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Social cognitive neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230844/network-neuroscience
#1
REVIEW
Danielle S Bassett, Olaf Sporns
Despite substantial recent progress, our understanding of the principles and mechanisms underlying complex brain function and cognition remains incomplete. Network neuroscience proposes to tackle these enduring challenges. Approaching brain structure and function from an explicitly integrative perspective, network neuroscience pursues new ways to map, record, analyze and model the elements and interactions of neurobiological systems. Two parallel trends drive the approach: the availability of new empirical tools to create comprehensive maps and record dynamic patterns among molecules, neurons, brain areas and social systems; and the theoretical framework and computational tools of modern network science...
February 23, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228081/the-neurobiology-and-psychiatric-perspective-of-vaginismus-linking-the-pharmacological-and-psycho-social-interventions
#2
Zuri Shahidii Kadir, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Marhani Midin, Najwa Baharuddin
Vaginismus is an involuntary muscle contraction of the outer third of vaginal barrel causing sexual penetration almost impossible. It is generally classified under sexual pain disorder (SPD). In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition, it is classified under the new rubric of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Sexual Penetration Disorder. This fear-avoidance condition poses an ongoing significant challenge to the medical and health professionals due to the very demanding needs in health care despite its unpredictable prognosis...
February 22, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225843/-poverty-and-mental-disability-in-the-criminal-law-the-invisibles
#3
Ezequiel N Mercurio
In recent decades neuroscience research show the negative consequences of poverty in cognitive development. Environmental factors, such as material deprivation, exposure to stressful situations, violence, nutritional deprivation, environmental toxins may shape the developing brain. The changes of the structure and function of the brain since prenatal stages and their consequences can remain stable throughout the life cycle except early interventions are made. Research investigating have found significant link between child poverty and function and structural brain focusing on prefrontal cortex (i...
May 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223955/stability-and-variability-in-aesthetic-experience-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Thomas Jacobsen, Susan Beudt
Based on psychophysics' pragmatic dualism, we trace the cognitive neuroscience of stability and variability in aesthetic experience. With regard to different domains of aesthetic processing, we touch upon the relevance of cognitive schemata for aesthetic preference. Attitudes and preferences are explored in detail. Evolutionary constraints on attitude formation or schema generation are elucidated, just as the often seemingly arbitrary influences of social, societal, and cultural nature are. A particular focus is put on the concept of critical periods during an individual's ontogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219455/clinical-and-therapeutic-role-of-mentalization-in-schizophrenia-a-review
#5
Trisevgeni Dimopoulou, Frank I Tarazi, Evangelia M Tsapakis
Recent empirical findings from clinical and genetic studies suggest that mentalization, a key area of social cognition, is a distinct construct, although it is closely related to the neurocognitive deficits and symptoms of schizophrenia. Mentalization contributes a great deal to impaired social functioning. Current measures often display methodological problems, and many aspects should be taken into account when assessing mentalization. Moreover, advances in cognitive and affective neurosciences have led to the development of more advanced behavioral methods to assess the relationship between cognitive functions, symptoms, and social cognition based on their underlying neural mechanisms...
February 21, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184204/neuroscience-of-childhood-poverty-evidence-of-impacts-and-mechanisms-as-vehicles-of-dialog-with-ethics
#6
Sebastián J Lipina, Kathinka Evers
Several studies have identified associations between poverty and development of self-regulation during childhood, which is broadly defined as those skills involved in cognitive, emotional, and stress self-regulation. These skills are influenced by different individual and contextual factors at multiple levels of analysis (i.e., individual, family, social, and cultural). Available evidence suggests that the influences of those biological, psychosocial, and sociocultural factors on emotional and cognitive development can vary according to the type, number, accumulation of risks, and co-occurrence of adverse circumstances that are related to poverty, the time in which these factors exert their influences, and the individual susceptibility to them...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181042/should-we-change-targets-and-methods-of-early-intervention-in-autism-in-favor-of-a-strengths-based-education
#7
Laurent Mottron
Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) and its recent variant, naturalist developmental behavioral intervention (NDBI) aim to increase socialization and communication, and to decrease repetitive and challenging behaviors in preschool age autistic children. These behaviorist techniques are based on the precocity and intensity of the intervention, face-to-face interaction, errorless learning, and information fragmentation. Once considered to be "scientifically proven", the efficacy of these approaches has been called into question in the last decade due to poor-quality data, small effects, low cost-efficiency, and the evolution of ethical and societal standards...
February 8, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173997/social-learning-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#8
Matthew A J Apps, Jérôme Sallet
The ACC, and neighbouring areas, are among the most controversial and investigated brain areas in cognitive neuroscience. Despite the wealth of studies, there has been a significant absence of studies recording from the gyrus of the ACC (ACCg). In their recent study Hill and colleagues provide a rare examination of the properties of the ACCg. We highlight the emerging role of this region in signalling the key computations that drive social learning processes.
February 4, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169814/examen-de-la-port%C3%A3-e-des-connaissances-sur-les-concepts-du-toucher-et-du-massage-et-de-leurs-effets-sur-l%C3%A2-agitation-et-le-stress-des-personnes-%C3%A3-g%C3%A3-es-hospitalis%C3%A3-es-atteintes-de-d%C3%A3-mence
#9
Corinne Schaub, Armin von Gunten, Diane Morin
<ce:para>This scoping review examines the effects of touch/massage on agitation and stress in aged hospitalized patients suffering from dementia. This intervention is multidimensional, at the edges of medical neurosciences, nursing sciences, and social sciences. This review is primarily supported by a biological model of social relations, describing the interconnection between cognition, affect, and endocrine aspects of attachment modes. It is also guided by nursing sciences conceptualizations which anchors touch/massage in the heart of nursing practice...
October 27, 2016: Recherche en Soins Infirmiers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168820/counter-intuitive-moral-judgement-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Dane A Rowley, Miles Rogish, Timothy Alexander, Kevin J Riggs
Several neurological patient populations, including traumatic brain injury (TBI), appear to produce an abnormally 'utilitarian' pattern of judgements to moral dilemmas; they tend to make judgements that maximize the welfare of the majority, rather than deontological judgements based on the following of moral rules (e.g., do not harm others). However, this patient research has always used extreme dilemmas with highly valued moral rules (e.g., do not kill). Data from healthy participants, however, suggest that when a wider range of dilemmas are employed, involving less valued moral rules (e...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155112/neuroscience-and-psychological-studies-sustain-the-cognitive-benefits-of-print-reading
#11
EDITORIAL
Bernard Perbal
On behalf of the Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling Editorial board it is my great pleasure to present through this message of peace and love our warmest wishes of health, happiness and professional success. We sincerely hope that 2017 will be a peaceful year worldwide and that solutions will be brought to resolve the great tensions that crystalized last year into terrible acts of violence which reflected the inability of the political powers to bring satisfactory solutions to human dispair and fear...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123912/detecting-communicative-intent-in-a-computerised-test-of-joint-attention
#12
Nathan Caruana, Genevieve McArthur, Alexandra Woolgar, Jon Brock
The successful navigation of social interactions depends on a range of cognitive faculties-including the ability to achieve joint attention with others to share information and experiences. We investigated the influence that intention monitoring processes have on gaze-following response times during joint attention. We employed a virtual reality task in which 16 healthy adults engaged in a collaborative game with a virtual partner to locate a target in a visual array. In the Search task, the virtual partner was programmed to engage in non-communicative gaze shifts in search of the target, establish eye contact, and then display a communicative gaze shift to guide the participant to the target...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080961/interoception-beyond-homeostasis-affect-cognition-and-mental-health
#13
Manos Tsakiris, Hugo Critchley
Interoception refers to the sensing of the internal state of one's body. Interoception is distinct from the processing of sensory information concerning external (non-self) stimuli (e.g. vision, hearing, touch and smell) and is the afferent axis to internal (autonomic and hormonal) physiological control. However, the impact of interoception extends beyond homeostatic/allostatic reflexes: it is proposed to be fundamental to motivation, emotion (affective feelings and behaviours), social cognition and self-awareness...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033550/alignment-in-social-interactions
#14
M Gallotti, M T Fairhurst, C D Frith
According to the prevailing paradigm in social-cognitive neuroscience, the mental states of individuals become shared when they adapt to each other in the pursuit of a shared goal. We challenge this view by proposing an alternative approach to the cognitive foundations of social interactions. The central claim of this paper is that social cognition concerns the graded and dynamic process of alignment of individual minds, even in the absence of a shared goal. When individuals reciprocally exchange information about each other's minds processes of alignment unfold over time and across space, creating a social interaction...
February 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027954/simulating-social-interactions-for-the-experimental-investigation-of-joint-attention
#15
REVIEW
Nathan Caruana, Genevieve McArthur, Alexandra Woolgar, Jon Brock
Social interactions are, by their nature, dynamic and reciprocal - your behaviour affects my behaviour, which affects your behaviour in return. However, until recently, the field of social cognitive neuroscience has been dominated by paradigms in which participants passively observe social stimuli from a detached "third person" perspective. Here we consider the unique conceptual and methodological challenges involved in adopting a "second person" approach whereby social cognitive mechanisms and their neural correlates are investigated within social interactions (Schilbach et al...
December 24, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009246/locating-risk-in-the-adolescent-brain-ethical-challenges-in-the-use-of-biomarkers-for-adolescent-health-and-social-policy
#16
Suparna Choudhury, Sheehan Moore
Technological developments in neuroscience over the last 20 years have generated excitement about the potential of neuroscientific insights for the understanding of and intervention in children's and adolescents' behavior. This article introduces some ways in which new results from developmental cognitive neuroscience have been appropriated in the context of adolescent mental health. We also consider social and interpersonal factors that drive the use of neurobiological markers of mental disorders in pediatric psychiatry...
December 1, 2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005461/the-neuroscience-of-persuasion-a-review-with-an-emphasis-on-issues-and-opportunities
#17
John T Cacioppo, Stephanie Cacioppo, Richard E Petty
Persuasion, a prevalent form of social influence in humans, refers to an active attempt to change a person's attitudes, beliefs, or behavior. There is a growing literature on the neural correlates of persuasion. As is often the case in an emerging literature, however, there are a number of questions, concerns, and alternative interpretations that can be raised about the research and interpretations. We provide a critical review of the research, noting potential problems and issues that warrant attention to move the field forward...
January 9, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982418/a-developmental-neuroscience-study-of-moral-decision-making-regarding-resource-allocation
#18
Kimberly L Meidenbauer, Jason M Cowell, Melanie Killen, Jean Decety
Distinguishing between equity and equality is essential when making social and moral decisions, yet the related neurodevelopmental processes are unknown. Evaluations of contextually based third-party distributions incorporating recipient need and resource importance were examined in children and adolescents (N = 82; 8-16 years). Spatiotemporal neurodynamic responses show distinct developmental profiles to viewing such distributions. Event-related potentials (ERPs) differentially predicted real-life behaviors based on age, where older children's (8-10 years) evaluations were related to a fairly rapid, automatic ERP component (early posterior negativity), whereas adolescent and preadolescent (11-16 years) evaluations, first-person allocations, and prosocial behaviors were predicted by later, cognitively controlled ERP components (P3 and late positive potential)...
December 16, 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977242/awards-for-distinguished-scientific-early-career-contributions-to-psychology
#19
(no author information available yet)
The Early Career Awards, given for the first time in 1974, recognize the large number of psychologists who demonstrate excellence early in their careers. Recipients of this award may not have held a doctoral degree for more than nine years. For purposes of this award, psychology has been divided into 10 areas: animal learning and behavior, comparative; developmental; health; cognition/human learning; psychopathology; behavioral and cognitive neuroscience; perception/motor performance; social; applied research; and individual differences...
November 2016: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923731/social-modulation-of-cognition-lessons-from-rhesus-macaques-relevant-to-education
#20
REVIEW
Elisabetta Monfardini, Amélie J Reynaud, Jérôme Prado, Martine Meunier
Any animal, human or non-human, lives in a world where there are others like itself. Individuals' behaviors are thus inevitably influenced by others, and cognition is no exception. Long acknowledged in psychology, social modulations of cognition have been neglected in cognitive neuroscience. Yet, infusing this classic topic in psychology with brain science methodologies could yield valuable educational insights. In recent studies, we used a non-human primate model, the rhesus macaque, to identify social influences representing ancient biases rooted in evolution, and neuroimaging to shed light on underlying mechanisms...
December 5, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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