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Social cognitive neuroscience

Donald Glowinski, Fabrizio Bracco, Carlo Chiorri, Didier Grandjean
The present contribution provides readers from diverse fields of psychology with a new and comprehensive model for the understanding of the characteristics of music ensembles. The model is based on a novel heuristic approach whose key construct is resilience, intended here as the ability of a system to adapt to external perturbations and anticipate future events. The paper clarifies the specificity of music ensemble as an original social and creative activity, and how some mechanisms, at an individual (cognitive) and group (coordination) level, are enacted in a particular way that endows these groups with exceptional capacity for resilience...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Libby Jenke, Scott A Huettel
Voter choice is one of the most important problems in political science. The most common models assume that voting is a rational choice based on policy positions (e.g., key issues) and nonpolicy information (e.g., social identity, personality). Though such models explain macroscopic features of elections, they also reveal important anomalies that have been resistant to explanation. We argue for a new approach that builds upon recent research in cognitive science and neuroscience; specifically, we contend that policy positions and social identities do not combine in merely an additive manner, but compete to determine voter preferences...
September 26, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Monica E Ellwood-Lowe, Matthew D Sacchet, Ian H Gotlib
In the nascent field of the cognitive neuroscience of socioeconomic status (SES), researchers are using neuroimaging to examine how growing up in poverty affects children's neurocognitive development, particularly their language abilities. In this review we highlight difficulties inherent in the frequent use of reverse inference to interpret SES-related abnormalities in brain regions that support language. While there is growing evidence suggesting that SES moderates children's developing brain structure and function, no studies to date have elucidated explicitly how these neural findings are related to variations in children's language abilities, or precisely what it is about SES that underlies or contributes to these differences...
October 3, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
A Carson, L Ludwig, K Welch
In this chapter we review key psychologic theories that have been mooted as possible explanations for the etiology of functional neurologic symptoms, conversion disorder, and hysteria. We cover Freudian psychoanalysis and later object relations and attachment theories, social theories, illness behavior, classic and operant conditioning, social learning theory, self-regulation theory, cognitive-behavioral theories, and mindfulness. Dissociation and modern cognitive neuroscience theories are covered in other chapters in this series and, although of central importance, are omitted from this chapter...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Agustín Ibáñez, Adolfo M García, Sol Esteves, Adrián Yoris, Edinson Muñoz, Lucila Reynaldo, Marcos Luis Pietto, Federico Adolfi, Facundo Manes
Multiple disorders once jointly conceived as 'nervous diseases' became segregated by the distinct institutional traditions forged in neurology and psychiatry. As a result, each field specialized in the study and treatment of a subset of such conditions. Here we propose new avenues for interdisciplinary interaction through a triangulation of both fields with social neuroscience. To this end, we review evidence from five relevant domains (facial emotion recognition, empathy, theory of mind, moral cognition, social context assessment), highlighting their common disturbances across neurological and psychiatric conditions and discussing their multiple pathophysiological mechanisms...
October 6, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Nicola Schiel, Antonio Souto
Callithrix jacchus are small-bodied Neotropical primates popularly known as common marmosets. They are endemic to Northeast Brazil and occur in contrasting environments such as the humid Atlantic Forest and the dry scrub forest of the Caatinga. Common marmosets live in social groups, usually containing only one breeding pair. These primates have a parental care system in which individuals help by providing assistance to the infants even when they are not related to them. Free-ranging groups use relatively small home ranges (0...
October 5, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Michael Rutter
Translational research focuses on innovation in healthcare settings, but this is a two-way process that may have implications for either treatment or prevention. Smoking and lung cancer and the fetal alcohol syndrome are used as examples. Experimental medicine that budges basic and clinical science often constitutes a key way forward. Areas of scientific progress and challenge are discussed in relation to drug action, social cognition, cognitive neuroscience, molecular genetics, gene-environment interaction, and epigenetics...
October 3, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Marina A Pavlova
As the most fascinating, complex, and dynamic part of our organism, the human brain is shaped by many interacting factors that not only are of neurobiological (including sex hormones) and environmental origin but are also sociocultural in their very nature (such as social roles). Gender is one of these factors. Most neurological, neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and psychosomatic disorders are characterized by impairments in visual social cognition (primarily body language reading and face perception) and a skewed sex ratio: females and males are affected differently in terms of clinical picture, prevalence, and severity...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Ana Guinote
Sociocognitive research has demonstrated that power affects how people feel, think, and act. In this article, I review literature from social psychology, neuroscience, management, and animal research and propose an integrated framework of power as an intensifier of goal-related approach motivation. A growing literature shows that power energizes thought, speech, and action and orients individuals toward salient goals linked to power roles, predispositions, tasks, and opportunities. Power magnifies self-expression linked to active parts of the self (the active self ), enhancing confidence, self-regulation, and prioritization of efforts toward advancing focal goals...
September 21, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
Kyoko Yoshida, Yasuhiro Go, Itaru Kushima, Atsushi Toyoda, Asao Fujiyama, Hiroo Imai, Nobuhito Saito, Atsushi Iriki, Norio Ozaki, Masaki Isoda
Atypical neurodevelopment in autism spectrum disorder is a mystery, defying explanation despite increasing attention. We report on a Japanese macaque that spontaneously exhibited autistic traits, namely, impaired social ability as well as restricted and repetitive behaviors, along with our single-neuron and genomic analyses. Its social ability was measured in a turn-taking task, where two monkeys monitor each other's actions for adaptive behavioral planning. In its brain, the medial frontal neurons responding to others' actions, abundant in the controls, were almost nonexistent...
September 2016: Science Advances
George Zacharopoulos, Paul H P Hanel, Thomas M Lancaster, Niklas Ihssen, Mark Drakesmith, Sonya Foley, Gregory R Maio, David E J Linden
Human values guide behaviour and the smooth functioning of societies. Schwartz's circumplex model of values predicts a sinusoidal waveform in relations between ratings of the importance of diverse human value types (e.g., achievement, benevolence) and any variables psychologically relevant to them. In this neuroimaging study, we examined these non-linear associations between values types and brain structure. In 85 participants, we found the predicted sinusoidal relationship between ratings of values types and two measures of white matter, volume and myelin volume fraction, as well as for grey matter parameters in several frontal regions...
September 16, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Peter Railton
What is distinctive about a bringing a learning perspective to moral psychology? Part of the answer lies in the remarkable transformations that have taken place in learning theory over the past two decades, which have revealed how powerful experience-based learning can be in the acquisition of abstract causal and evaluative representations, including generative models capable of attuning perception, cognition, affect, and action to the physical and social environment. When conjoined with developments in neuroscience, these advances in learning theory permit a rethinking of fundamental questions about the acquisition of moral understanding and its role in the guidance of behavior...
September 3, 2016: Cognition
Haiyan Wu, Yi Luo, Chunliang Feng
People often align their behaviors with group opinions, known as social conformity. Many neuroscience studies have explored the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying social conformity. Here we employed a coordinate-based meta-analysis on neuroimaging studies of social conformity with the purpose to reveal the convergence of the underlying neural architecture. We identified a convergence of reported activation foci in regions associated with normative decision-making, including ventral striatum (VS), dorsal posterior medial frontal cortex (dorsal pMFC), and anterior insula (AI)...
August 31, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Yuan Zhang, Hongbo Yu, Yunlu Yin, Xiaolin Zhou
UNLABELLED: Although economic theories suggest that punishment threat is crucial for maintaining social norms, counterexamples are noted in which punishment threat hinders norm compliance. Such discrepancy may arise from the intention behind the threat: unintentionally introduced punishment threat facilitates, whereas intentionally introduced punishment threat hinders, norm compliance. Here, we combined a dictator game and fMRI to investigate how intention modulates the effect of punishment threat on norm compliance and the neural substrates of this modulation...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Martin Desseilles
In this article, we address adaptation in relation to the neurosciences. Adaptation is examined at the individual as well as various environmental levels: biological, psychological, and social. We then briefly discuss, from a neuroscientific perspective, the concept of adaptation in relation to psychopathology, including attachment theory and the third wave of cognitive-behavioral therapies.
2016: Santé Mentale Au Québec
Thomas Wynn, Frederick L Coolidge
How did the human mind evolve? How and when did we come to think in the ways we do? The last thirty years have seen an explosion in research related to the brain and cognition. This research has encompassed a range of biological and social sciences, from epigenetics and cognitive neuroscience to social and developmental psychology. Following naturally on this efflorescence has been a heightened interest in the evolution of the brain and cognition. Evolutionary scholars, including paleoanthropologists, have deployed the standard array of evolutionary methods...
July 2016: Evolutionary Anthropology
Winnie Dunn, Lauren Little, Evan Dean, Sara Robertson, Benjamin Evans
The objective of this study was to identify and synthesize research about how sensory factors affect daily life of children. We designed a conceptual model to guide a scoping review of research published from 2005 to October 2014 (10 years). We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO and included studies about sensory perception/processing; children, adolescents/young adults; and participation. We excluded studies about animals, adults, and review articles. Our process resulted in 261 articles meeting criteria...
April 2016: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
Peter J Hills, Susan F L Willis
Like most own-group biases in face recognition, the own-age bias (OAB) is thought to be based either on perceptual expertise or socio-cognitive motivational mechanisms [Wolff, N., Kemter, K., Schweinberger, S. R., & Wiese, H. (2013). What drives social in-group biases in face recognition memory? ERP evidence from the own-gender bias. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. doi:10.1093/scan/nst024]. The present study employed a recognition paradigm with eye-tracking in order to assess whether participants actively viewed faces of their own-age differently to that of other-age faces...
July 3, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Psychology
M Adamaszek, F D'Agata, R Ferrucci, C Habas, S Keulen, K C Kirkby, M Leggio, P Mariën, M Molinari, E Moulton, L Orsi, F Van Overwalle, C Papadelis, A Priori, B Sacchetti, D J Schutter, C Styliadis, J Verhoeven
Over the past three decades, insights into the role of the cerebellum in emotional processing have substantially increased. Indeed, methodological refinements in cerebellar lesion studies and major technological advancements in the field of neuroscience are in particular responsible to an exponential growth of knowledge on the topic. It is timely to review the available data and to critically evaluate the current status of the role of the cerebellum in emotion and related domains. The main aim of this article is to present an overview of current facts and ongoing debates relating to clinical, neuroimaging, and neurophysiological findings on the role of the cerebellum in key aspects of emotion...
August 2, 2016: Cerebellum
Junghee Lee, Michael F Green
Impaired social functioning is pervasive in schizophrenia. Unfortunately, existing treatments have limited efficacy, and possible psychological or neurobiological mechanisms underlying social dysfunction in this disorder remain obscure. Here, we evaluate whether social preference, one key aspect of social processing that has been largely overlooked in schizophrenia research, and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dysfunction can provide insights into the mechanism underlying social dysfunction in schizophrenia...
September 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
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