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Mitochondria glutathione

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107627/use-of-tissue-metabolite-analysis-and-enzyme-kinetics-to-discriminate-between-alternate-pathways-for-hydrogen-sulfide-metabolism
#1
Kristie D Cox Augustyn, Michael R Jackson, Marilyn Schuman Jorns
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously synthesized signaling molecule that is enzymatically metabolized in mitochondria. The metabolism of H2S maintains optimal concentrations of the gasotransmitter and produces sulfane sulfur (S(0))-containing metabolites that may be functionally important in signaling. Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQOR) catalyzes the initial 2-electron oxidation of H2S to S(0) using coenzyme Q as electron acceptor in a reaction that requires a third substrate to act as the acceptor of S(0)...
January 20, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104455/a-novel-role-for-endothelial-tetrahydrobiopterin-in-mitochondrial-redox-balance
#2
Jade Bailey, Andrew Shaw, Roman Fischer, Brent J Ryan, Benedikt M Kessler, James McCullagh, Richard Wade-Martins, Keith M Channon, Mark J Crabtree
The redox co-factor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) regulates nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by endothelial NOS (eNOS) and is an important redox-dependent signalling molecule in the endothelium. Loss of endothelial BH4 is observed in cardiovascular disease (CVD) states and results in decreased NO and increased superoxide (O2(-)) generation via eNOS uncoupling. Genetic mouse models of augmented endothelial BH4 synthesis have shown proof of concept that endothelial BH4 can alter CVD pathogenesis...
January 17, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102911/glutathione-peroxidase-like-enzymes-cover-five-distinct-cell-compartments-and-membrane-surfaces-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#3
Safira Attacha, David Solbach, Krisztina Bela, Anna Moseler, Stephan Wagner, Markus Schwarzländer, Isabel Aller, Stefanie J Müller, Andreas J Meyer
Glutathione peroxidase-like enzymes (GPXLs) constitute a family of eight peroxidases in Arabidopsis thaliana. In contrast to the eponymous selenocysteine glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) in mammalian cells which use glutathione as electron donor, GPXLs rely on cysteine instead of selenocysteine for activity and depend on the thioredoxin system for reduction. Although plant GPXLs have been implicated in important agronomic traits such as drought tolerance, photooxidative tolerance and immune responses there remain major ambiguities regarding their subcellular localization...
January 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101459/venlafaxine-induced-cytotoxicity-towards-isolated-rat-hepatocytes-involves-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-lysosomal-dysfunction
#4
Elham Ahmadian, Hossein Babaei, Alireza Mohajjel Nayebi, Aziz Eftekhari, Mohammad Ali Eghbal
Purpose: Depression is a public disorder worldwide. Despite the widespread use of venlafaxine in the treatment of depression, it has been associated with the incidence of toxicities. Hence, the goal of the current investigation was to evaluate the mechanisms of venlafaxine-induced cell death in the model of the freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Methods: Collagenase-perfused rat hepatocytes were treated with venlafaxine and other agents. Cell damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential decline, lysosomal damage, glutathione (GSH) level were analyzed...
December 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087333/nicotinamide-nucleotide-transhydrogenase-activity-impacts-mitochondrial-redox-balance-and-the-development-of-hypertension-in-mice
#5
Igor Leskov, Amber Neville, Xinggui Shen, Sibile Pardue, Christopher G Kevil, D Neil Granger, David M Krzywanski
Oxidant stress contributes to the initiation and progression of hypertension (HTN) by enhancing endothelial dysfunction and/or causing perturbations in nitric oxide homeostasis. Differences in mitochondrial function may augment this process and provide insight into why age of onset and clinical outcomes differ among individuals from distinct ethnic groups. We have previously demonstrated that variation in normal mitochondrial function and oxidant production exists in endothelial cells from individuals of Caucasian and African-American ethnicity and that this variation contributes to endothelial dysfunction...
December 16, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087256/manganese-superoxide-dismutase-and-glutathione-peroxidase-1-contribute-to-the-rise-and-fall-of-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-which-drive-oncogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Dede N Ekoue, Chenxia He, Alan M Diamond, Marcelo G Bonini
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) largely originating in the mitochondria play essential roles in the metabolic and (epi)genetic reprogramming of cancer cell evolution towards more aggressive phenotypes. Recent studies have indicated that the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD2) may promote tumor progression by serving as a source of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). H2O2 is a form of ROS that is particularly active as a redox agent affecting cell signaling due to its ability to freely diffuse out of the mitochondria and alter redox active amino acid residues on regulatory proteins...
January 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068639/effects-of-argan-oil-on-the-mitochondrial-function-antioxidant-system-and-the-activity-of-nadph-generating-enzymes-in-acrylamide-treated-rat-brain
#7
Birsen Aydın
Argan oil (AO) is rich in minor compounds such as polyphenols and tocopherols which are powerful antioxidants. Acrylamide (ACR) has been classified as a neurotoxic agent in animals and humans. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction is one of the most probable molecular mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases. Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to ACR (50mg/kg i.p. three times a week), AO (6ml/kg,o.p, per day) or together for 30days. The activities of cytosolic enzymes such as xanthine oxidase (XO), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), mitochondrial oxidative stress, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) enzymes, mitochondrial metabolic function, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were assessed in rat brain...
January 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067351/targeted-combinational-therapy-inducing-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#8
Weon Sup Shin, Soon Ki Park, Peter Verwilst, Seyoung Koo, Joung Hae Lee, Sung-Gil Chi, Jong Seung Kim
We report on a mitochondria-specific combinational theranostic agent, 1. This system contains a chlorambucil prodrug and an aggregation induced emission dye. In addition, compound 1 bears both an intracellular thiol-triggered moiety and a mitochondria targeting unit (triphenylphosphonium). Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant thiol and its concentrations are significantly higher in a great number of cancer cell lines, compared to normal cells. The GSH-induced prodrug 1 upon activation releases chlorambucil and exhibits mitochondria targeted aggregation induced emission (AIE) fluorescence, resulting in cell apoptosis via the caspase pathway due to mitochondrial dysfunction...
January 19, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066829/the-multifaceted-role-of-nrf2-in-mitochondrial-function
#9
REVIEW
Kira M Holmström, Rumen V Kostov, Albena T Dinkova-Kostova
The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the master regulator of the cellular redox homeostasis. Nrf2 target genes comprise of a large network of antioxidant enzymes, proteins involved in xenobiotic detoxification, repair and removal of damaged proteins, inhibition of inflammation, as well as other transcription factors. In recent years it has emerged that as part of its role as a regulator of cytoprotective gene expression, Nrf2 impacts mitochondrial function. Increased Nrf2 activity defends against mitochondrial toxins...
December 2016: Curr Opin Toxicol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059419/a-mitochondria-targeting-fluorescent-probe-for-the-selective-detection-of-glutathione-in-living-cells
#10
Xue-Liang Liu, Li-Ya Niu, Yu-Zhe Chen, Mei-Ling Zheng, Yunxu Yang, Qing-Zheng Yang
We report a fluorescent probe for the selective detection of mitochondrial glutathione (GSH). The probe, containing triphenylphosphine as a mitochondrial targeting group, exhibited ratiometric and selective detection of GSH over Cys/Hcy. The probe was used for imaging mitochondrial GSH in living HeLa cells.
January 6, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056927/kudiezi-injection-mitigates-myocardial-injury-induced-by-acute-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#11
Xuemei Liu, Ye Tao, Fengli Wang, Ting Yao, Chen Fu, Hong Zheng, Yan Yan, Xiao Liang, Xiangning Jiang, Yunling Zhang
BACKGROUND: Kudiezi (KDZ) injection is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine as treatment for cerebral infarction and angina pectoris. The present study investigated the therapeutic effects of KDZ injection on myocardial injury induced by acute cerebral ischemia and the possibly protective mechanisms. METHODS: Rats were divided into three groups: sham, 6h-ischemia, and KDZ treatment (KDZ). The neurological deficits were determined by the Garcia score. The cerebral infarct volume was measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, and brain water content was also evaluated...
January 5, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054274/nicorandil-improves-post-fatigue-tension-in-slow-skeletal-muscle-fibers-by-modulating-glutathione-redox-state
#12
E Sánchez-Duarte, X Trujillo, C Cortés-Rojo, A Saavedra-Molina, G Camargo, L Hernández, M Huerta, R Montoya-Pérez
Fatigue is a phenomenon in which force reduction has been linked to impairment of several biochemical processes. In skeletal muscle, the ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) are actively involved in myoprotection against metabolic stress. They are present in sarcolemma and mitochondria (mitoKATP channels). K(+) channel openers like nicorandil has been recognized for their ability to protect skeletal muscle from ischemia-reperfusion injury, however, the effects of nicorandil on fatigue in slow skeletal muscle fibers has not been explored, being the aim of this study...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043362/rutin-can-replace-the-use-of-three-other-antioxidants-in-the-culture-medium-maintaining-the-viability-of-sheep-isolated-secondary-follicles
#13
T L B G Lins, A Y P Cavalcante, J M S Santos, V G Menezes, V R P Barros, R S Barberino, M É S Bezerra, T J S Macedo, M H T Matos
The present study evaluated the effect of addition of rutin alone or combined with other antioxidants (transferrin, selenium and ascorbic acid) present in the culture medium on the in vitro development of ovine isolated secondary follicles. After collection of the sheep ovaries, secondary follicles (200-230 μm) were isolated and cultured for 12 days in α-Minimal Essential Medium (α-MEM) supplemented with BSA, insulin, glutamine and hypoxanthine (α-MEM: antioxidant free-medium) or in this medium also added by transferrin, selenium and ascorbic acid (AO: base medium with antioxidants)...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035366/inhibitory-effects-of-alpha-lipoic-acid-on-oxidative-stress-in-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-in-rats-with-salt-induced-hypertension
#14
Yu-Peng Huang, Hong-Yan Jin, Hui-Ping Yu
Oxidative stress in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Alpha‑lipoic acid (ALA) is widely recognized for its potent superoxide inhibitory properties, and it can safely penetrate deep into the brain. The aim of this study was to explore whether ALA supplementation attenuates hypertensive responses and cardiac hypertrophy by decreasing the NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX)-derived overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mitochondria in the RVLM, and thus attenuating the development of salt‑induced hypertension...
February 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034779/a-mitochondrial-membrane-protein-is-a-target-for-rice-ragged-stunt-virus-in-its-insect-vector
#15
Hai-Jian Huang, Cheng-Wen Liu, Xiang Zhou, Chuan-Xi Zhang, Yan-Yuan Bao
Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV; Reoviridae) is exclusively transmitted by the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens in a persistent-propagative manner. It is understood that RNA viral proliferation is associated with the intracellular membranes of the insect host cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between the RRSV proliferation and the intracellular membranes remain essentially unknown. It will be of great interest to determine whether RRSV protein(s) directly interact with intracellular membrane components of its host cells...
February 2, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027877/hydrogen-sulfide-may-attenuate-methylmercury-induced-neurotoxicity-via-mitochondrial-preservation
#16
Junyan Han, Xuelian Yang, Xuehua Chen, Zhiqiang Li, Ming Fang, Bing Bai, Dehong Tan
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a protective molecule and a novel gaseous mediator. Here we explored whether H2S donor (NaHS) could attenuate methylmercury (MeHg)-induced neurotoxicity in rats. The adult rats were randomly divided into four groups, i.e., control, NaHS, MeHg, and NaHS + MeHg groups. Rats of the NaHS + MeHg group were intraperitoneally (i.p) injected with 5.6 mg/kg/d of NaHS together with 5 μg/kg/d of MeHg. Rats of the MeHg group and NaHS group were injected with 5 μg/kg/d of MeHg and 5.6 mg/kg/d of NaHS, respectively...
December 24, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012015/modulation-of-cell-death-in-human-colorectal-and-breast-cancer-cells-through-a-manganese-chelate-by-involving-gsh-with-intracellular-p53-status
#17
Kaushik Banerjee, Satyajit Das, Saikat Majumder, Subrata Majumdar, Jaydip Biswas, Soumitra Kumar Choudhuri
Chemotherapy is central to current treatment modality especially for advanced and metastatic colorectal and breast cancers. Targeting the key molecular events of the neoplastic cells may open a possibility to treat cancer. Although some improvements in understanding of colorectal and breast cancer treatment have been recorded, the involvement of glutathione (GSH) and dependency of p53 status on the modulation of GSH-mediated treatment efficacy have been largely overlooked. Herein, we tried to decipher the underlying mechanism of the action of Mn-N-(2-hydroxyacetophenone) glycinate (MnNG) against differential p53 status bearing Hct116, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-468 cells on the backdrop of intracellular GSH level and reveal the role of p53 status in modulating GSH-dependant abrogation of MnNG-induced apoptosis in these cancer cells...
December 23, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007572/methane-ameliorates-spinal-cord-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats-antioxidant-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-apoptotic-activity-mediated-by-nrf2-activation
#18
Liping Wang, Ying Yao, Rong He, Yan Meng, Na Li, Dan Zhang, Jiajun Xu, Ouyang Chen, Jin Cui, Jinjun Bian, Yan Zhang, Guozhong Chen, Xiaoming Deng
Methane is reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. We investigated the potential neuroprotective effects of methane-rich saline (MS) on spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury and determined that its therapeutic benefits are associated with the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Rats received 9min of spinal cord ischemia induced by occlusion of the descending thoracic aorta plus systemic hypotension followed by a single MS treatment (10ml/kg, ip) and 72h reperfusion...
December 20, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000163/pinocembrin-attenuates-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells-exposed-to-methylglyoxal-role-for-the-erk1-2-nrf2-signaling-pathway
#19
Marcos Roberto de Oliveira, Alessandra Peres, Gustavo Costa Ferreira
Pinocembrin (PB; 5,7-dihydroxyflavanone) is found in propolis and exhibits antioxidant activity in several experimental models. The antioxidant capacity of PB is associated with the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/antioxidant response element (Nrf2/ARE) signaling pathway. The Nrf2/ARE axis mediates the expression of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and the catalytic (GCLC) and regulatory (GCLM) subunits of the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of glutathione (GSH), γ-glutamate-cysteine ligase (γ-GCL)...
December 21, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938672/the-interaction-of-rotavirus-a-pig-china-nmtl-2008-g9p-23-vp6-with-cellular-beta-actin-is-required-for-optimal-rv-replication-and-infectivity
#20
Jing Yuan, Xin Zhang, Hongyan Shi, Jianfei Chen, Xiao Han, Ping Wei, Li Feng
VP6 forms the intermediate layer of the rotavirus (RV) capsid, and it plays important roles after RV penetration and uncoating. These functions rely on its ability to interact with host cell proteins. To gain further insights into the role of VP6 in porcine RV (PoRV) infection, a glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay was utilized to find unknown cellular factors that interact with VP6. In this study, beta-actin, tropomyosin 1, and 40S ribosomal protein S16 were identified as interaction partners of VP6 by mass spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation...
December 25, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
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