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olfactory neuron turnover

Anika Langenfurth, Song Gu, Verena Bautze, Caiyi Zhang, Julia E Neumann, Ulrich Schüller, Kristin Stock, Susanne A Wolf, Anna-Maria Maier, Giorgia Mastrella, Andrew Pak, Hongwei Cheng, Roland E Kälin, Kenn Holmbeck, Jörg Strotmann, Helmut Kettenmann, Rainer Glass
The subventricular zone (SVZ) provides a constant supply of new neurons to the olfactory bulb (OB). Different studies have investigated the role of olfactory sensory input to neural precursor cell (NPC) turnover in the SVZ but it was not addressed if a reduced demand specifically for periglomerular neurons impacts on NPC-traits in the rostral migratory stream (RMS). We here report that membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) deficient mice have reduced complexity of the nasal turbinates, decreased sensory innervation of the OB, reduced numbers of olfactory glomeruli and reduced OB-size without alterations in SVZ neurogenesis...
2016: Scientific Reports
Sukanya Ramasamy, Lino Ometto, Cristina M Crava, Santosh Revadi, Rupinder Kaur, David S Horner, Davide Pisani, Teun Dekker, Gianfranco Anfora, Omar Rota-Stabelli
How the evolution of olfactory genes correlates with adaption to new ecological niches is still a debated topic. We explored this issue in Drosophila suzukii, an emerging model that reproduces on fresh fruit rather than in fermenting substrates like most other Drosophila We first annotated the repertoire of odorant receptors (ORs), odorant binding proteins (OBPs), and antennal ionotropic receptors (aIRs) in the genomes of two strains of D. suzukii and of its close relative Drosophila biarmipes We then analyzed these genes on the phylogeny of 14 Drosophila species: whereas ORs and OBPs are characterized by higher turnover rates in some lineages including D...
2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Kurt A Sailor, Matthew T Valley, Martin T Wiechert, Hermann Riecke, Gerald J Sun, Wayne Adams, James C Dennis, Shirin Sharafi, Guo-Li Ming, Hongjun Song, Pierre-Marie Lledo
In the mammalian brain, the anatomical structure of neural circuits changes little during adulthood. As a result, adult learning and memory are thought to result from specific changes in synaptic strength. A possible exception is the olfactory bulb (OB), where activity guides interneuron turnover throughout adulthood. These adult-born granule cell (GC) interneurons form new GABAergic synapses that have little synaptic strength plasticity. In the face of persistent neuronal and synaptic turnover, how does the OB balance flexibility, as is required for adapting to changing sensory environments, with perceptual stability? Here we show that high dendritic spine turnover is a universal feature of GCs, regardless of their developmental origin and age...
July 20, 2016: Neuron
Gianluca Polese, Carla Bertapelle, Anna Di Cosmo
The cephalopod olfactory organ was described for the first time in 1844 by von Kölliker, who was attracted to the pair of small pits of ciliated cells on each side of the head, below the eyes close to the mantle edge, in both octopuses and squids. Several functional studies have been conducted on decapods but very little is known about octopods. The morphology of the octopus olfactory system has been studied, but only to a limited extent on post-hatching specimens, and the only paper on adult octopus gives a minimal description of the olfactory organ...
2016: Biology Open
Chelsea M Larabee, Constantin Georgescu, Jonathan D Wren, Scott M Plafker
BACKGROUND: UbcM2 is a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme with roles in the turnover of damaged and misfolded proteins, cell cycle progression, development, and regulation of the antioxidant transcription factor, Nrf2. Recent screens have identified binding partners of the enzyme that are associated with various neurodegenerative diseases, and our previous studies have shown that UbcM2 is enriched in retina and brain. RESULTS: In the current study, we characterized UbcM2 protein expression in various structures and cell types in the murine brain...
November 13, 2015: BMC Neuroscience
M A Gilbert, B Lin, J Peterson, W Jang, J E Schwob
Neuregulin1, a protein involved in signaling through the ErbB receptors, is required for the proper development of multiple organ systems. A complete understanding of the expression profile of Neuregulin1 is complicated by the presence of multiple isoform variants that result from extensive alternative splicing. Remarkably, these numerous protein products display a wide range of divergent functional roles, making the characterization of tissue-specific isoforms critical to understanding signaling. Recent evidence suggests an important role for Neuregulin1 signaling during olfactory epithelium development and regeneration...
September 2015: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Hande Login, Sofia Håglin, Anna Berghard, Staffan Bohm
UNLABELLED: Stimulus-dependent expression of the retinoic acid-inactivating enzyme Cyp26B1 in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) forms a dorsomedial (DM)-ventrolateral (VL) gradient in the mouse olfactory epithelium. The gradient correlates spatially with different rates of OSN turnover, as well as the functional organization of the olfactory sensory map, into overlapping zones of OSNs that express different odorant receptors (ORs). Here, we analyze transgenic mice that, instead of a stimulus-dependent Cyp26B1 gradient, have constitutive Cyp26B1 levels in all OSNs...
October 7, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jun Suzuki, Noriko Osumi
Olfaction is the sense of smell that influences many primitive behaviors for survival, e.g., feeding, reproduction, social interaction, and fear response. The olfactory system is an evolutionarily ancient sensory system and composed of the olfactory epithelium (OE), the olfactory bulb (OB), and the olfactory cortex. The OE gives rise to olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), i.e., primary sensory receptor cells whose axons project directly to the OB. The ORNs are unique in the way that they are continuously replaced during physiological turnover or following injury throughout life...
2015: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
Annisa N Chand, Elisa Galliano, Robert A Chesters, Matthew S Grubb
The axon initial segment (AIS) is a specialized structure near the start of the axon that is a site of neuronal plasticity. Changes in activity levels in vitro and in vivo can produce structural AIS changes in excitatory cells that have been linked to alterations in excitability, but these effects have never been described in inhibitory interneurons. In the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB), dopaminergic interneurons are particularly plastic, undergoing constitutive turnover throughout life and regulating tyrosine hydroxylase expression in an activity-dependent manner...
January 28, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Yoojin Seo, Hyung-Sik Kim, Yooyoung Shin, Insung Kang, Soon Won Choi, Kyung-Rok Yu, Kwang-Won Seo, Kyung-Sun Kang
Progressive olfactory impairment is one of the earliest markers of neurodegeneration. However, the underlying mechanism for this dysfunction remains unclear. The present study investigated the possible role of microgliosis in olfactory deficits using a mouse model of Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1), which is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder with disrupted lipid trafficking. At 7weeks of age, NPC1 mutants showed a distinct olfactory impairment in an olfactory test compared with age-matched wild-type controls (WT)...
November 2014: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Bradley J Goldstein, Garrett M Goss, Konstantinos E Hatzistergos, Erika B Rangel, Barbara Seidler, Dieter Saur, Joshua M Hare
The olfactory epithelium houses chemosensory neurons, which transmit odor information from the nose to the brain. In adult mammals, the olfactory epithelium is a uniquely robust neuroproliferative zone, with the ability to replenish its neuronal and non-neuronal populations due to the presence of germinal basal cells. The stem and progenitor cells of these germinal layers, and their regulatory mechanisms, remain incompletely defined. Here we show that progenitor cells expressing c-Kit, a receptor tyrosine kinase marking stem cells in a variety of embryonic tissues, are required for maintenance of the adult neuroepithelium...
January 1, 2015: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Rosalia Pellitteri, Maria Vincenza Catania, Carmela Maria Bonaccorso, Eugenia Ranno, Paola Dell'Albani, Damiano Zaccheo
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) represent glial cells supporting neuronal turnover in the olfactory system. In vitro, OECs promote axonal growth as a source of neurotrophic growth factors; in vivo, they produce myelin, promoting remyelination of damaged axons. Consequently, OEC transplantation appears to be a promising treatment for spinal cord injury, although the functional recovery is limited. This might be ascribed to the microenvironment at the lesion site, lacking growth factors (GFs), nutrients, and oxygen...
December 2014: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Mengfei Chen, Shenghe Tian, Xiaoling Yang, Andrew P Lane, Randall R Reed, Hongjun Liu
Persistent neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium provides a unique model to study neural stem cell self-renewal and fate determination. In the olfactory neuroepithelium, globose basal cells (GBCs) are considered to be the direct progenitors of olfactory neurons. However, the study of neurogenesis from GBCs has been impeded by the paucity of GBC-specific markers. Here we report that Lgr5, a recently discovered adult stem cell marker, is exclusively expressed in GBCs in neonatal and adult mice. Lgr5(+) cells display characteristics of cycling stem cells, including Ki67 expression and EdU incorporation...
June 11, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Boniface M Kavoi, Johanna Plendl, Andrew N Makanya, Shem Ochieng', Stephen G Kiama
Docetaxel (DCT) is an anticancer drug which acts by disrupting microtubule dynamics in the highly mitotic cancer cells. Thus, this drug has a potential to affect function and organization of tissues exhibiting high cellular turnover. We investigated, in the rabbit, the effects of a single human equivalent dose (6.26 mg/kg, i.v.) of DCT on the olfactory mucosa (OM) through light and electron microscopy, morphometry, Ki-67 immunostaining, TUNEL assay and the buried food test for olfactory sensitivity. On post-exposure days (PED) 5 and 10, there was disarrangement of the normal cell layering in the olfactory epithelium (OE), apoptotic death of cells of the OE, Bowman's glands and axon bundles, and the presence (including on PED 3) of blood vessels in the bundle cores...
June 2014: Tissue & Cell
Gilles Gheusi, Pierre-Marie Lledo
The olfactory system is a dynamic place. In mammals, not only are sensory neurons located in the sensory organ renewed through adult life, but also its first central relay is reconstructed by continuous neuronal recruitment. Despite these numerous morphological and physiological changes, olfaction is a unique sensory modality endowed with a privileged link to memory. This raises a clear conundrum; how does the olfactory system balance its neuronal turnover with its participation in long-term memory? This review concentrates on the functional aspects of adult neurogenesis, addressing how the integration of late-born neurons participates in olfactory perception and memory...
2014: Progress in Brain Research
Masayuki Sakamoto, Nao Ieki, Goichi Miyoshi, Daisuke Mochimaru, Hitoshi Miyachi, Tetsuya Imura, Masahiro Yamaguchi, Gord Fishell, Kensaku Mori, Ryoichiro Kageyama, Itaru Imayoshi
The olfactory bulb (OB) is one of the two major loci in the mammalian brain where newborn neurons are constantly integrated into the neural circuit during postnatal life. Newborn neurons are generated from neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and migrate to the OB through the rostral migratory stream. The majority of these newborn neurons differentiate into inhibitory interneurons, such as granule cells and periglomerular cells. It has been reported that prolonged supply of newborn neurons leads to continuous addition/turnover of the interneuronal populations and contributes to functional integrity of the OB circuit...
April 23, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Aurélie Ernst, Kanar Alkass, Samuel Bernard, Mehran Salehpour, Shira Perl, John Tisdale, Göran Possnert, Henrik Druid, Jonas Frisén
In most mammals, neurons are added throughout life in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. One area where neuroblasts that give rise to adult-born neurons are generated is the lateral ventricle wall of the brain. We show, using histological and carbon-14 dating approaches, that in adult humans new neurons integrate in the striatum, which is adjacent to this neurogenic niche. The neuronal turnover in the striatum appears restricted to interneurons, and postnatally generated striatal neurons are preferentially depleted in patients with Huntington's disease...
February 27, 2014: Cell
Johanna Neuner, Severin Filser, Stylianos Michalakis, Martin Biel, Jochen Herms
Impaired olfaction is an early symptom in Parkinson disease (PD), although the exact cause is as yet unknown. Here, we investigated the link between PD-related mutant α-Synuclein (α-SYN) pathology and olfactory deficit, by examining the integration of adult-born neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) of A30P α-SYN overexpressing mice. To this end, we chose to label one well-known vulnerable subpopulation of adult-born cells, the dopaminergic neurons. Using in vivo two-photon imaging, we followed the dynamic process of neuronal turnover in transgenic A30P α-SYN and wild-type mice over a period of 2...
2014: Scientific Reports
Stefan Milde, Jonathan Gilley, Michael P Coleman
The NAD-synthesizing enzyme NMNAT2 is critical for axon survival in primary culture and its depletion may contribute to axon degeneration in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. Here we discuss several recent reports from our laboratory that establish a critical role for NMNAT2 in axon growth in vivo in mice and shed light on the delivery and turnover of this survival factor in axons. In the absence of NMNAT2, axons fail to extend more than a short distance beyond the cell body during embryonic development, implying a requirement for NMNAT2 in axon maintenance even during development...
September 2013: Bioarchitecture
Katarina Dittrich, Alfredo Sansone, Thomas Hassenklöver, Ivan Manzini
Purinergic signaling has considerable impact on the functioning of the nervous system, including the special senses. Purinergic receptors are expressed in various cell types in the retina, cochlea, taste buds, and the olfactory epithelium. The activation of these receptors by nucleotides, particularly adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and its breakdown products, has been shown to tune sensory information coding to control the homeostasis and to regulate the cell turnover in these organs. While the purinergic system of the retina, cochlea, and taste buds has been investigated in numerous studies, the available information about purinergic signaling in the olfactory system is rather limited...
2014: Purinergic Signalling
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