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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430042/control-without-controllers-toward-a-distributed-neuroscience-of-executive-control
#1
Benjamin R Eisenreich, Rei Akaishi, Benjamin Y Hayden
Executive control refers to the regulation of cognition and behavior by mental processes and is a hallmark of higher cognition. Most approaches to understanding its mechanisms begin with the assumption that our brains have anatomically segregated and functionally specialized control modules. The modular approach is intuitive: Control is conceptually distinct from basic mental processing, so an organization that reifies that distinction makes sense. An alternative approach sees executive control as self-organizing principles of a distributed organization...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424380/-schizotypy-detachment-or-magical-fusion
#2
János Kállai, Mária Simon, István Hartung, Béla Birkás, Róbert Herold
Nowadays, both in the clinical population, and in general communities, we tend to encounter an increasing number of personality disorder patients, whose social adjustment, partnerships and efficient life management is made difficult by the disorder. The ideas of borderline personality disorder patients, who fluctuate between farfetched expectations and fears of their selves being demolished, schizoid patients, who close their selves in their own alienating prison, avoidant patients, who try to escape difficulties, which would enhance their self-esteem, OCD patients, who build their own mythic superstitious world, and antisocial patients who tend to ignore and aggressively override others' interests are all important in the development of cultures with insecure identities...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420449/interpersonal-harm-aversion-as-a-necessary-foundation-for-morality-a-developmental-neuroscience-perspective
#3
Jean Decety, Jason M Cowell
Growing evidence from developmental psychology and social neuroscience emphasizes the importance of third-party harm aversion for constructing morality. A sensitivity to interpersonal harm emerges very early in ontogeny, as reflected in both the capacity for implicit social evaluation and an aversion for antisocial agents. Yet it does not necessarily entail avoidance toward inflicting pain to others. Later, an understanding that harmful actions cause suffering emerges, followed by an integration of rules that can depend on social contexts and cultures...
April 19, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419879/challenging-the-myth-of-right-non-dominant-hemisphere-lessons-from-cortico-subcortical-stimulation-mapping-in-awake-surgery-and-surgical-implications
#4
REVIEW
Tatiana Vilasboas, Guillaume Herbet, Hugues Duffau
For a long time, the right hemisphere (RH) was considered as "non-dominant", especially in right-handers. In neurosurgical practice, this dogma resulted in the selection of awake procedure with language mapping only for lesions of the left "dominant" hemisphere. Conversely, surgery under general anesthesia (possibly with motor mapping) was usually proposed for right lesions. However, when objective neuropsychological assessments were performed, they frequently revealed cognitive and behavioral deficits following brain surgery, even in the RH...
April 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403660/value-based-choice-an-integrative-neuroscience-informed-model-of-health-goals
#5
Elliot T Berkman
OBJECTIVE: Traditional models of health behaviour focus on the roles of cognitive, personality and social-cognitive constructs (e.g. executive function, grit, self-efficacy), and give less attention to the process by which these constructs interact in the moment that a health-relevant choice is made. Health psychology needs a process-focused account of how various factors are integrated to produce the decisions that determine health behaviour. DESIGN: I present an integrative value-based choice model of health behaviour, which characterises the mechanism by which a variety of factors come together to determine behaviour...
April 13, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400206/elucidation-of-developmental-patterns-of-marmoset-corpus-callosum-through-a-comparative-mri-in-marmosets-chimpanzees-and-humans
#6
Tomoko Sakai, Yuji Komaki, Junichi Hata, Junko Okahara, Norio Okahara, Takashi Inoue, Akichika Mikami, Mie Matsui, Kenichi Oishi, Erika Sasaki, Hideyuki Okano
The corpus callosum (CC) is present in all primate brains and is the major white matter tract connecting the cerebral hemispheres for integration of sensory, motor and higher-order cognitive information. The midsagittal area of the CC has frequently been used as a sensitive biomarker of brain development. Although the marmoset has been considered as an alternative non-human primate model for neuroscience research, the developmental patterns of the CC have not been explored. The present longitudinal study of magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that marmosets show a rapid increase of CC during infancy, followed by a slow increase during the juvenile stage, as observed in chimpanzees and humans...
April 8, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377991/animal-models-in-psychiatric-research-the-rdoc-system-as-a-new-framework-for-endophenotype-oriented-translational-neuroscience
#7
REVIEW
Elmira Anderzhanova, Thomas Kirmeier, Carsten T Wotjak
The recently proposed Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) system defines psychopathologies as phenomena of multilevel neurobiological existence and assigns them to 5 behavioural domains characterizing a brain in action. We performed an analysis on this contemporary concept of psychopathologies in respect to a brain phylogeny and biological substrates of psychiatric diseases. We found that the RDoC system uses biological determinism to explain the pathogenesis of distinct psychiatric symptoms and emphasises exploration of endophenotypes but not of complex diseases...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344565/from-attire-to-assault-clothing-objectification-and-de-humanization-a-possible-prelude-to-sexual-violence
#8
Bhuvanesh Awasthi
In the context of objectification and violence, little attention has been paid to the perception neuroscience of how the human brain perceives bodies and objectifies them. Various studies point to how external cues such as appearance and attire could play a key role in encouraging objectification, dehumanization and the denial of agency. Reviewing new experimental findings across several areas of research, it seems that common threads run through issues of clothing, sexual objectification, body perception, dehumanization, and assault...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341151/mice-heterozygous-for-an-inactivated-allele-of-the-schizophrenia-associated-brd1-gene-display-selective-cognitive-deficits-with-translational-relevance-to-schizophrenia
#9
Per Qvist, Anto P Rajkumar, John P Redrobe, Mette Nyegaard, Jane H Christensen, Ole Mors, Gregers Wegener, Michael Didriksen, Anders D Børglum
Schizophrenia is a debilitating brain disorder characterized by disturbances of emotion, perception and cognition. Cognitive impairments predict functional outcome in schizophrenia and are detectable even in the prodromal stage of the disorder. However, our understanding of the underlying neurobiology is limited and procognitive treatments remain elusive. We recently demonstrated that mice heterozygous for an inactivated allele of the schizophrenia-associated Brd1 gene (Brd1(+/)(-) mice) display behaviors reminiscent of schizophrenia, including impaired social cognition and long-term memory...
March 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338892/embodiment-and-schizophrenia-a-review-of-implications-and-applications
#10
Wolfgang Tschacher, Anne Giersch, Karl Friston
In recent decades, embodiment has become an influential concept in psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Embodiment denotes the study of the reciprocal (causal) relationships between mind and body, with the mind not only affecting the body but also vice versa. Embodied cognition comes to the fore in sensorimotor coupling, predictive coding, and nonverbal behavior. Additionally, the embodiment of the mind constitutes the basis of social interaction and communication, as evident in research on nonverbal synchrony and mimicry...
March 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325901/correlates-of-social-exclusion-in-social-anxiety-disorder-an-fmri-study
#11
Alexandre Heeren, Laurence Dricot, Joël Billieux, Pierre Philippot, Delphine Grynberg, Philippe de Timary, Pierre Maurage
Cognitive models posit that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is maintained by biased information-processing vis-à-vis threat of social exclusion. However, uncertainty still abounds regarding the very nature of this sensitivity to social exclusion in SAD. Especially, brain alterations related to social exclusion have not been explored in SAD. Our primary purpose was thus to determine both the self-report and neural correlates of social exclusion in this population. 23 patients with SAD and 23 matched nonanxious controls played a virtual game ("Cyberball") during fMRI recording...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266791/autism-spectrum-disorder-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-comprehensive-scoping-review
#12
REVIEW
Lauren Franz, Nola Chambers, Megan von Isenburg, Petrus J de Vries
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is recognized as a global public health concern, yet almost everything we know about ASD comes from high-income countries. Here we performed a scoping review of all research on ASD ever published in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in order to identify ASD knowledge gaps in this part of the world. Fifty-three publications met inclusion criteria. Themes included the phenotype, genetics and risk factors for ASD in SSA, screening and diagnosis, professional knowledge, interventions for ASD, parental perceptions, and social-cognitive neuroscience...
March 7, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261075/prefrontal-electrical-stimulation-in-non-depressed-reduces-levels-of-reported-negative-affects-from-daily-stressors
#13
REVIEW
Nick J Davis
Advances in neuroscience and pharmacology have led to improvements in the cognitive performance of people with neurological disease and other forms of cognitive decline. These same methods may also afford cognitive enhancement in people of otherwise normal cognitive abilities. "Cosmetic", or supranormal, cognitive enhancement offers opportunities to enrich our social or financial status, our interactions with others, and the common wealth of our community. It is common to focus on the potential benefits of cognitive enhancement, while being less than clear about the possible drawbacks...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237605/a-deeper-view-of-insight-in-schizophrenia-insight-dimensions-unawareness-and-misattribution-of-particular-symptoms-and-its-relation-with-psychopathological-factors
#14
Esther Pousa, Susana Ochoa, Jesús Cobo, Lourdes Nieto, Judith Usall, Beatriz Gonzalez, Carles Garcia-Ribera, Victor Pérez Solà, Ada-I Ruiz, Iris Baños, Jesús Cobo, Carles García-Ribera, Beatriz González, Carmina Massons, Lourdes Nieto, Clara Monserrat, Susana Ochoa, Esther Pousa, Ada-Inmaculada Ruiz, Isabel Ruiz, Dolores Sanchez-Cabezudo, Judith Usall
OBJECTIVE: 1. To describe insight in a large sample of schizophrenia subjects from a multidimensional point of view, including unawareness of general insight dimensions as well as unawareness and misattribution of particular symptoms. 2. To explore the relationship between unawareness and clinical and socio-demographic variables. METHODS: 248 schizophrenia patients were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, five factor model of Lindenmayer) and the full Scale of Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD)...
February 22, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230844/network-neuroscience
#15
REVIEW
Danielle S Bassett, Olaf Sporns
Despite substantial recent progress, our understanding of the principles and mechanisms underlying complex brain function and cognition remains incomplete. Network neuroscience proposes to tackle these enduring challenges. Approaching brain structure and function from an explicitly integrative perspective, network neuroscience pursues new ways to map, record, analyze and model the elements and interactions of neurobiological systems. Two parallel trends drive the approach: the availability of new empirical tools to create comprehensive maps and record dynamic patterns among molecules, neurons, brain areas and social systems; and the theoretical framework and computational tools of modern network science...
February 23, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228081/the-neurobiology-and-psychiatric-perspective-of-vaginismus-linking-the-pharmacological-and-psycho-social-interventions
#16
Zuri Shahidii Kadir, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Marhani Midin, Najwa Baharuddin
Vaginismus is an involuntary muscle contraction of the outer third of vaginal barrel causing sexual penetration almost impossible. It is generally classified under sexual pain disorder (SPD). In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition, it is classified under the new rubric of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Sexual Penetration Disorder. This fear-avoidance condition poses an ongoing significant challenge to the medical and health professionals due to the very demanding needs in health care despite its unpredictable prognosis...
February 22, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225843/-poverty-and-mental-disability-in-the-criminal-law-the-invisibles
#17
Ezequiel N Mercurio
In recent decades neuroscience research show the negative consequences of poverty in cognitive development. Environmental factors, such as material deprivation, exposure to stressful situations, violence, nutritional deprivation, environmental toxins may shape the developing brain. The changes of the structure and function of the brain since prenatal stages and their consequences can remain stable throughout the life cycle except early interventions are made. Research investigating have found significant link between child poverty and function and structural brain focusing on prefrontal cortex (i...
May 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223955/stability-and-variability-in-aesthetic-experience-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Thomas Jacobsen, Susan Beudt
Based on psychophysics' pragmatic dualism, we trace the cognitive neuroscience of stability and variability in aesthetic experience. With regard to different domains of aesthetic processing, we touch upon the relevance of cognitive schemata for aesthetic preference. Attitudes and preferences are explored in detail. Evolutionary constraints on attitude formation or schema generation are elucidated, just as the often seemingly arbitrary influences of social, societal, and cultural nature are. A particular focus is put on the concept of critical periods during an individual's ontogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219455/clinical-and-therapeutic-role-of-mentalization-in-schizophrenia-a-review
#19
Trisevgeni Dimopoulou, Frank I Tarazi, Evangelia M Tsapakis
Recent empirical findings from clinical and genetic studies suggest that mentalization, a key area of social cognition, is a distinct construct, although it is closely related to the neurocognitive deficits and symptoms of schizophrenia. Mentalization contributes a great deal to impaired social functioning. Current measures often display methodological problems, and many aspects should be taken into account when assessing mentalization. Moreover, advances in cognitive and affective neurosciences have led to the development of more advanced behavioral methods to assess the relationship between cognitive functions, symptoms, and social cognition based on their underlying neural mechanisms...
February 21, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184204/neuroscience-of-childhood-poverty-evidence-of-impacts-and-mechanisms-as-vehicles-of-dialog-with-ethics
#20
Sebastián J Lipina, Kathinka Evers
Several studies have identified associations between poverty and development of self-regulation during childhood, which is broadly defined as those skills involved in cognitive, emotional, and stress self-regulation. These skills are influenced by different individual and contextual factors at multiple levels of analysis (i.e., individual, family, social, and cultural). Available evidence suggests that the influences of those biological, psychosocial, and sociocultural factors on emotional and cognitive development can vary according to the type, number, accumulation of risks, and co-occurrence of adverse circumstances that are related to poverty, the time in which these factors exert their influences, and the individual susceptibility to them...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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