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Social cognitive neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213489/in-search-of-the-moral-psychological-and-neuroevolutionary-basis-of-political-partisanship
#1
REVIEW
Vitor Geraldi Haase, Isabella Starling-Alves
In many countries, a radical political divide brings several socially relevant decisions to a standstill. Could cognitive, affective and social (CAS) neuroscience help better understand these questions? The present article reviews the moral-psychological and neuroevolutionary basis of the political partisanship divide. A non-systematic literature review and a conceptual analysis were conducted. Three main points are identified and discussed: 1) Political partisan behavior rests upon deep moral emotions. It is automatically processed and impervious to contradiction...
January 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197929/transdiagnostic-symptom-clusters-and-associations-with-brain-behavior-and-daily-function-in-mood-anxiety-and-trauma-disorders
#2
Katherine A Grisanzio, Andrea N Goldstein-Piekarski, Michelle Yuyun Wang, Abdullah P Rashed Ahmed, Zoe Samara, Leanne M Williams
Importance: The symptoms that define mood, anxiety, and trauma disorders are highly overlapping across disorders and heterogeneous within disorders. It is unknown whether coherent subtypes exist that span multiple diagnoses and are expressed functionally (in underlying cognition and brain function) and clinically (in daily function). The identification of cohesive subtypes would help disentangle the symptom overlap in our current diagnoses and serve as a tool for tailoring treatment choices...
December 3, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190117/psychobiotics-a-new-approach-for-treating-mental-illness
#3
Snigdha Misra, Debapriya Mohanty
Gut microbiomes may have a significant impact on mood and cognition, which is leading experts towards a new frontier in neuroscience. Studies have shown that increase in the amount of good bacteria in the gut can curb inflammation and cortisol level, reduces symptoms of depression and anxiety, lowers stress reactivity, improves memory and even lessens neuroticism and social anxiety. This shows that, probably the beneficial gut bacteria or probiotics function mechanistically as delivery vehicles for neuroactive compounds...
November 30, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163318/anger-as-a-basic-emotion-and-its-role-in-personality-building-and-pathological-growth-the-neuroscientific-developmental-and-clinical-perspectives
#4
Riccardo Williams
Anger is probably one of the mostly debated basic emotions, owing to difficulties in detecting its appearance during development, its functional and affective meaning (is it a positive or a negative emotion?), especially in human beings. Behaviors accompanied by anger and rage serve many different purposes and the nuances of aggressive behaviors are often defined by the symbolic and cultural framework and social contexts. Nonetheless, recent advances in neuroscientific and developmental research, as well as clinical psychodynamic investigation, afford a new view on the role of anger in informing and guiding many aspects of human conducts...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145416/two-is-better-than-one-the-effects-of-strategic-cooperation-on-intra-and-inter-brain-connectivity-by-fnirs
#5
Michela Balconi, Laurent Pezard, Jean-Louis Nandrino, Maria Elide Vanutelli
Inter-brain synchronization during joint actions is a core question in social neuroscience, and the differential contribution of intra- and inter-brain functional connectivity has yet to be clarified along with the role of psychological variables such as perceived self-efficacy. The cognitive performance and the neural activation underlying the execution of joint actions were recorded by functional Near-Infrared imaging during a synchronicity game. An 8-channel array of optodes was positioned over the frontal and prefrontal regions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130838/the-psychology-of-rituals-an-integrative-review-and-process-based-framework
#6
Nicholas M Hobson, Juliana Schroeder, Jane L Risen, Dimitris Xygalatas, Michael Inzlicht
Traditionally, ritual has been studied from broad sociocultural perspectives, with little consideration of the psychological processes at play. Recently, however, psychologists have begun turning their attention to the study of ritual, uncovering the causal mechanisms driving this universal aspect of human behavior. With growing interest in the psychology of ritual, this article provides an organizing framework to understand recent empirical work from social psychology, cognitive science, anthropology, behavioral economics, and neuroscience...
November 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122592/new-perspectives-on-the-brain-lesion-approach-implications-for-theoretical-models-of-human-memory
#7
Muireann Irish, Marlieke T R van Kesteren
Human lesion studies represent the cornerstone of modern day neuropsychology and provide an important adjunct to functional neuroimaging methods. The study of human lesion groups with damage to distinct regions of the brain permits the identification of underlying mechanisms and structures not only associated with, but essential for, complex cognitive processes. Here, we consider a recent review by McCormick et al. in which the power of the lesion model approach is elegantly presented with respect to a host of sophisticated cognitive endeavors, including autobiographical memory, future thinking, spatial navigation, and decision-making...
November 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122031/contempt%C3%A2-%C3%A2-where-the-modularity-of-the-mind-meets-the-modularity-of-the-brain
#8
Danilo Bzdok, Leonhard Schilbach
"Contempt" is proposed to be a unique aspect of human nature, yet a non-natural kind. Its psychological construct is framed as a sentiment emerging from a stratification of diverse basic emotions and dispositional attitudes. Accordingly, "contempt" might transcend traditional conceptual levels in social psychology, including experience and recognition of emotion, dyadic and group dynamics, context-conditioned attitudes, time-enduring personality structure, and morality. This strikes us as a modern psychological account of a high-level, social-affective cognitive facet that joins forces with recent developments in the social neuroscience by drawing psychological conclusions from brain biology...
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111450/interpersonal-dysfunction-in-borderline-personality-a-decision-neuroscience-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Michael N Hallquist, Nathan T Hall, Alison M Schreiber, Alexandre Y Dombrovski
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by disadvantageous decisions that are often expressed in close relationships and associated with intense negative emotions. Although functional neuroimaging studies of BPD have described regions associated with altered social cognition and emotion processing, these correlates do not inform an understanding of how brain activity leads to maladaptive choices. Drawing on recent research, we argue that formal models of decision-making are crucial to elaborating theories of BPD that bridge psychological constructs, behavior, and neural systems...
September 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093934/music-therapy-for-mental-disorder-and-mental-health-the-untapped-potential-of-indian-classical-music
#10
Shantala Hegde
Music is a universal human trait. The healing power of music has been acknowledged in almost all traditions of music. Music therapy is moving from a social-science model focusing on overall health and well-being towards a neuroscience model focusing on specific elements of music and its effect on sensorimotor, language and cognitive functions. The handful of evidence-based music therapy studies on psychiatric conditions have shown promising results. Traditional music, such as Indian classical music, has only recently been evaluated in evidence-based research into music therapy...
May 2017: BJPsych International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091541/a-multilevel-social-neuroscience-perspective-on-radicalization-and-terrorism
#11
Jean Decety, Clifford I Workman
Why are some people capable of sympathizing with and/or committing acts of political violence, such as attacks aimed at innocent targets? Attempts to construct terrorist profiles based on individual and situational factors, such as clinical, psychological, ethnic, and socio-demographic variables, have largely failed. Although individual and situational factors must be at work, it is clear that they alone cannot explain how certain individuals are radicalized. In this paper, we propose that a comprehensive understanding of radicalization and of how it may lead to political violence requires the integration of information across multiple levels of analysis and interdisciplinary perspectives from evolutionary theory, social, personality and cognitive psychology, political science and neuroscience...
November 1, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080419/the-neuroscience-of-social-class
#12
REVIEW
Michael Ew Varnum, Shinobu Kitayama
Most evidence regarding the mental characteristics of people with different socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds is based on behavioral, implicit, or self-report measures. Recently, however, this literature has been significantly expanded by the application of innovative neuroscience methods to the study of social class (functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalogram). In this paper, we provide an overview of the neuroscience of SES, with a focus on three key sets of findings. First, lower SES is linked to greater attunement to others...
August 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072182/social-challenges-of-contemporary-psychiatry
#13
N Bouras
Psychiatry and society are interrelated and the biopsychosocial model continues to dominate the clinical psychiatric practice. Some doubts have been expressed in recent years about the value and the wide acceptance of the biopsychosocial model. Ghaemi (2009)1 considers it to be anti-humanistic and advocates the use of less eclectic, less generic, and less vague alternatives. The fundamental changes that have been witnessed in our times across the spectrum of biology, psychology and sociology have made necessary that a conceptual clarity should prevail...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071534/effect-of-scopolamine-on-mice-motor-activity-lick-behavior-and-reversal-learning-in-the-intellicage
#14
Péter Pelsőczi, György Lévay
Automated homecage monitoring systems are now widely recognized and used tools in cognitive neuroscience. However, few of these studies cover pharmacological interventions. Scopolamine, an anticholinergic memory disrupting agent is frequently used to study learning behavior. We studied the impact of scopolamine treatment in a relevant dose-range on activity, drinking behavior and reversal learning of C57BL/DJ mice in a homecage-like, social environment, using the IntelliCage. Naïve mice were first habituated to the IntelliCage, where they learned to nosepoke in any of the four corners in order to gain access to the water reward...
December 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046651/robots-as-intentional-agents-using-neuroscientific-methods-to-make-robots-appear-more-social
#15
REVIEW
Eva Wiese, Giorgio Metta, Agnieszka Wykowska
Robots are increasingly envisaged as our future cohabitants. However, while considerable progress has been made in recent years in terms of their technological realization, the ability of robots to interact with humans in an intuitive and social way is still quite limited. An important challenge for social robotics is to determine how to design robots that can perceive the user's needs, feelings, and intentions, and adapt to users over a broad range of cognitive abilities. It is conceivable that if robots were able to adequately demonstrate these skills, humans would eventually accept them as social companions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040743/anger-sensitive-networks-characterising-neural-systems-recruited-during-aggressive-social-interactions-using-data-driven-analysis
#16
Frederike Beyer, Ulrike M Krämer, Christian F Beckmann
Social neuroscience uses increasingly complex paradigms to improve ecological validity, as investigating aggressive interactions with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI; Krämer, Jansma, Tempelmann, & Münte, 2007). Standard analyses for fMRI data typically use general linear models (GLM), which require a priori models of task effects on neural processes. These may inadequately model non-stimulus-locked or temporally overlapping cognitive processes, as mentalizing about other agents.We used the data-driven approach of independent component analysis (ICA) to investigate neural processes involved in a competitive interaction...
October 4, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029962/answering-schr%C3%A3-dinger-s-question-a-free-energy-formulation
#17
REVIEW
Maxwell James Désormeau Ramstead, Paul Benjamin Badcock, Karl John Friston
The free-energy principle (FEP) is a formal model of neuronal processes that is widely recognised in neuroscience as a unifying theory of the brain and biobehaviour. More recently, however, it has been extended beyond the brain to explain the dynamics of living systems, and their unique capacity to avoid decay. The aim of this review is to synthesise these advances with a meta-theoretical ontology of biological systems called variational neuroethology, which integrates the FEP with Tinbergen's four research questions to explain biological systems across spatial and temporal scales...
September 20, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988827/self-as-object-emerging-trends-in-self-research
#18
REVIEW
Jie Sui, Xiaosi Gu
Self representation is fundamental to mental functions. While the self has mostly been studied in traditional psychophilosophical terms ('self as subject'), recent laboratory work suggests that the self can be measured quantitatively by assessing biases towards self-associated stimuli ('self as object'). Here, we summarize new quantitative paradigms for assessing the self, drawn from psychology, neuroeconomics, embodied cognition, and social neuroscience. We then propose a neural model of the self as an emerging property of interactions between a core 'self network' (e...
October 5, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970107/neural-network-integration-during-the-perception-of-in-group-and-out-group-members
#19
Inez M Greven, Richard Ramsey
Group biases guide social interactions by promoting in-group favouritism, but the neural mechanisms underpinning group biases remain unclear. While neuroscience research has shown that distributed brain circuits are associated with seeing in-group and out-group members as "us" and "them", it is less clear how these networks exchange signals. This fMRI study uses functional connectivity analyses to investigate the contribution of functional integration to group bias modulation of person perception. Participants were assigned to an arbitrary group and during scanning they observed bodies of in-group or out-group members that cued the recall of positive or negative social knowledge...
September 29, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951400/suitability-of-a-three-dimensional-model-to-measure-empathy-and-its-relationship-with-social-and-normative-adjustment-in-spanish-adolescents-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Mauricio Herrera-López, Olga Gómez-Ortiz, Rosario Ortega-Ruiz, Darrick Jolliffe, Eva M Romera
OBJECTIVES: (1) To examine the psychometric properties of the Basic Empathy Scale (BES) with Spanish adolescents, comparing a two and a three-dimensional structure;(2) To analyse the relationship between the three-dimensional empathy and social and normative adjustment in school. DESIGN: Transversal and ex post facto retrospective study. Confirmatory factorial analysis, multifactorial invariance analysis and structural equations models were used. PARTICIPANTS: 747 students (51...
September 25, 2017: BMJ Open
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