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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819824/-update-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-definitions-diagnosis-therapy
#1
N Sommer, M J Richter, K Tello, F Grimminger, W Seeger, H A Ghofrani, H Gall
The term pulmonary arterial hypertension comprises a group of pulmonary vascular diseases of different etiologies that are characterized by similar precapillary vascular remodeling processes and result in exertional dyspnea and right heart insufficiency. The specific pharmacological treatment approach considers the risk of mortality and phenotypical properties and includes treatment with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists and prostanoids, as well as with more novel substances, such as a soluble guanylyl cyclase stimulator and an oral prostacyclin receptor agonist...
August 17, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801264/vasoactive-properties-of-antihypertensive-lactoferrin-derived-peptides-in-resistance-vessels-effects-in-small-mesenteric-arteries-from-shr-rats
#2
Aurora García-Tejedor, Paloma Manzanares, María Castelló-Ruiz, Antonio Moscardó, José F Marcos, Juan B Salom
AIMS: Bovine lactoferrin (LF) hydrolysates and peptides identified thereof have shown antihypertensive effects in rat models, mainly but not exclusively by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. In this study we aimed to assess the vasoactive effects and mechanisms of an ultrafiltered (<3kDa) pepsin LF hydrolysate (LFH) and a heptapeptide identified in a LF hydrolysate produced by yeast proteolysis (DPYKLRP) in peripheral resistance arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs)...
August 8, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770200/prostaglandins-and-their-receptors-in-eosinophil-function-and-as-therapeutic-targets
#3
REVIEW
Miriam Peinhaupt, Eva M Sturm, Akos Heinemann
Of the known prostanoid receptors, human eosinophils express the prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) receptors DP1 [also D-type prostanoid (DP)] and DP2 (also chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule, expressed on Th2 cells), the prostaglandin E2 receptors EP2 and EP4, and the prostacyclin (PGI2) receptor IP. Prostanoids can bind to either one or multiple receptors, characteristically have a short half-life in vivo, and are quickly degraded into metabolites with altered affinity and specificity for a given receptor subtype...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765512/a-cluster-of-immunoresolvents-links-coagulation-to-innate-host-defense-in-human-blood
#4
Paul C Norris, Stephania Libreros, Nan Chiang, Charles N Serhan
Blood coagulation is a protective response that prevents excessive bleeding upon blood vessel injury. We investigated the relationship between coagulation and the resolution of inflammation and infection by lipid mediators (LMs) through metabololipidomics-based profiling of human whole blood (WB) during coagulation. We identified temporal clusters of endogenously produced prothrombotic and proinflammatory LMs (eicosanoids), as well as specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs). In addition to eicosanoids, a specific SPM cluster was identified that consisted of resolvin E1 (RvE1), RvD1, RvD5, lipoxin B4, and maresin 1, each of which was present at bioactive concentrations (0...
August 1, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752576/influence-of-prostanoids-in-the-diuretic-and-natriuretic-effects-of-extracts-and-kaempferitrin-from-bauhinia-forficata-link-leaves-in-rats
#5
Priscila de Souza, Luisa Mota da Silva, Thaise Boeing, Lincon Bordignon Somensi, Camile Cecconi Cechinel-Zanchett, Adriana Campos, Clarissa de Medeiros Amorim Krueger, Jairo Kenupp Bastos, Valdir Cechinel-Filho, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade
Although Bauhinia forficata Link is popularly used in Brazil to induce diuresis, no scientific investigation has focused on demonstrating its efficacy in preclinical trials. For that, normotensive male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats were used to test the effect of extracts and kaempferitrin obtained from Bauhinia forficata leaves in the experimental model of diuresis. Cumulative urine volume, Na(+) and K(+) excretion, calcium, creatinine, prostaglandin E2 , pH, density, and conductivity were measured at the end of the experiment (after 8 or 24 h)...
July 28, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740516/pge2-promotes-the-migration-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-through-the-activation-of-fak-and-erk1-2-pathway
#6
Xiaomin Lu, Jibin Han, Xiuping Xu, Jingyuan Xu, Ling Liu, Yingzi Huang, Yi Yang, Haibo Qiu
A critical step of MSCs therapy is dependent on its ability to migrate into the sites of injury, so various approaches have been introduced to boost the migratory ability of MSCs. PGE2 is the major prostaglandin generated by COX enzymes and has been implicated in inflammatory response. Evidence indicates that PGE2 can facilitate MSCs migration. Further exploration of the underlying molecular mechanism participating in the promigratory ability of PGE2 may provide a novel strategy to improve MSC transplantation efficacy...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738385/pharmacological-and-nonpharmacological-interventions-to-arrest-neuroprogression-in-psychiatric-disorders
#7
Fotini Boufidou, Angelos Halaris
The concept of neuroprogression describes the progressive course of the disorder and stresses the progressive, recurrent, and chronic course of the disease entity under consideration. It subsumes clinical manifestations of the disease process and may also entail morphological, biochemical, neurochemical, immunological, physiological, and genetic aspects that contribute to the progressive course of the disease in question. In an attempt to identify the appropriate agent or method that could arrest neuroprogression in psychiatric patients, we conducted an evaluation of the use of anti-inflammatory drugs under the perspective of current pharmacological and neurophysiological data...
2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730102/anti-scarring-effects-of-butaprost-on-human-subconjunctival-tenon-s-fibroblasts
#8
Jong Hoon Shin, Je Hyun Seo, Jae Ho Jung, Tae Woo Kim
AIM: To investigate the toxicity of the E-prostanoid 2 (EP2) receptor agonist, butaprost against human subconjunctival (Tenon's capsule) fibroblasts, and to determine the underlying mechanism. METHODS: We isolated Tenon's fibroblasts from the subconjunctival area of healthy subjects and evaluated the types of EP receptors expressed using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The toxicity of butaprost against the fibroblasts was evaluated using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium and lactic dehydrogenase assays...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728842/%C3%AE-oryzanol-suppresses-cox-2-expression-by-inhibiting-reactive-oxygen-species-mediated-erk1-2-and-egr-1-signaling-in-lps-stimulated-raw264-7-macrophages
#9
Soon Young Shin, Heon-Woong Kim, Hwan-Hee Jang, Yu-Jin Hwang, Jeong-Sook Choe, Jung-Bong Kim, Yoongho Lim, Young Han Lee
Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 produces prostanoids, which contribute to inflammatory responses. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB is a key transcription factor mediating COX-2 expression. γ-Oryzanol is an active component in rice bran oil, which inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated COX-2 expression by inhibiting NF-κB. However, the inhibition of COX-2 expression by γ-oryzanol independently of NF-κB is poorly understood. We found that LPS upregulated Egr-1 expression at the transcriptional level. Forced expression of Egr-1 trans-activated the Cox-2 promoter independently of NF-κB...
July 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724039/treatment-of-digital-ulcers-in-systemic-sclerosis-case-series-study-of-thirteen-patients-and-discussion-on-outcome
#10
Yahia Abuowda, Raquel Sousa Almeida, Ana Alves Oliveira, Petra Pego, Cristina Santos, João Matos-Costa
Introduction: In systemic sclerosis (SSc), digital ulcers (DU) are debilitating and recurrent. They are markers of prognosis and are associated with disability and mortality. Treatment strategies have been developed to block the proposed mechanisms of this complication. Objective: Clinical description of a population of SSc patients with DU, treatment, complications and outcome. Method: Analysis of 48 SSc patients meeting 2013 ACR-EULAR criteria, followed between 1999-2015; 13 patients had DU...
May 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715904/considerations-for-optimal-management-of-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-a-multi-stakeholder-roundtable-discussion
#11
Sean M Studer, Martha Kingman, Luis Calo, H Eric Cannon, Jeffrey D Dunn, Thomas James, Sonya J Lewis, Robert J Gilkin, Janis A Pruett
A roundtable panel of national and regional managed care decision makers and providers met to discuss pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and strategies for management. As a rare, complex disease with high economic costs and potentially devastating outcomes, PAH necessitates that managed care providers balance optimal care with efficient use of healthcare resources. PAH specialists are recognized by health plans as knowledgeable experts and integral partners in managing patients and resources. The diagnosis of PAH must be confirmed by a right heart catheterization...
May 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706454/participation-of-cox-1-and-cox-2-in-the-contractile-effect-of-phenylephrine-in-prepubescent-and-old-rats
#12
Gustavo Guevara-Balcazar, Israel Ramirez-Sanchez, Elvia Mera-Jimenez, Ivan Rubio-Gayosso, Maria Eugenia Aguilar-Najera, Maria C Castillo-Hernandez
Vascular reactivity can be influenced by the vascular region, animal age, and pathologies present. Prostaglandins (produced by COX-1 and COX-2) play an important role in the contractile response to phenylephrine in the abdominal aorta of young rats. Although these COXs are found in many tissues, their distribution and role in vascular reactivity are not clear. At a vascular level, they take part in the homeostasis functions involved in many physiological and pathologic processes (e.g., arterial pressure and inflammatory processes)...
July 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701311/pge2-upregulates-renin-through-e-prostanoid-receptor-1-via-pkc-camp-creb-pathway-in-m-1-cells
#13
Alexis A Gonzalez, Nicolas Salinas-Parra, Dan Leach, L Gabriel Navar, Minolfa C Prieto
During the early phase of angiotensin (ANG) II-dependent hypertension tubular prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is increased. Renin synthesis and secretion in the collecting duct (CD) is upregulated by ANGII contributing to further intratubular ANGII formation. However, what happens first and whether the triggering mechanism is independent of tubular ANGII, remain unknown. PGE2 stimulates renin synthesis in juxtaglomerular (JG) cells via E-prostanoid (EP) receptors through cAMP/CREB pathway. EP receptors are also expressed in the CD...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687401/pathophysiological-role-of-prostaglandin-e2-induced-up-regulation-of-the-ep2-receptor-in-motor-neuron-like-nsc-34-cells-and-lumbar-motor-neurons-in-als-model-mice
#14
Yasuhiro Kosuge, Hiroko Miyagishi, Yuki Yoneoka, Keiko Yoneda, Hiroshi Nango, Kumiko Ishige, Yoshihisa Ito
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective degeneration of motor neurons. The primary triggers for motor neuronal death are still unknown, but inflammation is considered to be an important factor contributing to the pathophysiology of ALS both clinically and in ALS models. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and its corresponding four E-prostanoid receptors play a pivotal role in the degeneration of motor neurons in human and transgenic models of ALS. It has also been shown that PGE2-EP2 signaling in glial cells (astrocytes or microglia) promotes motor neuronal death in G93A mice...
July 4, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685234/prostanoid-ep3-receptor-agonist-sulprostone-enhances-pacemaker-activity-of-colonic-interstitial-cells-of-cajal
#15
Man Woo Kim, Han Yi Jiao, Seok Won Kim, Chan Guk Park, Mei Jin Wu, Chansik Hong, Seok Choi, Jae Yeoul Jun
EP receptor activation by PGE2 regulates gastrointestinal motility by modulating smooth muscle contractility. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are pacemaker cells that regulate smooth muscle activity. We aimed to determine effects of the EP3 receptor agonist sulprostone on pacemaker potentials in colonic ICCs. We performed a whole cell patch clamp, RT-PCR, and Ca(2+) imaging in cultured ICCs from mouse colon. Sulprostone depolarized the membrane and increased pacemaker frequency. EP3 receptor antagonist blocked these sulprostone-induced effects...
July 6, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677874/enantioresolution-and-stereochemical-characterization-of-two-chiral-sulfoxides-endowed-with-cox-2-inhibitory-activity
#16
Roccaldo Sardella, Federica Ianni, Alessandro Di Michele, Angela Di Capua, Andrea Carotti, Maurizio Anzini, Benedetto Natalini
The capacity of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to prevent prostanoids biosynthesis through the inhibition of COX-2 enzyme is related to their structural backbone, based on the fusion of a cis-stilbene unit with a variety of heterocyclic and carbocyclic rings. By this route, a series of new selective COX-2 inhibitors was developed, by maintaining the 4-methylsulfone or 4-methylsulfonamide substituent on the phenyl moiety, essential for their activity. In this frame, two novel propyl sulfoxide derivatives were synthesized, which proved selective and sufficiently potent COX-2 inhibition activity when tested as racemates...
July 5, 2017: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675448/inhibition-of-microsomal-pge-synthase-1-reduces-human-vascular-tone-by-increasing-pgi2-a-safer-alternative-to-cox-2-inhibition
#17
Gulsev Ozen, Ingrid Gomez, Armond Daci, Catherine Deschildre, Lilia Boubaya, Onder Teskin, B Sonmez Uydeş-Doğan, Per-Johan Jakobsson, Dan Longrois, Gokce Topal, Xavier Norel
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The side effects of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors on the cardiovascular system could be associated with reduced prostaglandin (PG)I2 synthesis. Microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1) catalyses the formation of PGE2 from COX-derived PGH2 . This enzyme is induced under inflammatory conditions and constitutes an attractive target for novel anti-inflammatory drugs. However, it is not known whether mPGES-1 inhibitors could be devoid of cardiovascular side effects...
July 3, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673715/muscle-pain-induced-by-static-contraction-in-rats-is-modulated-by-peripheral-inflammatory-mechanisms
#18
Diogo Francisco da Silva Dos Santos, Bruna de Melo Aquino, Carolina Ocanha Jorge, Graciana de Azambuja, Jalile Garcia Schiavuzzo, Suzy Krimon, Juliana Dos Santos Neves, Carlos Amilcar Parada, Maria Claudia Gonçalves Oliveira-Fusaro
Muscle pain is an important health issue and frequently related to static force exertion. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether peripheral inflammatory mechanisms are involved with static contraction-induced muscle pain in rats. To this end, we developed a model of muscle pain induced by static contraction performed by applying electrical pulses through electrodes inserted into muscle. We also evaluated the involvement of neutrophil migration, bradykinin, sympathetic amines and prostanoids. A single session of sustained static contraction of gastrocnemius muscle induced acute mechanical muscle hyperalgesia without affecting locomotor activity and with no evidence of structural damage in muscle tissue...
June 30, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673614/ros-dependent-activation-of-rhoa-rho-kinase-in-pulmonary-artery-role-of-src-family-kinases-and-arhgef1
#19
Charles E MacKay, Yasin Shaifta, Vladimir V Snetkov, Asvi A Francois, Jeremy P T Ward, Greg A Knock
The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in smooth muscle contraction is poorly understood. We hypothesised that G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) activation and hypoxia induce Rho-kinase activity and contraction in rat intra-pulmonary artery (IPA) via stimulation of ROS production and subsequent Src-family kinase (SrcFK) activation. The T-type prostanoid receptor agonist U46619 induced ROS production in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC). U46619 also induced c-Src cysteine oxidation, SrcFK auto-phosphorylation, MYPT-1 and MLC20 phosphorylation and contraction in IPA, and all these responses were inhibited by antioxidants (ebselen, Tempol)...
September 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671625/vitamin-c-deficiency-reduces-muscarinic-receptor-coronary-artery-vasoconstriction-and-plasma-tetrahydrobiopterin-concentration-in-guinea-pigs
#20
Gry Freja Skovsted, Pernille Tveden-Nyborg, Maiken Marie Lindblad, Stine Normann Hansen, Jens Lykkesfeldt
Vitamin C (vitC) deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, but its specific interplay with arteriolar function is unclear. This study investigates the effect of vitC deficiency in guinea pigs on plasma biopterin status and the vasomotor responses in coronary arteries exposed to vasoconstrictor/-dilator agents. Dunkin Hartley female guinea pigs (n = 32) were randomized to high (1500 mg/kg diet) or low (0 to 50 mg/kg diet) vitC for 10-12 weeks. At euthanasia, coronary artery segments were dissected and mounted in a wire-myograph...
July 3, 2017: Nutrients
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