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Mitochondria glutathione

Luqi Duan, John S Davis, Benjamin L Woolbright, Kuo Du, Mala Cahkraborty, James Weemhoff, Hartmut Jaeschke, Mohammed Bourdi
: Mouse models of acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity are considered relevant for the human pathophysiology. The C57BL/6 strain is most popular because it is the background strain of gene knock-out mice. However, conflicting results in the literature may have been caused by sub-strain mismatches, e.g. C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N. This study was initiated to determine the mechanism behind the sub-strain susceptibility to APAP toxicity. C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J mice were dosed with 200 mg/kg APAP and sacrificed at different time points...
October 20, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Xia Cong, Qian Zhang, Huatao Li, Zhongling Jiang, Rongfeng Cao, Shansong Gao, Wenru Tian
Puerarin, a bioactive isoflavone glucoside extracted from radix Puerariae, has been proven to possess many biological activities. However, the role of puerarin in protecting bovine Sertoli cells (bSCs) under heat stress conditions remains to be clarified. The present study aimed to explore the possible protective mechanism of puerarin for primary cultured bSCs subjected to heat stress. Bovine Sertoli cells were treated with 15 μM of puerarin before they were exposed to 42 °C for 1 hour. The dose of puerarin (15 μM) was determined on the basis of cell viability...
September 21, 2016: Theriogenology
K R Vogel, G R Ainslie, E E W Jansen, G S Salomons, K M Gibson
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1-deficient (aldh5a1(-/-)) mice, the murine orthologue of human succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD), manifest increased GABA (4-aminobutyric acid) that disrupts autophagy, increases mitochondria number, and induces oxidative stress, all mitigated with the mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) inhibitor rapamycin [1]. Because GABA regulates mTOR, we tested the hypothesis that aldh5a1(-/-) mice would show altered levels of mRNA for genes associated with mTOR signaling and oxidative stress that could be mitigated by inhibiting mTOR...
October 16, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Elzbieta Zieminska, Jacek Lenart, Dominik Diamandakis, Jerzy W Lazarewicz
Using primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells (CGC) we examined the role of calcium transients induced by tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in triggering oxidative stress and cytotoxicity. CGC were exposed for 30 min to 10 or 25 µM TBBPA. Changes in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and in the potential of mitochondria (∆Ψm) were measured fluorometrically during the exposure. The intracellular glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity were determined after the incubation; cell viability was evaluated 24 h later...
October 7, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Chandra Prakash, S V Amitha Mithra, Praveen K Singh, T Mohapatra, N K Singh
BACKGROUND: Drought stress tolerance for crop improvement is an important goal worldwide. Drought is a complex trait, and it is vital to understand the complex physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance to tackle it effectively. Osmotic adjustment, oxidative stress management (OSM), and cell membrane stability (CMS) are major components of cellular tolerance under drought stress. In the current study, we explored the molecular basis of OSM in the drought tolerant rice variety, Nagina 22 and compared it with the popular drought sensitive rice variety, IR 64, under drought imposed at the reproductive stage, to understand how the parental polymorphisms correlate with the superiority of Nagina 22 and tolerant bulk populations under drought...
October 4, 2016: BMC Genomics
Marcos Roberto de Oliveira, Alessandra Peres, Clarissa Severino Gama, Simone Morelo Dal Bosco
Pinocembrin (PB; 5,7-dihydroxyflavanone; C15H12O4) is a flavonoid found in propolis and exerts antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial effects. Furthermore, PB has been studied as a neuroprotective agent. However, it remains to be understood whether and how PB would induce mitochondrial protection in mammalian cells. Therefore, we investigated here the mechanism involved in the protective effects elicited by PB in paraquat (PQ; 100 μM)-treated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. PB (25 μM) pretreatment (for 4 h) downregulated the levels of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), blocked the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol, and inhibited the PQ-induced activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3...
October 1, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Sumathi Thangarajan, Surekha Ramachandran, Priya Krishnamurthy
3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is an irreversible inhibitor of mitochondrial complex-II that causes transcriptional dysregulation, bioenergetics failure, protein aggregation and oxidative damage similar to Huntington's disease (HD) pathogenesis. Chrysin, a bioactive flavonoid reported to have anti-inflammation, antioxidant, vasorelaxant and neuroprotective property. The present study was framed to determine the neuroprotective efficiency of chrysin upon 3-NP induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunctions and neurodegeneration...
September 27, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Marcos Roberto de Oliveira, Alessandra Peres, Gustavo Costa Ferreira, Patrícia Fernanda Schuck, Clarissa S Gama, Simone Morelo Dal Bosco
Carnosic acid (CA; C20H28O4), which is also called salvin, is a major phenolic diterpene found in Rosmarinus officinalis L. and exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative properties. CA activates the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) transcription factor, leading to the upregulation of antioxidant and phase II detoxification enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione reductase (GR), γ-glutamate-cysteine ligase (γ-GCL), and glutathione S-transferase (GST), among others...
September 29, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Yoko Tsukuda, Goki Suda, Seiji Tsunematsu, Jun Ito, Fumiyuki Sato, Katsumi Terashita, Masato Nakai, Takuya Sho, Osamu Maehara, Tomoe Shimazaki, Megumi Kimura, Kenichi Morikawa, Mitsuteru Natsuizaka, Koji Ogawa, Shunsuke Ohnishi, Makoto Chuma, Naoya Sakamoto
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been reported to hijack fatty acid metabolism in infected hepatocytes, taking advantage of lipid droplets for virus assembly. In this study, we analyzed the anti-HCV activity of l-carnitine, a substance involved in the transport of fatty acids into mitochondria. JFH-1 or HCV replicon-transfected Huh7.5.1 cells were treated with or without l-carnitine to examine its anti-HCV effects. The effects of l-carnitine on HCV entry, HCV-induced adipogenesis and lipid droplet formation, and HCV-induced oxidative stress were examined...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Yanan Li, Zhongjia Jiang, Di Xue, Guangcun Deng, Min Li, Xiaoming Liu, Yujiong Wang
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (M. ovipneumoniae) is a species of Mycoplasma bacteria that specifically infects sheep and goat, causing ovine infectious pleuropneumonia. However, the mechanism underlying the pathogen-host interaction between M. ovipneumoniae and airway epithelial cells is unknown. METHODS: A primary air-liquid interface (ALI) epithelial culture model generated from the bronchial epithelial cells of Ningxia Tan sheep (ovis aries) was employed to explore the potential mechanism of M...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Simone Hanna Brutsch, Marlena Rademacher, Sophia Regine Roth, Karin Muller, Susanne Eder, Dagmar Viertel, Christiane Franz, Hartmut Kuhn, Astrid Borchert
Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and arachidonic acid 15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15) are antagonizing enzymes in the metabolism of hydroperoxy lipids. In spermatoid cells and/or in the male reproductive system both enzymes are apparently expressed and GPX4 serves as anti-oxidative enzyme but also as structural protein. In this study we explored whether germ-line inactivation of the Alox15 gene might rescue male subfertility induced by heterozygous expression of catalytically silent Gpx4. To address this question we employed Gpx4 knockin mice expressing the Sec46Ala-Gpx4 mutant, in which the catalytic selenocysteine was replaced by a redox inactive alanine...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Santhosh Kumar Venugopalan, Shanmugarajan T S, Navaratnam V, Mansor S M, Ramanathan S
Thymus mitochondria play a crucial role in immune function. This study identifies the novel protective role of N-Acetylglucosamine (NAG) in dexamethasone (DEX) induced mitochondrial perturbations in mice thymus. Mice were induced with DEX (5mg/kg) and treated with NAG i.p. (266μg/kg, 400μg/kg and 800μg/kg) for 14 days, Withanolide A (800μg/kg) has been used as positive control. Dose dependent treatment of NAG against DEX significantly restored the mitochondrial enzyme levels (ICDH, KDH, SDH and MDH) and elevated the mitochondrial glutathione antioxidants defense (GSH, SOD, GPX and GST) thus improving the ATP status which was confirmed by ultrastructural alterations in mitochondria and nucleus using TEM studies...
September 8, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Paul M Rindler, Angela Cacciola, Michael Kinter, Luke I Szweda
We have recently demonstrated that catalase content in mouse cardiac mitochondria is selectively elevated in response to high dietary fat, a nutritional state associated with oxidative stress and loss in insulin signaling. Catalase and various isoforms of glutathione peroxidase and peroxiredoxin each catalyze the consumption of H2O2 Catalase, located primarily within peroxisomes and to a lesser extent mitochondria, has a low binding affinity for H2O2 relative to glutathione peroxidase and peroxiredoxin. As such, the contribution of catalase to mitochondrial H2O2 consumption is not well understood...
September 9, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Junqiang Zhang, Xianbin Song, Wei Cao, Jinseng Lu, Xiaoqing Wang, Gaoyuan Wang, Zhicheng Wang, Xiaoyu Chen
Resveratrol is a polyphenol derivatives which exhibits a pro-apoptotic effect in a variety of human cancers by triggering mitochondria apoptosis pathway and autophagy. However, there are scarcely reports on its apoptosis-promoting effect in abnormal proliferation fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs). In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism and apoptosis-inducing effects of resveratrol on the abnormal proliferation of FLSs in adjuvant-arthritis (AA) rats. Since using resveratrol for 12 days resulted in a significant decreasing the swelling degree of the paw, reducing malondialdehyde (MDA) content and enhancing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase ratio in AA rats...
2016: Scientific Reports
Tom Trapphoff, Martyna Heiligentag, Jenny Simon, Nora Staubach, Thorsten Seidel, Kathrin Otte, Thomas Fröhlich, Georg J Arnold, Ursula Eichenlaub-Ritter
STUDY QUESTION: Can supplementation of media with a glutathione (GSH) donor, glutathione ethyl ester (GEE), prior to vitrification protect the mouse oocyte from oxidative damage and critical changes in redox homeostasis, and thereby improve cryotolerance? SUMMARY ANSWER: GEE supplementation supported redox regulation, rapid recovery of spindle and chromosome alignment after vitrification/warming and improved preimplantation development of mouse MII oocytes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Cryopreservation may affect mitochondrial functionality, induce oxidative stress, and thereby affect spindle integrity, chromosome segregation and the quality of mammalian oocytes...
September 7, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
Hiromi Kusama, Kazuyoshi Kon, Kenichi Ikejima, Kumiko Arai, Tomonori Aoyama, Akira Uchiyama, Shunhei Yamashina, Sumio Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose induces severe oxidative stress followed by hepatocyte apoptosis/necrosis. Previous studies have indicated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in the cell death process. Therefore, we investigated the effect of the chemical chaperone 4-phenyl butyric acid (PBA) on APAP-induced liver injury in mice. METHODS: Eight-week-old male C57Bl6/J mice were given a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of APAP (450 mg/kg body weight), following which some were repeatedly injected with PBA (120 mg/kg body weight, i...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
Baoping Jiang, Liang Le, Haibo Liu, Lijia Xu, Chunnian He, Keping Hu, Yong Peng, Peigen Xiao
Diabetic encephalopathy, which is characterized by cognitive decline and dementia, commonly occurs in patients with long-standing diabetes. Previous studies have suggested that methylglyoxal (MG), an endogenous toxic compound, plays an important role in diabetic complications such as cognitive impairment. MG induces neuronal apoptosis. To clarify whether marein, a major compound from the hypoglycemic plant Coreopsis tinctoria, prevents PC12 cell damage induced by MG, we cultured PC12 cells in the presence of MG and marein...
September 6, 2016: Free Radical Research
Quaiser Saquib, Mohammad Faisal, Abdulrahman A Alatar, Abdulaziz A Al-Khedhairy, Mukhtar Ahmed, Sabiha M Ansari, Hend A Alwathnani, Mohammad K Okla, Sourabh Dwivedi, Javed Musarrat, Shelly Praveen, Shams T Khan, Rizwan Wahab, Maqsood A Siddiqui, Javed Ahmad
We have studied the genotoxic and apoptotic potential of ferric oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3-NPs) in Raphanus sativus (radish). Fe2O3-NPs retarded the root length and seed germination in radish. Ultrathin sections of treated roots showed subcellular localization of Fe2O3-NPs, along with the appearance of damaged mitochondria and excessive vacuolization. Flow cytometric analysis of Fe2O3-NPs (1.0mg/mL) treated groups exhibited 219.5%, 161%, 120.4% and 161.4% increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), nitric oxide (NO) and Ca(2+) influx in radish protoplasts...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Paula F Dos Santos, Douglas S Moreira, Elio H Baba, Caroline M O Volpe, Jerônimo C Ruiz, Alvaro J Romanha, Silvane M F Murta
Lipoamide dehydrogenase (LipDH) is a flavin-containing disulfide oxidoreductase from the same group of thioredoxin reductase, glutathione reductase and trypanothione reductase. This enzyme is found in the mitochondria of all aerobic organisms where it takes part in at least three important multienzyme complexes from the citric acid cycle. In this study, we performed a phylogenetic analysis comparing the amino acid sequence of the LipDH from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcLipDH) with the LipDH from other organisms. Subsequently, the copy number of the TcLipDH gene, the mRNA and protein levels, and the enzymatic activity of the LipDH were determined in populations and strains of T...
August 25, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Rychelle Clayde Affonso Medeiros, Karina Girardi do Carmo de Vasconcelos, Fernanda Karlla Luz Cardoso, Bruno de Siqueira Mieto, Thiago Gomes de Toledo Pinto, Lilian Sales Gomez, Luciana Silva Rodrigues, Mariana Gandini, Julio Jablonski Amaral, Sérgio Luiz Gomes Antunes, Suzana Corte-Real, Patricia Sammarco Rosa, Maria Cristina Vidal Pessolani, José Augusto da Costa Nery, Euzenir Nunes Sarno, Leonardo Ribeiro Batista Silva, Mauro Sola-Penna, Marcus Fernandes de Oliveira, Milton Ozório Moraes, Flavio Alves Lara
Mycobacterium leprae, the intracellular etiological agent of leprosy, infects Schwann promoting irreversible physical disabilities and deformities. These cells are responsible for myelination and maintenance of axonal energy metabolism through export of metabolites, such as lactate and pyruvate. In the present work, we observed that infected Schwann cells increase glucose uptake with a concomitant increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity, the key enzyme of the oxidative pentose pathway...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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