelial cell permeability. Previous studies of pericyte function have been limited to a small number of disease processes such as ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Recently, publications have postulated a link between glioma stem cell differentiation and pericyte function. These studies suggest that there may be an important interaction of pericytes with tumor cells and other components of the tumor microenvironment in malignant primary glial neoplasms, most notably glioblastoma...
May 24, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541130/measuring-functional-connectivity-in-stroke-approaches-and-considerations
#5
Joshua S Siegel, Gordon L Shulman, Maurizio Corbetta
Recent research has demonstrated the importance of global changes to the functional organization of brain network following stroke. Resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) is a non-invasive tool that enables the measurement of functional connectivity (FC) across the entire brain while placing minimal demands on the subject. For these reasons, it is a uniquely appealing tool for studying the distant effects of stroke. However, R-fMRI studies rely on a number of premises that cannot be assumed without careful validation in the context of stroke...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540180/hemoglobin-and-mean-platelet-volume-predicts-diffuse-t1-mri-white-matter-volume-decrease-in-sickle-cell-disease-patients
#6
Soyoung Choi, Adam M Bush, Matthew T Borzage, Anand A Joshi, William J Mack, Thomas D Coates, Richard M Leahy, John C Wood
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a life-threatening genetic condition. Patients suffer from chronic systemic and cerebral vascular disease that leads to early and cumulative neurological damage. Few studies have quantified the effects of this disease on brain morphometry and even fewer efforts have been devoted to older patients despite the progressive nature of the disease. This study quantifies global and regional brain volumes in adolescent and young adult patients with SCD and racially matched controls with the aim of distinguishing between age related changes associated with normal brain maturation and damage from sickle cell disease...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539135/association-between-advanced-glycation-end-products-and-functional-performance-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mixed-dementia
#7
Hans Drenth, Sytse U Zuidema, Wim P Krijnen, Ivan Bautmans, Cees van der Schans, Hans Hobbelen
BACKGROUND: People with Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience, in addition to the progressive loss of cognitive functions, a decline in functional performance such as mobility impairment and disability in activities of daily living (ADL). Functional decline in dementia is mainly linked to the progressive brain pathology. Peripheral biomechanical changes by advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been suggested but have yet to be thoroughly studied. METHODS: A multi-center, longitudinal, one-year follow-up cohort study was conducted in 144 people with early stage AD or mixed Alzheimer's/Vascular dementia...
May 25, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539119/towards-the-concept-of-disease-modifier-in-post-stroke-or-vascular-cognitive-impairment-a-consensus-report
#8
Régis Bordet, Ralf Ihl, Amos D Korczyn, Giuseppe Lanza, Jelka Jansa, Robert Hoerr, Alla Guekht
BACKGROUND: Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is a complex spectrum encompassing post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) and small vessel disease-related cognitive impairment. Despite the growing health, social, and economic burden of VCI, to date, no specific treatment is available, prompting the introduction of the concept of a disease modifier. CONSENSUS AND SUGGESTIONS: Within this clinical spectrum, VCI and PSCI remain advancing conditions as neurodegenerative diseases with progression of both vascular and degenerative lesions accounting for cognitive decline...
May 24, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538394/123i-ioflupane-brain-spect-and-123i-mibg-cardiac-planar-scintigraphy-combined-use-in-uncertain-parkinsonian-disorders
#9
Susanna Nuvoli, Angela Spanu, Maria Rita Piras, Antonio Nieddu, Aldo Mulas, Gaia Rocchitta, Grazia Galleri, Pier Andrea Serra, Giuseppe Madeddu
We evaluated the clinical usefulness of the combined use of I-ioflupane brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) cardiac scintigraphy in discriminating uncertain parkinsonism with vascular lesions in striatal nuclei at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Forty-three consecutive patients with uncertain parkinsonism and vascular lesions at MRI in striatal nuclei were retrospectively evaluated; the uncertain differential diagnosis was between Parkinson's disease and vascular parkinsonism (PD/VP) in 22 patients, between PD and other neurodegenerative parkinsonism (PD/PS) in 11 patients and between Lewy body dementia and Alzheimer disease (LBD/AD) in the remaining 10 cases...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538087/total-brain-and-hippocampal-volumes-and-cognition-in-older-american-indians-the-strong-heart-study
#10
Brenna Cholerton, Adam Omidpanah, Tara M Madhyastha, Thomas J Grabowski, Astrid M Suchy-Dicey, Dean K Shibata, Lonnie A Nelson, Steven P Verney, Barbara V Howard, William T Longstreth, Thomas J Montine, Dedra Buchwald
BACKGROUND: Estimates of hippocampal volume by magnetic resonance imaging have clinical and cognitive correlations and can assist in early Alzheimer disease diagnosis. However, little is known about the relationship between global or regional brain volumes and cognitive test performance in American Indians. MATERIALS AND METHODS: American Indian participants (N=698; median age, 72 y) recruited for the Cerebrovascular Disease and its Consequences in American Indians study, an ancillary study of the Strong Heart Study cohort, were enrolled...
April 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535786/biochemical-markers-in-vascular-cognitive-impairment-associated-with-subcortical-small-vessel-disease-a-consensus-report
#11
A Wallin, E Kapaki, M Boban, S Engelborghs, D M Hermann, B Huisa, M Jonsson, M G Kramberger, L Lossi, B Malojcic, S Mehrabian, A Merighi, E B Mukaetova-Ladinska, G P Paraskevas, B O Popescu, R Ravid, L Traykov, G Tsivgoulis, G Weinstein, A Korczyn, M Bjerke, G Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is a heterogeneous entity with multiple aetiologies, all linked to underlying vascular disease. Among these, VCI related to subcortical small vessel disease (SSVD) is emerging as a major homogeneous subtype. Its progressive course raises the need for biomarker identification and/or development for adequate therapeutic interventions to be tested. In order to shed light in the current status on biochemical markers for VCI-SSVD, experts in field reviewed the recent evidence and literature data...
May 23, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527212/apolipoprotein-e4-gender-body-mass-index-inflammation-insulin-resistance-and-air-pollution-interactions-recipe-for-alzheimer-s-disease-development-in-mexico-city-young-females
#12
Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Suzanne M de la Monte
Given the epidemiological trends of increasing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and growing evidence that exposure and lifestyle factors contribute to AD risk and pathogenesis, attention should be paid to variables such as air pollution, in order to reduce rates of cognitive decline and dementia. Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above the US EPA standards is associated with AD risk. Mexico City children experienced pre- and postnatal high exposures to PM2.5, O3, combustion-derived iron-rich nanoparticles, metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and endotoxins...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526782/acute-impact-of-drinking-coffee-on-the-cerebral-and-systemic-vasculature
#13
Takuro Washio, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Shigehiko Ogoh
Previous studies have suggested that the risk of ischemic stroke increases immediately after drinking coffee. Indeed, drinking coffee, that is, caffeine, acutely increases arterial stiffness as well as blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistance. On the other hand, it has been reported that arterial stiffening is associated with elevation in the pulsatility index (PI) of cerebral blood flow (CBF), which increases the risk of brain disease. However, the effect of drinking coffee on the PI of the CBF and its interaction with arterial stiffness remain unknown...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523289/core-canonical-pathways-involved-in-developing-human-glioblastoma-multiforme-gbm
#14
Somiranjan Ghosh, Sisir Dutta, Gabriel Thorne, Ava Boston, Alexis Barfield, Narendra Banerjee, Rayshawn Walker, Hirendra Nath Banerjee
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of the primary brain tumors with pathologic hallmarks of necrosis and vascular proliferation. The diagnosis of GBM is currently mostly based on histological examination of brain tumor tissues, after radiological characterization and surgical biopsy. The ability to characterize tumors comprehensively at the molecular level raises the possibility that diagnosis can be made based on molecular profiling with or without histological examination, rather than solely on histological phenotype...
February 2017: Int J Sci Res Sci Eng Technol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516072/bevacizumab-in-recurrent-glioma-patterns-of-treatment-failure-and-implications
#15
REVIEW
Yi Li, Saad Ali, Jennifer Clarke, Soonmee Cha
Glioblastoma, the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults, is highly aggressive and associated with a poor prognosis. Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, has increasingly been used in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma. It has achieved excellent rates of radiographic response, but most patients will progress after only a few months. Upon recurrence, tumors may not enhance, secondary to vascular normalization. We describe four patterns of radiographic progression commonly associated with Bevacizumab failure: 1) Distant enhancing tumor, 2) Local tumor progression without enhancement, 3) Diffuse gliomatosis-like infiltration, and 4) Local or multifocal progression, with enhancement...
April 2017: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515434/cerebral-blood-flow-regulation-and-neurovascular-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-disease
#16
REVIEW
Kassandra Kisler, Amy R Nelson, Axel Montagne, Berislav V Zlokovic
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation is essential for normal brain function. The mammalian brain has evolved a unique mechanism for CBF control known as neurovascular coupling. This mechanism ensures a rapid increase in the rate of CBF and oxygen delivery to activated brain structures. The neurovascular unit is composed of astrocytes, mural vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes, and endothelia, and regulates neurovascular coupling. This Review article examines the cellular and molecular mechanisms within the neurovascular unit that contribute to CBF control, and neurovascular dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer disease...
May 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515342/clinical-presentations-and-epidemiology-of-vascular-dementia
#17
REVIEW
Eric E Smith
Cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases cause vascular brain injury that can lead to vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). VCI is the second most common neuropathology of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), accounting for up to one-third of the population risk. It is frequently present along with other age-related pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Multiple etiology dementia with both VCI and AD is the single most common cause of later life dementia. There are two main clinical syndromes of VCI: post-stroke VCI in which cognitive impairment is the immediate consequence of a recent stroke and VCI without recent stroke in which cognitive impairment is the result of covert vascular brain injury detected only on neuroimaging or neuropathology...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515221/regulation-of-cerebral-arterial-bkca-channels-by-angiotensin-ii-signaling-in-adult-offspring-exposed-to-prenatal-high-sucrose-diets
#18
Xiuxia Gu, Axin He, Xiaorong Fan, Ruixiu Shi, Xueqin Feng, Le Bo, Lin Jiang, Na Li, Jue Wu, Yuxian Yang, Qinqin Gao, Zhice Xu
Prenatal insults have been shown to affect vascular functions, leading to increased risks of cardiovascular diseases in offspring. The present study determined whether high sucrose intake in pregnancy affected central vascular functions in middle cerebral artery (MCA) of offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a standard food and tap water with normal or high (20%) sucrose content during pregnancy. Offspring were maintained with normal diets and tap water. Central vascular functions and related ion channels were assessed in male offspring at 5 months old...
May 17, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515043/brain-perivascular-macrophages-initiate-the-neurovascular-dysfunction-of-alzheimer-a%C3%AE-peptides
#19
Laibaik Park, Ken Uekawa, Lidia Garcia-Bonilla, Kenzo Koizumi, Michelle Murphy, Rose Pitstick, Linda H Younkin, Steven G Younkin, Ping Zhou, Geroge A Carlson, Josef Anrather, Costantino Iadecola
Rationale: Increasing evidence indicates that alterations of the cerebral microcirculation may play a role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading cause of late-life dementia. The amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), a key pathogenic factor in AD, induces profound alterations in neurovascular regulation through the innate immunity receptor CD36, which, in turn, activates a Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase leading to cerebrovascular oxidative stress. Brain perivascular macrophages (PVM) located in the perivascular space, a major site of brain Aβ collection and clearance, are juxtaposed to the wall of intracerebral resistance vessels and are a powerful source of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
May 17, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512130/combination-therapy-with-octyl-gallate-and-ferulic-acid-improves-cognition-and-neurodegeneration-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-disease
#20
Takashi Mori, Naoki Koyama, Jun Tan, Tatsuya Segawa, Masahiro Maeda, Terrence Town
To date, there is no effective Alzheimer disease (AD) modifying therapy. Nonetheless, combination therapy holds promise, and nutraceuticals (natural dietary compounds with therapeutic properties) and their synthetic derivatives are well-tolerated candidates. We tested whether combination therapy with octyl gallate (OG) and ferulic acid (FA) improves cognition and mitigates AD-like pathology in the PSAPP transgenic mouse model of cerebral amyloidosis. One-year-old mice with established β-amyloid plaques received daily doses of OG and FA alone or in combination for 3 months...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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