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Mitochondria glutathione

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775890/triterpenic-acids-enriched-fraction-from-cyclocarya-paliurus-attenuates-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-via-improving-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#1
Meng-Ge Zhao, Xue-Ping Sheng, Ya-Ping Huang, Yi-Ting Wang, Cui-Hua Jiang, Jian Zhang, Zhi-Qi Yin
The effects of triterpenic acids-enriched fraction from Cyclocarya paliurus (CPT) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were investigated using in vivo and in vitro models. In high fat diet-induced Wister rats, CPT significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCO) levels. Moreover, CPT restored mitochondrial membrane potential dysfunction, decreased cytochrome P450 enzyme 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity, improved nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase1 (HO-1) expression...
May 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761302/cftr-prevents-neuronal-apoptosis-following-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-via-regulating-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress
#2
Ya-Ping Zhang, Yong Zhang, Zhi-Bin Xiao, Yan-Bo Zhang, Jing Zhang, Zhi-Qiang Li, Yao-Bin Zhu
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is linked to cell apoptosis and abundantly expressed in brain tissue. Mitochondrial oxidative stress plays a key role in activating apoptotic pathway following cerebral ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. Reduced glutathione (GSH) is exclusively synthesized in cytosol but distributed in mitochondria. In the present study, we investigated whether CFTR affected mitochondrial oxidative stress via regulating GSH and thereby protected neurons against apoptosis following cerebral IR...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758174/g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-gper-deficiency-induces-cardiac-remodeling-through-oxidative-stress
#3
Hao Wang, Xuming Sun, Marina S Lin, Carlos M Ferrario, Holly Van Remmen, Leanne Groban
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the unfavorable changes in cardiac function and remodeling that occur after ovarian estrogen loss. Using ovariectomized rat models, we previously reported that the cardioprotective actions of estrogen are mediated by the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). Here, in 9-month-old, female cardiomyocyte-specific GPER knockout (KO) mice vs sex- and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice, we found increased cardiac oxidative stress and oxidant damage, measured as a decreased ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione, increased 4-hydroxynonenal and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-DG) staining, and increased expression of oxidative stress-related genes...
April 25, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753871/combinatorial-usage-of-fungal-polysaccharides-from-cordyceps-sinensis-and-ganoderma-atrum-ameliorate-drug-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#4
Songtao Fan, Xiaojun Huang, Sunan Wang, Chang Li, Zhihong Zhang, Mingyong Xie, Shaoping Nie
This study investigated the possible protective effect of combined fungal polysaccharides (CFP), consisting of Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharides (CSP) and Ganoderma atrum polysaccharides (PSG) with well-defined structural characteristics, against cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Our results indicated CFP effectively prevented the liver injury by decreasing toxicity markers (aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase). Further biochemical and molecular analysis indicated CSP particularly inhibited the activation of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and its related inflammatory signals, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 to modulate hepatic inflammation response...
May 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753173/comparative-effects-of-avocado-oil-and-losartan-on-blood-pressure-renal-vascular-function-and-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress-in-hypertensive-rats
#5
Cristian Adrián Márquez-Ramírez, José Lucio Hernández de la Paz, Omar Ortiz-Avila, Andrés Raya-Farias, Juan Carlos González-Hernández, Alain Raimundo Rodríguez-Orozco, Rafael Salgado-Garciglia, Alfredo Saavedra-Molina, Daniel Godínez-Hernández, Christian Cortés-Rojo
OBJECTIVE: Angiotensin II (Ang-II) antagonism alleviates hypertensive kidney damage by improving mitochondrial function and decreasing oxidative stress. This condition also is associated with altered renal vascular tone due to enhanced constriction by Ang-II. Thus, approaches ameliorating these events are desirable to alleviate kidney damage. Avocado oil, a source of antioxidants and oleic acid, is known to improve mitochondrial function, while oleic acid has antihypertensive effects...
March 20, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747392/suppression-of-external-nadph-dehydrogenase-ndb1-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-confers-improved-tolerance-to-ammonium-toxicity-via-efficient-glutathione-redox-metabolism
#6
Anna Podgórska, Monika Ostaszewska-Bugajska, Klaudia Borysiuk, Agata Tarnowska, Monika Jakubiak, Maria Burian, Allan G Rasmusson, Bożena Szal
Environmental stresses, including ammonium (NH₄⁺) nourishment, can damage key mitochondrial components through the production of surplus reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, alternative electron pathways are significant for efficient reductant dissipation in mitochondria during ammonium nutrition. The aim of this study was to define the role of external NADPH-dehydrogenase (NDB1) during oxidative metabolism of NH₄⁺-fed plants. Most plant species grown with NH₄⁺ as the sole nitrogen source experience a condition known as “ammonium toxicity syndrome”...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743580/dose-dependent-decrease-in-anti-oxidant-capacity-of-whole-blood-after-irradiation-a-novel-potential-marker-for-biodosimetry
#7
Lue Sun, Yohei Inaba, Keizo Sato, Aki Hirayama, Koji Tsuboi, Ryuji Okazaki, Koichi Chida, Takashi Moritake
Many reports have demonstrated that radiation stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by mitochondria for a few hours to a few days after irradiation. However, these studies were performed using cell lines, and there is a lack of information about redox homeostasis in irradiated animals and humans. Blood redox homeostasis reflects the body condition well and can be used as a diagnostic marker. However, most redox homeostasis studies have focused on plasma or serum, and the anti-oxidant capacity of whole blood has scarcely been investigated...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743445/increased-susceptibility-to-troglitazone-induced-mitochondrial-permeability-transition-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-model-rat
#8
Masahiro Segawa, Shuichi Sekine, Tomoyuki Sato, Kousei Ito
Troglitazone, a member of the thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic drugs, was withdrawn from the market because it causes severe liver injury. One of the mechanisms for this adverse effect is thought to be mitochondrial toxicity. To investigate the characteristics of troglitazone-induced liver toxicity in more depth, the toxicological effects of troglitazone on hepatocytes and liver mitochondria were investigated using a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Troglitazone was found to increase mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) in the liver mitochondria of diabetic rats to a greater extent than in control rats, whereas mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative phosphorylation were not affected...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733976/ebselen-protects-mitochondrial-function-and-oxidative-stress-while-inhibiting-the-mitochondrial-apoptosis-pathway-after-acute-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Zhi-Qiang Jia, San-Qiang Li, Wei-Qiang Qiao, Wen-Zhong Xu, Jian-Wu Xing, Jian-Tao Liu, Hui Song, Zhong-Yang Gao, Bing-Wen Xing, Xi-Jing He
Ebselen is a fat-soluble small molecule and organic selenium compound that regulates the activity of glutathione peroxidase to alleviate mitochondrial oxidative stress and improve mitochondrial function. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of ebselen on mitochondrial oxidative stress response, mitochondrial apotosis, and motor behaviors after spinal cord injury (SCI). We found that ebselen significantly increased the BBB score in motor behavior, thus suggesting a rescue effect of ebselen on motor function after SCI in rats...
May 4, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726706/-i-hibiscus-sabdariffa-i-roselle-polyphenol-rich-extract-averts-cardiac-functional-and-structural-abnormalities-in-type-1-diabetic-rats
#10
Nur Liyana Mohammed Yusof, Satirah Zainalabidin, Norsyahida Mohd Fauzi, Siti Balkis Budin
Diabetes mellitus is often associated with cardiac functional and structural alteration, an initial event leading to cardiovascular complications. <i>Hibiscus sabdariffa</i> or roselle has been widely proven as an antioxidant and recently has incited research interest for its potential in treating cardiovascular disease. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the cardioprotective effects of <i>H. sabdariffa </i>(roselle) polyphenol-rich extract (HPE) in type-1 induced diabetic rats...
May 4, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694336/a-role-for-the-gdap1-gene-in-the-molecular-pathogenesis-of-charcot%C3%A2-marie%C3%A2-tooth-disease
#11
Weronika Rzepnikowska, Andrzej Kochański
In 2002 a series of mutations in the GDAP1 gene were reported in patients suffering from Charcot‑Marie‑Tooth disease manifesting as early-onset, progressive distal‑muscle wasting and weakness. The molecular etiology of Charcot‑Marie‑Tooth ‑GDAP1 disease has been elucidated but its pathogenesis remains unclear, especially given the seemingly contradictory function of the GDAP1 protein. Expression of GDAP1 is observed almost exclusively in neuronal cells, however, the GDAP1 protein is present in mitochondria, where it plays a role in fission, a ubiquitous process occurring in all cells...
2018: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689442/ameliorating-mitochondrial-dysfunction-restores-carbon-ion-induced-cognitive-deficits-via-co-activation-of-nrf2-and-pink1-signaling-pathway
#12
Yang Liu, Jiawei Yan, Cao Sun, Guo Li, Sirui Li, Luwei Zhang, Cuixia Di, Lu Gan, Yupei Wang, Rong Zhou, Jing Si, Hong Zhang
Carbon ion therapy is a promising modality in radiotherapy to treat tumors, however, a potential risk of induction of late normal tissue damage should still be investigated and protected. The aim of the present study was to explore the long-term cognitive deficits provoked by a high-linear energy transfer (high-LET) carbon ions in mice by targeting to hippocampus which plays a crucial role in memory and learning. Our data showed that, one month after 4 Gy carbon ion exposure, carbon ion irradiation conspicuously resulted in the impaired cognitive performance, neurodegeneration and neuronal cell death, as well as the reduced mitochondrial integrity, the disrupted activities of tricarboxylic acid cycle flux and electron transport chain, and the depressed antioxidant defense system, consequently leading to a decline of ATP production and persistent oxidative damage in the hippocampus region...
April 14, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678591/ferroptosis-is-newly-characterized-form-of-neuronal-cell-death-in-response-to-arsenite-exposure
#13
Qianghu Tang, LuLu Bai, Zhen Zou, Pan Meng, Yinyin Xia, Shuqun Cheng, Shaoyu Mu, Jianrong Zhou, Xuefeng Wang, Xia Qin, Xianqing Cao, Xuejun Jiang, Chengzhi Chen
Ferroptosis is a novel iron-dependent form of cell death implicated in brain pathology. However, whether arsenite is an inducer of ferroptosis in the neurons remains completely unknown. In this study, the seven-week-old healthy C57BL/6 J male mice were treated with environmental related doses (0.5, 5 and 50 mg/L) of arsenite for 6 months via drinking water, and the ferroptosis-related indicators were further determined. Our results demonstrated for the first time that, arsenite exposure significantly reduced the number of neuron and caused the pathological changes of mitochondria in the cerebral cortex of mice...
April 17, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670679/damaging-effects-of-bisphenol-a-on-the-kidney-and-the-protection-by-melatonin-emerging-evidences-from-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-studies
#14
Anongporn Kobroob, Wachirasek Peerapanyasut, Nipon Chattipakorn, Orawan Wongmekiat
This study investigates the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) contamination on the kidney and the possible protection by melatonin in experimental rats and isolated mitochondrial models. Rats exposed to BPA (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg, i.p.) for 5 weeks demonstrated renal damages as evident by increased serum urea and creatinine and decreased creatinine clearance, together with the presence of proteinuria and glomerular injuries in a dose-dependent manner. These changes were associated with increased lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant glutathione and superoxide dismutase...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670534/divergent-mitochondrial-antioxidant-activities-and-lung-alveolar-architecture-in-the-lungs-of-rats-and-mice-at-high-altitude
#15
Alexandra Jochmans-Lemoine, Susana Revollo, Gabriella Villalpando, Ibana Valverde, Marcelino Gonzales, Sofien Laouafa, Jorge Soliz, Vincent Joseph
Compared with mice, adult rats living at 3,600 m above sea level (SL-La Paz, Bolivia) have high hematocrit, signs of pulmonary hypertension, and low lung volume with reduced alveolar surface area. This phenotype is associated with chronic mountain sickness in humans living at high altitude (HA). We tested the hypothesis that this phenotype is associated with impaired gas exchange and oxidative stress in the lungs. We used rats and mice (3 months old) living at HA (La Paz) and SL (Quebec City, Canada) to measure arterial oxygen saturation under graded levels of hypoxia (by pulse oximetry), the alveolar surface area in lung slices and the activity of pro- (NADPH and xanthine oxidases-NOX and XO) and anti- (superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase-SOD and GPx) oxidant enzymes in cytosolic and mitochondrial lung protein extracts...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669353/cinobufagin-induces-apoptosis-in-osteosarcoma-cells-via-the-mitochondria-mediated-apoptotic-pathway
#16
Guo Dai, Di Zheng, Weichun Guo, Jian Yang, An-Yuan Cheng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Osteosarcoma is a common primary malignant bone tumor that mainly occurs in childhood and adolescence. Despite developments in the diagnosis and treatment of osteosarcoma, the prognosis is still very poor. Cinobufagin is an active component in the anti-tumor Chinese medicine called "Chan Su", and we previously revealed that cinobufagin induced apoptosis and reduced the viability of osteosarcoma cells; however, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated...
April 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653456/hesperidin-prevents-high-glucose-induced-damage-of-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#17
Wayne Young Liu, Shorong-Shii Liou, Tang-Yao Hong, I-Min Liu
The present study aimed to determine whether hesperidin, a plant-based active flavanone found in citrus fruits, can prevent high glucose-induced retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell impairment. Cultured human RPE cells (ARPE-19) were exposed to a normal glucose concentration (5.5 mM) for 4 d and then soaked in either normal (5.5 mM) or high (33.3 mM) concentrations of D-glucose with or without different concentrations of hesperidin (10, 20, or 40 µM) for another 48 h. The survival rates of the cells were measured using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide reduction assay...
April 13, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643256/critical-role-of-flavin-and-glutathione-in-complex-i-mediated-bioenergetic-failure-in-brain-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#18
Anja Kahl, Anna Stepanova, Csaba Konrad, Corey Anderson, Giovanni Manfredi, Ping Zhou, Costantino Iadecola, Alexander Galkin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ischemic brain injury is characterized by 2 temporally distinct but interrelated phases: ischemia (primary energy failure) and reperfusion (secondary energy failure). Loss of cerebral blood flow leads to decreased oxygen levels and energy crisis in the ischemic area, initiating a sequence of pathophysiological events that after reoxygenation lead to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) brain damage. Mitochondrial impairment and oxidative stress are known to be early events in I/R injury...
April 11, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642727/lps-challenge-increased-intestinal-permeability-disrupted-mitochondrial-function-and-triggered-mitophagy-of-piglets
#19
Shuting Cao, Qianhui Zhang, ChunChun Wang, Huan Wu, Lefei Jiao, Qihua Hong, Caihong Hu
Here we investigated the influence of LPS-induced gut injury on antioxidant homeostasis, mitochondrial (mt) function and the level of mitophagy in piglets. The results showed that LPS-induced intestinal injury decreased the transepithelial electrical resistance, increased the paracellular permeability of F1TC dextran 4 kDa, and decreased the expression of claudin-1, occludin and zonula occludens-1 in the jejunum compared with the control group. LPS decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and increased the content of malondialdehyde in the jejunum...
January 1, 2018: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617867/weaning-disrupts-intestinal-antioxidant-status-impairs-intestinal-barrier-and-mitochondrial-function-and-triggers-mitophagy-in-piglets
#20
S T Cao, C C Wang, H Wu, Q H Zhang, L F Jiao, C H Hu
In the present study, we investigated the influence of weaning on antioxidant status, intestinal integrity, mitochondrial function, and the mitophagy level in piglets (weaned at 21 d) during the 1 wk after weaning. The redox status was measured by antioxidant enzymes activities, related genes expression, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in jejunum. The intestinal barrier function was assessed by the Ussing chamber and expression of tight junction proteins in the jejunum. The function of intestine mitochondria was measured by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and activities of mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation complexes...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
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