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Social cognitive neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046651/robots-as-intentional-agents-using-neuroscientific-methods-to-make-robots-appear-more-social
#1
REVIEW
Eva Wiese, Giorgio Metta, Agnieszka Wykowska
Robots are increasingly envisaged as our future cohabitants. However, while considerable progress has been made in recent years in terms of their technological realization, the ability of robots to interact with humans in an intuitive and social way is still quite limited. An important challenge for social robotics is to determine how to design robots that can perceive the user's needs, feelings, and intentions, and adapt to users over a broad range of cognitive abilities. It is conceivable that if robots were able to adequately demonstrate these skills, humans would eventually accept them as social companions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040743/anger-sensitive-networks-characterising-neural-systems-recruited-during-aggressive-social-interactions-using-data-driven-analysis
#2
Frederike Beyer, Ulrike M Krämer, Christian F Beckmann
Social neuroscience uses increasingly complex paradigms to improve ecological validity, as investigating aggressive interactions with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI; Krämer, Jansma, Tempelmann, & Münte, 2007). Standard analyses for fMRI data typically use general linear models (GLM), which require a priori models of task effects on neural processes. These may inadequately model non-stimulus-locked or temporally overlapping cognitive processes, as mentalizing about other agents.We used the data-driven approach of independent component analysis (ICA) to investigate neural processes involved in a competitive interaction...
October 4, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029962/answering-schr%C3%A3-dinger-s-question-a-free-energy-formulation
#3
REVIEW
Maxwell James Désormeau Ramstead, Paul Benjamin Badcock, Karl John Friston
The free-energy principle (FEP) is a formal model of neuronal processes that is widely recognised in neuroscience as a unifying theory of the brain and biobehaviour. More recently, however, it has been extended beyond the brain to explain the dynamics of living systems, and their unique capacity to avoid decay. The aim of this review is to synthesise these advances with a meta-theoretical ontology of biological systems called variational neuroethology, which integrates the FEP with Tinbergen's four research questions to explain biological systems across spatial and temporal scales...
September 20, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988827/self-as-object-emerging-trends-in-self-research
#4
REVIEW
Jie Sui, Xiaosi Gu
Self representation is fundamental to mental functions. While the self has mostly been studied in traditional psychophilosophical terms ('self as subject'), recent laboratory work suggests that the self can be measured quantitatively by assessing biases towards self-associated stimuli ('self as object'). Here, we summarize new quantitative paradigms for assessing the self, drawn from psychology, neuroeconomics, embodied cognition, and social neuroscience. We then propose a neural model of the self as an emerging property of interactions between a core 'self network' (e...
October 5, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970107/neural-network-integration-during-the-perception-of-in-group-and-out-group-members
#5
Inez M Greven, Richard Ramsey
Group biases guide social interactions by promoting in-group favouritism, but the neural mechanisms underpinning group biases remain unclear. While neuroscience research has shown that distributed brain circuits are associated with seeing in-group and out-group members as "us" and "them", it is less clear how these networks exchange signals. This fMRI study uses functional connectivity analyses to investigate the contribution of functional integration to group bias modulation of person perception. Participants were assigned to an arbitrary group and during scanning they observed bodies of in-group or out-group members that cued the recall of positive or negative social knowledge...
September 29, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951400/suitability-of-a-three-dimensional-model-to-measure-empathy-and-its-relationship-with-social-and-normative-adjustment-in-spanish-adolescents-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Mauricio Herrera-López, Olga Gómez-Ortiz, Rosario Ortega-Ruiz, Darrick Jolliffe, Eva M Romera
OBJECTIVES: (1) To examine the psychometric properties of the Basic Empathy Scale (BES) with Spanish adolescents, comparing a two and a three-dimensional structure;(2) To analyse the relationship between the three-dimensional empathy and social and normative adjustment in school. DESIGN: Transversal and ex post facto retrospective study. Confirmatory factorial analysis, multifactorial invariance analysis and structural equations models were used. PARTICIPANTS: 747 students (51...
September 25, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937343/effaced-enigmata
#7
Grant Gillett
Severe head injury or brain injury presents clinical neuroscientists with a unique challenge. Based on an objective assessment of cognitive and neurological function, it is sometimes hard to recognize our patients as members of our moral community (actually or potentially) but we treat them as if that were is the case, and, therefore, as if they need rescuing. Thus their existences as enigmata-beings who may or may not reveal themselves to us through social and personal function realized in conversations and relationships-are in doubt...
October 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922520/a-review-of-joint-attention-and-social-cognitive-brain-systems-in-typical-development-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Peter Mundy
This article provides a review of the increasingly detailed literature on the neurodevelopment of joint attention. Many findings from this literature support and inform the hypothesis that the neurodevelopment of joint attention contributes to the functional development of neural systems for human social cognition. Joint attention begins to develop by 5 months of age and is tantamount to the ability to adopt a common perspective with another person. It involves a whole-brain system with nodes in the: (a) dorsal and medial frontal cortex, (b) orbital frontal/insula cortex, (c) anterior/ posterior cingulate cortex, (d) superior temporal cortex, (e) precuneus/parietal cortex, and (f) amygdala and striatum...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898168/practice-evaluation-strategies-among-social-workers-why-an-evidence-informed-dual-process-theory-still-matters
#9
Thomas D Davis
Practice evaluation strategies range in style from the formal-analytic tools of single-subject designs, rapid assessment instruments, algorithmic steps in evidence-informed practice, and computer software applications, to the informal-interactive tools of clinical supervision, consultation with colleagues, use of client feedback, and clinical experience. The purpose of this article is to provide practice researchers in social work with an evidence-informed theory that is capable of explaining both how and why social workers use practice evaluation strategies to self-monitor the effectiveness of their interventions in terms of client change...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889923/social-risky-decision-making-reveals-gender-differences-in-the-tpj-a-hyperscanning-study-using-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#10
Mingming Zhang, Tao Liu, Matthew Pelowski, Huibin Jia, Dongchuan Yu
Previous neuroscience studies have investigated neural correlates of risky decision-making in a single-brain frame during pseudo social (predominantly non face-to-face) contexts. To fully understand the risky decision-making behavior in more natural social interactions, the present study employed a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) hyperscanning technique to simultaneously measure pairs of participants' fronto-temporal activations in a face-to-face gambling card-game. The intra-brain results revealed that both those who identified as males and as females showed higher activations in their mPFC and in the inferior parts of the frontopolar area, as well as in the tempo-parietal junction (TPJ) in cases involving higher versus lower risk...
September 7, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826604/the-neuroscience-of-body-memory-from-the-self-through-the-space-to-the-others
#11
REVIEW
Giuseppe Riva
Our experience of the body is not direct; rather, it is mediated by perceptual information, influenced by internal information, and recalibrated through stored implicit and explicit body representation (body memory). This paper presents an overview of the current investigations related to body memory by bringing together recent studies from neuropsychology, neuroscience, and evolutionary and cognitive psychology. To do so, in the paper, I explore the origin of representations of human body to elucidate their developmental process and, in particular, their relationship with more explicit concepts of self...
July 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826509/infrastructural-intelligence-contemporary-entanglements-between-neuroscience-and-ai
#12
Johannes Bruder
In this chapter, I reflect on contemporary entanglements between artificial intelligence and the neurosciences by tracing the development of Google's recent DeepMind algorithms back to their roots in neuroscientific studies of episodic memory and imagination. Google promotes a new form of "infrastructural intelligence," which excels by constantly reassessing its cognitive architecture in exchange with a cloud of data that surrounds it, and exhibits putatively human capacities such as intuition. I argue that such (re)alignments of biological and artificial intelligence have been enabled by a paradigmatic infrastructuralization of the brain in contemporary neuroscience...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812270/oxytocin-and-facial-emotion-recognition
#13
Mark A Ellenbogen
The expression of emotion in faces serves numerous meaningful functions, such as conveying messages of danger or approach, facilitating communication, and promoting the formation of social bonds and relationships. The study of facial expressions of emotion has become integral to research in social psychology and social neuroscience, particularly with respect to the neuropeptide oxytocin. This chapter examines how oxytocin influences the processing of emotion in faces by reviewing intranasal administration studies of automatic processing, selective attention, and emotion recognition...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805580/tourette-syndrome-and-chronic-tic-disorders-the-clinical-spectrum-beyond-tics
#14
Davide Martino, Christos Ganos, Tamara M Pringsheim
The clinical surveillance and active management of Tourette syndrome (TS) and other primary chronic tic disorders cannot be limited to tics, as these patients manifest a spectrum of sensory-, behavioral-, cognitive-, and sleep-related problems that have a major impact on their functioning and quality of life, influencing enormously clinical decision making on a routine basis. The sensory phenomena of primary tic disorders consist of premonitory urges and heightened sensitivity to external somatosensory and interoceptive stimuli...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804508/a-psychology-of-the-human-brain-gut-microbiome-axis
#15
Andrew P Allen, Timothy G Dinan, Gerard Clarke, John F Cryan
In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress-related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain-gut-microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain-gut-microbiome axis...
April 2017: Social and Personality Psychology Compass
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736211/applying-contemporary-neuroscience-in-exercise-interventions-for-chronic-spinal-pain-treatment-protocol
#16
Anneleen Malfliet, Jeroen Kregel, Mira Meeus, Barbara Cagnie, Nathalie Roussel, Mieke Dolphens, Lieven Danneels, Jo Nijs
BACKGROUND: Nonspecific chronic spinal pain is a common problem within the chronic pain population and is characterized by high social, economic and personal impact. To date, therapists are still struggling in adequately treating these types of patients, as seen in the small and short-term benefits of frequently applied primary care treatments. It is remarkable that despite the well-documented presence of abnormalities in central nociceptive processing in nonspecific chronic spinal pain patients, the implementation of this knowledge in clinical practice is still nearly non-existent...
September 2017: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729065/neural-circuits-for-social-cognition-implications-for-autism
#17
REVIEW
Marta Fernández, Irene Mollinedo-Gajate, Olga Peñagarikano
Social neuroscience, the study of the neurobiological basis of social behavior, has become a major area of current research in behavioral neuroscience and psychiatry, since many psychiatric disorders are characterized by social deficits. Social behavior refers to the behavioral response with regard to socially relevant information, and requires the perception and integration of social cues through a complex cognition process (i.e. social cognition) that involves attention, memory, motivation and emotion. Neurobiological and molecular mechanisms underlying social behavior are highly conserved across species, and inter- and intra-specific variability observed in social behavior can be explained to large extent by differential activity of this conserved neural network...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727965/is-psychology-headed-in-the-right-direction-yes-no-and-maybe
#18
Carol S Dweck
In this piece, I first celebrate the growing contribution of psychology to the understanding and solution of pressing social issues. Then, despite these exciting developments, I worry about whether we have created a field that our students want to spend their lives in, and I suggest concerns that might fruitfully be addressed. Finally, I worry about the potential fragmentation of psychology and applaud programs of research that have shown the unique and important contributions to be made when the methods and perspectives of neuroscience, cognitive science, and computational modeling are integrated with those of social, personality, and developmental psychology...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724894/self-viewing-is-associated-with-negative-affect-rather-than-reward-in-highly-narcissistic-men-an-fmri-study
#19
Emanuel Jauk, Mathias Benedek, Karl Koschutnig, Gayannée Kedia, Aljoscha C Neubauer
Subclinical narcissism is a personality trait with two faces: According to social-cognitive theories it is associated with grandiosity and feelings of superiority, whereas psychodynamic theories emphasize vulnerable aspects like fluctuating self-esteem and emotional conflicts. The psychodynamic view, however, is commonly not supported by self-report studies on subclinical narcissism. Personality neuroscience might help to better understand the phenomenon of narcissism beyond the limits of self-report research...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680161/a-new-look-at-domain-specificity-insights-from-social-neuroscience
#20
REVIEW
Robert P Spunt, Ralph Adolphs
The concept of domain specificity - which suggests that some aspects of neural processing are specialized for particular types of stimuli - has been invoked to explain a range of cognitive phenomena, including language, face perception and theory of mind, and has been a hallmark of theories of cognitive architecture. More recent usage of this concept draws on neuroscientific data and, in particular, on work in social neuroscience. A critical examination of the part that the concept of domain specificity has played in theories of human brain function leads us to suggest a new view according to which domain specificity pertains to centrally generated constraints on information processing that can be both dynamic and context sensitive...
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
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