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Social cognitive neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626392/sensing-the-worst-neurophenomenological-perspectives-on-neutral-stimuli-misperception-in-schizophrenia-spectrum
#1
Mariateresa Sestito, Josef Parnas, Carlo Maggini, Vittorio Gallese
While investigating social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia, prominent evidence has been found that patients with schizophrenia show a tendency to misclassify neutral stimuli as negatively valenced. Within this population, patients presenting delusions are more prone to this phenomenon. In a previous study, Schizophrenia spectrum (SzSp) patients rated positive, negative and neutral stimuli that were multimodally presented, while assessed with a checklist exploring anomalous subjective experiences and evaluated for positive and negative symptomatology...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616997/emotion-and-the-prefrontal-cortex-an-integrative-review
#2
Matthew L Dixon, Ravi Thiruchselvam, Rebecca Todd, Kalina Christoff
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a critical role in the generation and regulation of emotion. However, we lack an integrative framework for understanding how different emotion-related functions are organized across the entire expanse of the PFC, as prior reviews have generally focused on specific emotional processes (e.g., decision making) or specific anatomical regions (e.g., orbitofrontal cortex). Additionally, psychological theories and neuroscientific investigations have proceeded largely independently because of the lack of a common framework...
June 15, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569221/a-four-part-working-bibliography-of-neuroethics-part-4-ethical-issues-in-clinical-and-social-applications-of-neuroscience
#3
EDITORIAL
Kira Becker, John R Shook, Martina Darragh, James Giordano
BACKGROUND: As a discipline, neuroethics addresses a range of questions and issues generated by basic neuroscientific research (inclusive of studies of putative neurobiological processes involved in moral and ethical cognition and behavior), and its use and meanings in the clinical and social spheres. Here, we present Part 4 of a four-part bibliography of the neuroethics literature focusing on clinical and social applications of neuroscience, to include: the treatment-enhancement discourse; issues arising in neurology, psychiatry, and pain care; neuroethics education and training; neuroethics and the law; neuroethics and policy and political issues; international neuroethics; and discourses addressing "trans-" and "post-" humanity...
May 31, 2017: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567025/a-proposal-for-a-scientifically-informed-and-instrumentalist-account-of-free-will-and-voluntary-action
#4
Eric Racine
The ability to choose freely is captured under the umbrella concept of "free will," which designates an ability that plays a crucial role in most understandings of autonomy and responsibility and, thus, bears significance for moral practice and moral theory. Some claim that neuroscience research challenges the existence of free will/voluntary action while some who adopt stronger eliminativist stances have gone as far as describing free will as an illusion. Contrary to that, those relying on realist stances have restated the foundational value and role of folk psychological concepts of voluntary action and free will in, for example, the domains of ethics and law...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548461/attending-learning-and-socioeconomic-disadvantage-developmental-cognitive-and-social-neuroscience-of-resilience-and-vulnerability
#5
REVIEW
Kylie Schibli, Kyle Wong, Nina Hedayati, Amedeo D'Angiulli
We review current findings associating socioeconomic status (SES), development of neurocognitive functions, and neurobiological pathways. A sizeable interdisciplinary literature was organized through a bifurcated developmental trajectory (BiDeT) framework, an account of the external and internal variables associated with low SES that may lead to difficulties with attention and learning, along with buffers that may protect against negative outcomes. A consistent neurocognitive finding is that low-SES children attend to information nonselectively, and engage in late filtering out of task-irrelevant information...
May 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542356/the-use-of-preferred-social-stimuli-as-rewards-for-rhesus-macaques-in-behavioural-neuroscience
#6
Helen Gray, Bradley Pearce, Alexander Thiele, Candy Rowe
Macaques are often motivated to perform in neuroscientific experiments by implementing fluid restriction protocols. Daily access to water is controlled and the monkeys are rewarded with droplets of fluid for performing correct trials in the laboratory. Although these protocols are widely used and highly effective, it is important from a 3Rs perspective to investigate refinements that may help to lessen the severity of the fluid restriction applied. We assessed the use of social stimuli (images of conspecifics) as rewards for four rhesus macaques performing simple cognitive tasks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521007/computing-the-social-brain-connectome-across-systems-and-states
#7
Daniel Alcalá-López, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies, Frank Van Overwalle, Kai Vogeley, Rogier B Mars, Bruce I Turetsky, Angela R Laird, Peter T Fox, Simon B Eickhoff, Danilo Bzdok
Social skills probably emerge from the interaction between different neural processing levels. However, social neuroscience is fragmented into highly specialized, rarely cross-referenced topics. The present study attempts a systematic reconciliation by deriving a social brain definition from neural activity meta-analyses on social-cognitive capacities. The social brain was characterized by meta-analytic connectivity modeling evaluating coactivation in task-focused brain states and physiological fluctuations evaluating correlations in task-free brain states...
May 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479798/impairments-in-quality-of-life-and-cognitive-functions-in-long-term-survivors-of-glioblastoma
#8
Chirag Solanki, Divya Sadana, Arivazhagan Arimappamagan, K V L N Rao, Jamuna Rajeswaran, D K Subbakrishna, Vani Santosh, Paritosh Pandey
BACKGROUND: The incidence of long-term survival in glioblastoma (GBM), i.e., >3 years, ranges from 3% to 5%. Although extensive research is performed in novel therapies for prolonging survival, there is a scarcity of research focusing on the impact of tumor and treatment on cognitive, psychological, and social status of survivors. This study is an attempt to look into this poorly addressed important issue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine patients (six adults and three children) with GBM who had survived >3 years were included in the study...
April 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430042/control-without-controllers-toward-a-distributed-neuroscience-of-executive-control
#9
Benjamin R Eisenreich, Rei Akaishi, Benjamin Y Hayden
Executive control refers to the regulation of cognition and behavior by mental processes and is a hallmark of higher cognition. Most approaches to understanding its mechanisms begin with the assumption that our brains have anatomically segregated and functionally specialized control modules. The modular approach is intuitive: Control is conceptually distinct from basic mental processing, so an organization that reifies that distinction makes sense. An alternative approach sees executive control as self-organizing principles of a distributed organization...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424380/-schizotypy-detachment-or-magical-fusion
#10
János Kállai, Mária Simon, István Hartung, Béla Birkás, Róbert Herold
Nowadays, both in the clinical population, and in general communities, we tend to encounter an increasing number of personality disorder patients, whose social adjustment, partnerships and efficient life management is made difficult by the disorder. The ideas of borderline personality disorder patients, who fluctuate between farfetched expectations and fears of their selves being demolished, schizoid patients, who close their selves in their own alienating prison, avoidant patients, who try to escape difficulties, which would enhance their self-esteem, OCD patients, who build their own mythic superstitious world, and antisocial patients who tend to ignore and aggressively override others' interests are all important in the development of cultures with insecure identities...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420449/interpersonal-harm-aversion-as-a-necessary-foundation-for-morality-a-developmental-neuroscience-perspective
#11
Jean Decety, Jason M Cowell
Growing evidence from developmental psychology and social neuroscience emphasizes the importance of third-party harm aversion for constructing morality. A sensitivity to interpersonal harm emerges very early in ontogeny, as reflected in both the capacity for implicit social evaluation and an aversion for antisocial agents. Yet it does not necessarily entail avoidance toward inflicting pain to others. Later, an understanding that harmful actions cause suffering emerges, followed by an integration of rules that can depend on social contexts and cultures...
April 19, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419879/challenging-the-myth-of-right-non-dominant-hemisphere-lessons-from-cortico-subcortical-stimulation-mapping-in-awake-surgery-and-surgical-implications
#12
REVIEW
Tatiana Vilasboas, Guillaume Herbet, Hugues Duffau
For a long time, the right hemisphere (RH) was considered as "non-dominant", especially in right-handers. In neurosurgical practice, this dogma resulted in the selection of awake procedure with language mapping only for lesions of the left "dominant" hemisphere. Conversely, surgery under general anesthesia (possibly with motor mapping) was usually proposed for right lesions. However, when objective neuropsychological assessments were performed, they frequently revealed cognitive and behavioral deficits following brain surgery, even in the RH...
April 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403660/value-based-choice-an-integrative-neuroscience-informed-model-of-health-goals
#13
Elliot T Berkman
OBJECTIVE: Traditional models of health behaviour focus on the roles of cognitive, personality and social-cognitive constructs (e.g. executive function, grit, self-efficacy), and give less attention to the process by which these constructs interact in the moment that a health-relevant choice is made. Health psychology needs a process-focused account of how various factors are integrated to produce the decisions that determine health behaviour. DESIGN: I present an integrative value-based choice model of health behaviour, which characterises the mechanism by which a variety of factors come together to determine behaviour...
April 13, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400206/elucidation-of-developmental-patterns-of-marmoset-corpus-callosum-through-a-comparative-mri-in-marmosets-chimpanzees-and-humans
#14
Tomoko Sakai, Yuji Komaki, Junichi Hata, Junko Okahara, Norio Okahara, Takashi Inoue, Akichika Mikami, Mie Matsui, Kenichi Oishi, Erika Sasaki, Hideyuki Okano
The corpus callosum (CC) is present in all primate brains and is the major white matter tract connecting the cerebral hemispheres for integration of sensory, motor and higher-order cognitive information. The midsagittal area of the CC has frequently been used as a sensitive biomarker of brain development. Although the marmoset has been considered as an alternative non-human primate model for neuroscience research, the developmental patterns of the CC have not been explored. The present longitudinal study of magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that marmosets show a rapid increase of CC during infancy, followed by a slow increase during the juvenile stage, as observed in chimpanzees and humans...
April 8, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377991/animal-models-in-psychiatric-research-the-rdoc-system-as-a-new-framework-for-endophenotype-oriented-translational-neuroscience
#15
REVIEW
Elmira Anderzhanova, Thomas Kirmeier, Carsten T Wotjak
The recently proposed Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) system defines psychopathologies as phenomena of multilevel neurobiological existence and assigns them to 5 behavioural domains characterizing a brain in action. We performed an analysis on this contemporary concept of psychopathologies in respect to a brain phylogeny and biological substrates of psychiatric diseases. We found that the RDoC system uses biological determinism to explain the pathogenesis of distinct psychiatric symptoms and emphasises exploration of endophenotypes but not of complex diseases...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344565/from-attire-to-assault-clothing-objectification-and-de-humanization-a-possible-prelude-to-sexual-violence
#16
Bhuvanesh Awasthi
In the context of objectification and violence, little attention has been paid to the perception neuroscience of how the human brain perceives bodies and objectifies them. Various studies point to how external cues such as appearance and attire could play a key role in encouraging objectification, dehumanization and the denial of agency. Reviewing new experimental findings across several areas of research, it seems that common threads run through issues of clothing, sexual objectification, body perception, dehumanization, and assault...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341151/mice-heterozygous-for-an-inactivated-allele-of-the-schizophrenia-associated-brd1-gene-display-selective-cognitive-deficits-with-translational-relevance-to-schizophrenia
#17
Per Qvist, Anto P Rajkumar, John P Redrobe, Mette Nyegaard, Jane H Christensen, Ole Mors, Gregers Wegener, Michael Didriksen, Anders D Børglum
Schizophrenia is a debilitating brain disorder characterized by disturbances of emotion, perception and cognition. Cognitive impairments predict functional outcome in schizophrenia and are detectable even in the prodromal stage of the disorder. However, our understanding of the underlying neurobiology is limited and procognitive treatments remain elusive. We recently demonstrated that mice heterozygous for an inactivated allele of the schizophrenia-associated Brd1 gene (Brd1(+/)(-) mice) display behaviors reminiscent of schizophrenia, including impaired social cognition and long-term memory...
March 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338892/embodiment-and-schizophrenia-a-review-of-implications-and-applications
#18
Wolfgang Tschacher, Anne Giersch, Karl Friston
In recent decades, embodiment has become an influential concept in psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Embodiment denotes the study of the reciprocal (causal) relationships between mind and body, with the mind not only affecting the body but also vice versa. Embodied cognition comes to the fore in sensorimotor coupling, predictive coding, and nonverbal behavior. Additionally, the embodiment of the mind constitutes the basis of social interaction and communication, as evident in research on nonverbal synchrony and mimicry...
March 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325901/correlates-of-social-exclusion-in-social-anxiety-disorder-an-fmri-study
#19
Alexandre Heeren, Laurence Dricot, Joël Billieux, Pierre Philippot, Delphine Grynberg, Philippe de Timary, Pierre Maurage
Cognitive models posit that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is maintained by biased information-processing vis-à-vis threat of social exclusion. However, uncertainty still abounds regarding the very nature of this sensitivity to social exclusion in SAD. Especially, brain alterations related to social exclusion have not been explored in SAD. Our primary purpose was thus to determine both the self-report and neural correlates of social exclusion in this population. 23 patients with SAD and 23 matched nonanxious controls played a virtual game ("Cyberball") during fMRI recording...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266791/autism-spectrum-disorder-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-comprehensive-scoping-review
#20
REVIEW
Lauren Franz, Nola Chambers, Megan von Isenburg, Petrus J de Vries
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is recognized as a global public health concern, yet almost everything we know about ASD comes from high-income countries. Here we performed a scoping review of all research on ASD ever published in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in order to identify ASD knowledge gaps in this part of the world. Fifty-three publications met inclusion criteria. Themes included the phenotype, genetics and risk factors for ASD in SSA, screening and diagnosis, professional knowledge, interventions for ASD, parental perceptions, and social-cognitive neuroscience...
May 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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