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Mitochondria glutathione

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919358/perfused-human-hepatocyte-microtissues-identify-reactive-metabolite-forming-and-mitochondria-perturbing-hepatotoxins
#1
Cliff Rowe, Mohsen Shaeri, Emma Large, Terri Cornforth, Angela Robinson, Tomasz Kostrzewski, Rowena Sison-Young, Christopher Goldring, Kevin Park, David Hughes
Hepatotoxins cause liver damage via many mechanisms but the formation of reactive metabolites and/or damage to liver mitochondria are commonly implicated. We assess 3D human primary hepatocyte microtissues as a platform for hepatotoxicity studies with reactive metabolite-forming and mitochondria-perturbing compounds. We show that microtissues formed from cryopreserved human hepatocytes had bile canaliculi, transcribed mRNA from genes associated with xenobiotic metabolism and expressed functional cytochrome P450 enzymes...
September 15, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917640/biotinylated-platinum-iv-complexes-designed-to-target-cancer-cells
#2
Jian Zhao, Wuyang Hua, Gang Xu, Shaohua Gou
Three biotinylated platinum(IV) complexes (1-3) were designed and synthesized. The resulting platinum(IV) complexes exhibited effective cytotoxicity against the tested cancer cell lines, especially complex 1, which was 2.0-9.6-fold more potent than cisplatin. These complexes were found to be rapidly reduced to their activated platinum(II) counterparts by glutathione or ascorbic acid under biologically relevant condition. Additional molecular docking studies revealed that the biotin moieties of all Pt(IV) complexes can effectively bind with the streptavidin through the noncovalent interactions...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914762/the-1-week-and-8-month-effects-of-a-ketogenic-diet-or-ketone-salt-supplementation-on-multi-organ-markers-of-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-function-in-rats
#3
Wesley C Kephart, Petey W Mumford, Xuansong Mao, Matthew A Romero, Hayden W Hyatt, Yufeng Zhang, Christopher B Mobley, John C Quindry, Kaelin C Young, Darren T Beck, Jeffrey S Martin, Danielle J McCullough, Dominic P D'Agostino, Ryan P Lowery, Jacob M Wilson, Andreas N Kavazis, Michael D Roberts
We determined the short- and long-term effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) or ketone salt (KS) supplementation on multi-organ oxidative stress and mitochondrial markers. For short-term feedings, 4 month-old male rats were provided isocaloric amounts of KD (n = 10), standard chow (SC) (n = 10) or SC + KS (~1.2 g/day, n = 10). For long-term feedings, 4 month-old male rats were provided KD (n = 8), SC (n = 7) or SC + KS (n = 7) for 8 months and rotarod tested every 2 months. Blood, brain (whole cortex), liver and gastrocnemius muscle were harvested from all rats for biochemical analyses...
September 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904321/altered-expression-of-mitochondrial-antioxidants-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#4
Sumita Banerjee, Saikat Mukherjee, Sanjib Mitra, Pallav Singhal
Reactive oxygen species, if produced in excess by oxidative phosphorylation, contributes to mitochondrial DNA damage and progressive respiratory chain dysfunction, leading to various diseases including carcinogenesis. Mitochondria are susceptible to oxidative stress (OS) owing to lack of introns, protective histones, and DNA repair enzymes. However, mitochondria are protected from OS by numerous antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), catalase, glutaredoxin 2 (GLRX2), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and thioredoxin 2 (TXN2)...
2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901511/n%C3%A2-acetylcysteine-induces-apoptosis-via-the-mitochondria%C3%A2-dependent-pathway-but-not-via-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-h9c2-cells
#5
Yuyong Liu, Ke Liu, Nian Wang, Huali Zhang
N‑acetylcysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione, is a widely used thiol‑containing antioxidant and modulator of the intracellular redox state. Our previous study demonstrated that excess reduced glutathione (GSH) from NAC treatment paradoxically led to a reduction in glutathione redox potential, increased mitochondrial oxidation and caused cytotoxicity at lower reactive oxygen species levels in H9c2 cells. However, no detailed data are available on the molecular mechanisms of NAC‑induced cytotoxicity on H9c2 cells...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884082/effects-of-pomegranate-seed-oil-on-oxidant-antioxidant-balance-in-heart-and-kidney-homogenates-and-mitochondria-of-diabetic-rats-and-high-glucose-treated-h9c2-cell-line
#6
Hamid Mollazadeh, Mohammad Taher Boroushaki, Mohammad Soukhtanloo, Amir Reza Afshari, Mohammad Mahdi Vahedi
OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress is a major cause of diabetes complications. The present study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of Pomegranate Seed Oil (PSO) on diabetes-induced changes in oxidant/antioxidant balance of the kidney, heart and mitochondria from rats and H9c2 cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In these in vivo and in vitro studies, male rats were divided into four groups (twelve each): group 1 served as control, group 2-4 received a single dose of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, i...
July 2017: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874754/ros-induced-oxidative-injury-involved-in-pathogenesis-of-fungal-keratitis-via-p38-mapk-activation
#7
Xia Hua, Wei Chi, Long Su, Jin Li, Zongduan Zhang, Xiaoyong Yuan
This study was to explore the mechanism by which reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress involved in the pathogenesis of fungal keratitis using an in vivo experimental keratitis mouse model and an in vitro culture model of human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). Compared to normal control mice and HCECs, ROS production was markedly increased in fungal corneas and HCECs exposed to Candida albicans, accompanied by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) activation. Increased products of oxidative markers, malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), mitochondria DNA 8-OHdG and aconitase-2 were observed in fungal infected corneas and HCECs...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874053/the-unfinished-puzzle-of-glutathione-physiological-functions-an-old-molecule-that-still-retains-many-enigmas
#8
Michel Toledano, Meng-Er Huang
Glutathione is the most abundant non-protein thiol found in living organisms. Since its discovery 130 years ago, understanding its cellular functions has been the subject of intensive research. Common scientific knowledge states that glutathione is a major non-enzymatic antioxidant and redox buffer. Recent approaches that consider glutathione compartmentation in the eukaryotic cell challenge this traditional view and reveal novel unexpected insights into glutathione metabolism and physiology. This Forum on glutathione features six review articles that focuses on glutathione metabolism and functions in mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum, its connection to cellular iron homeostasis, carcinogenesis and anticancer drug resistance, a revisited view of glutathione degradation pathways, and reconsiders old concepts of its mode of action by highlighting the importance of kinetics over thermodynamic redox equilibria...
September 6, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856594/size-dependent-neurotoxicity-of-aluminum-oxide-particles-a-comparison-between-nano-and-micrometer-size-on-the-basis-of-mitochondrial-oxidative-damage
#9
Atefeh Mirshafa, Mehdi Nazari, Daniel Jahani, Fatemeh Shaki
Aluminum nanoparticles (AlNPs) are among the most abundantly produced nanosized particles in the market. There is limited information about the potential harmful effects of aluminum oxide due to its particle size on human health. Considering the toxic effects of Al on brain as its target tissue, in this study, the toxicity of nanoparticles, microparticles, and ionic forms of Al on rat brain and isolated mitochondria was evaluated. Sixty male Wistar rats were divided into ten groups (six rats each), in which group I was the control, and the other groups were administered different doses of Al nanoparticles, Al microparticles (AlMP), and Al ionic forms (2, 4, and 8 mg/kg, i...
August 30, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852926/potential-molecular-mechanisms-mediating-the-protective-effects-of-tetrahydroxystilbene-glucoside-on-mpp-induced-pc12-cell-apoptosis
#10
Lingling Zhang, Linhong Huang, Xiaobing Li, Cuicui Liu, Xin Sun, Leitao Wu, Tao Li, Hao Yang, Jianzong Chen
Our previous work demonstrated that tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside (TSG) was able to effectively attenuate 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells partially via inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of TSG responsible for suppressing neuronal apoptosis have not been fully elucidated. To investigate the possible mechanism, we studied the neuroprotective effects of TSG on MPP(+)-induced PC12 cells apoptosis and explored the molecular mechanisms that mediated the effects of TSG...
August 29, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839382/sugemule-3-protects-against-isoprenaline-induced-cardiotoxicity-in-vitro
#11
Yu Wang, Guo-Hua Gong, Ya-Nan Xu, Li-Jun Yu, Cheng-Xi Wei
BACKGROUND: Sugemule-3 (SD) is a traditional Chinese medicine with protective effect of myocardium. However, the underlying mechanisms of the effect had not been elucidated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, the serum of SD was prepared. A model of β-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline (ISO)-induced H9c2 cardiomyocytes injury was established in vitro. The changes in cell viability were examined to determine the available concentration of ISO and serum of SD...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838347/synaptosomal-and-mitochondrial-oxidative-damage-followed-by-behavioral-impairments-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-mellitus-restoration-by-malvastrum-tricuspidatum
#12
I Solanki, P Parihar, R Shetty, M S Parihar
Synaptosomal and mitochondrial impairments in the brain of diabetic individual manifest metabolic risk factors that most likely affect the brain functions. Diabetes is associated with the structural and functional alterations of the brain and neuronal loss leading to cognitive and other behavioral impairments, thus reducing the quality of life. The biochemical mechanisms underlying the diabetes-associated behavioral decline are poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the effects of hyperglycemia on the oxidative stress and behavioral functions in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice...
August 15, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833478/melatonin-improves-the-fertilization-capacity-and-developmental-ability-of-bovine-oocytes-by-regulating-cytoplasmic-maturation-events
#13
Xue-Ming Zhao, Na Wang, Hai-Sheng Hao, Chong-Yang Li, Ya-Han Zhao, Chang-Liang Yan, Hao-Yu Wang, Wei-Hua Du, Dong Wang, Yan Liu, Yun-Wei Pang, Hua-Bin Zhu
Melatonin is a well-characterized antioxidant that has been successfully used to protect oocytes from reactive oxygen species during in vitro maturation (IVM), resulting in improved fertilization capacity and development ability. However, the mechanism via which melatonin improves oocyte fertilization capacity and development ability remains to be determined. Here, we studied the effects of melatonin on cytoplasmic maturation of bovine oocytes. In the present study, bovine oocytes were cultured in IVM medium supplemented with 0, 10(-7) , 10(-9) , and 10(-11) M melatonin, and the cytoplasmic maturation parameters of MII oocytes after IVM were investigated, including redistribution of organelles (mitochondria, cortical granules [CGs], and endoplasmic reticulum [ER]), intracellular glutathione (GSH) and ATP levels, expression of endogenous antioxidant genes (Cat, Sod1, and GPx), and fertilization-related events (IP3R1 distribution and expression of CD9 and Juno)...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819818/diosmin-prevents-isoproterenol-induced-heart-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress-in-rats
#14
S Sharmila Queenthy, P Stanely Mainzen Prince, Babu John
Cardiac mitochondrial oxidative stress causes mitochondrial damage that plays an important role in the pathology of myocardial infarction. The preventive effects of diosmin on cardiac mitochondrial oxidative stress in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats were evaluated. Rats were pretreated with diosmin (10 mg/kg body weight) daily for 10 days. Myocardial infarction was induced in rats by isoproterenol (100 mg/kg body weight) injection twice at an interval of 24 h (on 11th and 12th day). Isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats showed a significant increase in the levels of cardiac diagnostic markers, heart mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, calcium ion, and a significant decrease in the levels of heart mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, isocitrate, malate, α-ketoglutarate, and succinate dehydrogenases...
August 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819639/antioxidant-treatment-in-male-mice-prevents-mitochondrial-and-synaptic-changes-in-an-nmda-receptor-dysfunction-model-of-schizophrenia
#15
Aarron Phensy, Christopher Driskill, Karen Lindquist, Lan Guo, Vivek Jeevakumar, Bryan Fowler, Heng Du, Sven Kroener
Glutamate theories of schizophrenia suggest that the disease is associated with a loss of NMDA receptors, specifically on GABAergic parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PVIs), leading to changes in the excitation-inhibition balance in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Oxidative stress contributes to the loss of PVI and the development of schizophrenia. Here, we investigated whether the glutathione precursor N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) can prevent changes in synaptic transmission at pyramidal cells and PVIs that result from developmental NMDAR blockade and how these changes are related to mitochondrial dysfunction in the PFCs of mice...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813209/galangin-a-natural-flavonoid-reduces-mitochondrial-oxidative-damage-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#16
Amal A Aloud, Chinnadurai Veeramani, Chandramohan Govindasamy, Mohammed A Alsaif, Khalid S Al-Numair
OBJECTIVE: We designed this study to observe the effect of galangin on damaged mitochondria in the liver of diabetic rats. METHODS: Male albino Wistar rats were made diabetic by injecting streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally (40 mg kg(-1) body weight (BW)). Galangin (8 mg kg(-1) BW) or glibenclamide (600 µg kg(-1) BW) was given orally daily once for 45 days to both healthy and diabetic rats. RESULTS: Diabetic rats showed significant (P < 0...
August 16, 2017: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809477/reversible-reaction-based-fluorescent-probe-for-real-time-imaging-of-glutathione-dynamics-in-mitochondria
#17
Jianwei Chen, Xiqian Jiang, Chengwei Zhang, Kevin R MacKenzie, Fabio Stossi, Timothy Palzkill, Meng C Wang, Jin Wang
We report a mitochondria-specific glutathione (GSH) probe-designated as Mito-RealThiol (MitoRT)-that can monitor in vivo real-time mitochondrial glutathione dynamics, and apply this probe to follow mitochondrial GSH dynamic changes in living cells for the first time. MitoRT can be utilized in confocal microscopy, super-resolution fluorescence imaging, and flow cytometry systems. Using MitoRT, we demonstrate that cells have a high priority to maintain the GSH level in mitochondria compared to the cytosol not only under normal growing conditions but also upon oxidative stress...
August 18, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807815/bcl-xl-knockout-attenuates-mitochondrial-respiration-and-causes-oxidative-stress-that-is-compensated-by-pentose-phosphate-pathway-activity
#18
Annika Pfeiffer, Julia Schneider, Diones Bueno, Amalia Dolga, Timo-Daniel Voss, Jan Lewerenz, Verena Wüllner, Axel Methner
Bcl-xL is an anti-apoptotic protein that localizes to the outer mitochondrial membrane and influences mitochondrial bioenergetics by controlling Ca(2+) influx into mitochondria. Here, we analyzed the effect of mitochondrial Bcl-xL on mitochondrial shape and function in knockout (KO), wild type and rescued mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines. Mitochondria of KO cells were more fragmented, exhibited a reduced ATP concentration, and reduced oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) suggesting an increased importance of ATP generation by other means...
August 12, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799110/alteration-of-membrane-integrity-and-respiratory-function-of-brain-mitochondria-in-the-rats-chronically-exposed-to-a-low-dose-of-acetamiprid
#19
Salim Gasmi, Mohammed Kebieche, Rachid Rouabhi, Chouaib Touahria, Asma Lahouel, Zohra Lakroun, Sara Henine, Rachid Soulimani
The pesticides are used in several fields of agriculture and farms to protect crops against harmful insects and herbs. The increased and uncontrolled use of these pollutants is very hazardous for the population health. Consumption of contaminated food matrices with these pesticides could impair the cell integrity and its molecular function. The main aim of this present study was to evaluate the alteration of the integrity of mitochondrial membranes and respiratory chain potential in the brain of rats exposed during 90 days to acetamiprid (AC), organochlorine of the new generation...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791837/the-role-of-17%C3%AE-estradiol-metabolites-in-chromium-induced-oxidative-stress
#20
Ewa Sawicka, Anna Długosz
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of estrogen-dependent breast cancer and the presence in the environment of a large number of factors that interact with estrogen receptors have sparked interest in chemical influences on estrogen-dependent processes. In a previous work, the authors examined the interaction of estradiol with chromium. In the present article the importance of estradiol biotransformation in these interactions is investigated. There is no information in the available literature about the role of metabolites in exposure to chromium...
March 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
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