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Peng Jiang, Winston Lee, Xujuan Li, Carl Johnson, Jun S Liu, Myles Brown, Jon Christopher Aster, X Shirley Liu
Identifying reliable drug response biomarkers is a significant challenge in cancer research. We present computational analysis of resistance (CARE), a computational method focused on targeted therapies, to infer genome-wide transcriptomic signatures of drug efficacy from cell line compound screens. CARE outputs genome-scale scores to measure how the drug target gene interacts with other genes to affect the inhibitor efficacy in the compound screens. Such statistical interactions between drug targets and other genes were not considered in previous studies but are critical in identifying predictive biomarkers...
February 6, 2018: Cell Systems
Margarita Udall, Maria Rizzo, Juliet Kenny, Jim Doherty, SueAnn Dahm, Paul Robbins, Eric Faulkner
BACKGROUND: The programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) protein is a cell-surface receptor on certain lymphocytes that, with its ligand programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), helps to down-regulate immune responses. Many cancer types express PD-L1 and evade immune recognition via the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction. Precision therapies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway have the potential to improve response and thereby offer a novel treatment avenue to some patients with cancer. However, this new therapeutic approach requires reliable methods for identifying patients whose cancers are particularly likely to respond...
February 9, 2018: Diagnostic Pathology
Win Min Oo, James M Linklater, Matthew Daniel, Simo Saarakkala, Jonathan Samuels, Philip G Conaghan, Helen I Keen, Leticia A Deveza, David J Hunter
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to systematically review clinimetrics of commonly assessed ultrasound pathologies in knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis (OA), and to conduct a meta-analysis for each clinimetric. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from their inceptions to September 2016. According to the OMERACT Instrument Selection Algorithm, data extraction focused on ultrasound technical features and performance metrics...
February 6, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Jae-Uk Song, Cheol Kyung Sin, Hye Kyeong Park, Sung Ryul Shim, Jonghoo Lee
BACKGROUND: The usefulness of the quick Sequential (Sepsis-related) Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score in providing bedside criteria for early prediction of poor outcomes in patients with suspected infection remains controversial. We investigated the prognostic performance of a positive qSOFA score outside the intensive care unit (ICU) compared with positive systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials...
February 6, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Ama Johal, Bahn Agha
Mandibular advancement appliances (MAAs) are an increasingly accepted treatment choice in obstructive sleep apnea management. The ready-made MAAs has questioned the need for a customised MAAs, given the former is more accessible and considerably cheaper. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate both objective and patient-centred outcomes in relation to ready-made and custom-made MAAs s. Biomedical electronic databases, clinical trials registers and Grey literature were searched to January 2017, for randomised controlled trials...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Ryoko Tomita, Kenichiro Todoroki, Tadashi Hayama, Hideyuki Yoshida, Toshihiro Fujioka, Manabu Nakashima, Masatoshi Yamaguchi, Hitoshi Nohta
Previously, we developed a method to evaluate states of cells treated with anticancer drugs via the comprehensive analysis of amino acids, termed amino acid metabolomics. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of the anticancer drugs, gemcitabine hydrochloride and pyrvinium pamoate, on the proliferation of a pancreatic cancer cell line (PANC-1) under hypoglycemic conditions using amino acid metabolomics. Intracellular and extracellular amino acid profiles of PANC-1 were determined by hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with simple pretreatment...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Gemma Donovan, Lindsay Parkin, Lyn Brierley-Jones, Scott Wilkes
OBJECTIVES: There is widespread use of unlicensed medicines within primary and secondary care but little information is available around how these medicines are used. This analysis examines and evaluates the content and quality of relevant guidance documentation currently in use within the UK. METHODS: Guidance documents were identified through a literature search as well as email requests to pharmacy organisations throughout the UK. Unlicensed medicine documentation suitable for inclusion in the analysis underwent thematic analysis and quality assessment using the AGREE II tool...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Suzanne M Skevington, Tracy Epton
Introduction: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2015 aim to '…promote well-being for all', but this has raised questions about how its targets will be evaluated. A cross-cultural measure of subjective perspectives is needed to complement objective indicators in showing whether SDGs improve well-being. The WHOQOL-BREF offers a short, generic, subjective quality of life (QoL) measure, developed with lay people in 15 cultures worldwide; 25 important dimensions are scored in environmental, social, physical and psychological domains...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Daniel J Hoyle, Ivan K Bindoff, Lisa M Clinnick, Gregory M Peterson, Juanita L Westbury
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic and benzodiazepine medications are widely used in nursing homes despite only modest efficacy and the risk of severe adverse effects. Numerous interventions have been implemented to reduce their use. However, the outcomes for the residents and staff and the economic impact on the healthcare system remain relatively understudied. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine the clinical and economic outcomes reported within interventions to reduce antipsychotic and/or benzodiazepine use in nursing homes...
January 27, 2018: Drugs & Aging
David Fraguas, Covadonga M Díaz-Caneja, Laura Pina-Camacho, Daniel Umbricht, Celso Arango
We conducted a meta-regression analysis of all double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials (DBRCTs) reporting effects of drug and placebo on negative symptoms in people with stable schizophrenia and predominant or prominent negative symptoms to assess predictors of placebo response in these individuals. We used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for systematic reviews and meta-analyses to conduct a systematic literature search to identify DBRCTs assessing treatment efficacy on negative symptoms, as primary outcome, in patients with stable schizophrenia and predominant or prominent negative symptoms...
January 19, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Lili Sahakyan, Thomas R Kwapil
Negative symptom schizophrenia and negative schizotypy are associated with deficits in episodic memory, which may reflect deficits in context processing. However, studies that rely on summary performance measures such as mean accuracy or latency are limited in the extent that they can examine processes underlying memory impairment. The present study decomposed free recall performance by examining serial position functions, first response probability, temporal contiguity effect, cumulative recall functions, and interresponse times in high-positive schizotypy, high-negative schizotypy, and control groups...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
J Ruft, A Asady, P Staubach, T Casale, G Sussmann, T Zuberbier, M Maurer, K Weller, S Altrichter
BACKGROUND: Cholinergic urticaria (CholU), a common form of chronic inducible urticaria, is characterized by itchy wheals that occur in response to physical exercise or passive warming. CholU patients frequently exhibit a high burden of disease. As of yet, no specific instrument is available to assess their disease-related quality of life (QoL) impairment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and validate the first disease specific QoL instrument for CholU patients, the Cholinergic Urticaria Quality of Life Questionnaire (CholU-QoL)...
January 25, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Paul R L Matthews, Jamie Horder, Michael Pearce
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is frequently a chronic and disabling illness with a heterogeneous range of symptoms. The positive symptoms usually respond to antipsychotics but the cognitive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia are difficult to treat with conventional antipsychotics and significantly impact on quality of life and social outcomes. Selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (NRIs) increase prefrontal dopamine and noradrenaline levels without significantly affecting subcortical dopamine levels, making them an attractive candidate for treating cognitive and negative symptoms...
January 25, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Kyubum Lee, Byounggun Kim, Yonghwa Choi, Sunkyu Kim, Wonho Shin, Sunwon Lee, Sungjoon Park, Seongsoon Kim, Aik Choon Tan, Jaewoo Kang
BACKGROUND: Molecular biomarkers that can predict drug efficacy in cancer patients are crucial components for the advancement of precision medicine. However, identifying these molecular biomarkers remains a laborious and challenging task. Next-generation sequencing of patients and preclinical models have increasingly led to the identification of novel gene-mutation-drug relations, and these results have been reported and published in the scientific literature. RESULTS: Here, we present two new computational methods that utilize all the PubMed articles as domain specific background knowledge to assist in the extraction and curation of gene-mutation-drug relations from the literature...
January 25, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Monika Stojek, Lisa M Shank, Anna Vannucci, Diana M Bongiorno, Eric E Nelson, Andrew J Waters, Scott G Engel, Kerri N Boutelle, Daniel S Pine, Jack A Yanovski, Marian Tanofsky-Kraff
OBJECTIVE: Attentional bias (AB) may be one mechanism contributing to the development and/or maintenance of disordered eating. AB has traditionally been measured using reaction time in response to a stimulus. Novel methods for AB measurement include eye tracking to measure visual fixation on a stimulus, and electroencephalography to measure brain activation in response to a stimulus. This systematic review summarizes, critiques, and integrates data on AB gathered using the above-mentioned methods in those with binge eating behaviors, including binge eating, loss of control eating, and bulimia nervosa...
January 20, 2018: Appetite
Nadia Mohammed Vashist, Mark Samaan, Mahmoud H Mosli, Claire E Parker, John K MacDonald, Sigrid A Nelson, G Y Zou, Brian G Feagan, Reena Khanna, Vipul Jairath
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic assessment of mucosal disease activity is routinely used to determine eligibility and response to therapy in clinical trials of ulcerative colitis. The operating properties of the existing endoscopic scoring indices are unclear. OBJECTIVES: A systematic review was undertaken to evaluate the development and operating characteristics of endoscopic scoring indices for the evaluation of ulcerative colitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and CENTRAL from inception to 5 July 2016...
January 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Esther Ha Sim, Ian A Yang, Richard Wood-Baker, Rayleen V Bowman, Kwun M Fong
BACKGROUND: The role of gefitinib for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is evolving. We undertook a systematic review to evaluate the available evidence from all randomised trials. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness and safety of gefitinib as first-line, second-line or maintenance treatment for advanced NSCLC. SEARCH METHODS: We performed searches in CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase from inception to 17 February 2017...
January 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Gregory W Hagley, Peter D Mills, Brian Shiner, Robin R Hemphill
Background: Root cause analyses (RCA) are often completed in health care settings to determine causes of adverse events (AEs). RCAs result in action plans designed to mitigate future patient harm. National reviews of RCA reports have assessed the safety of numerous health care settings and suggested opportunities for improvement. However, few studies have assessed the safety of receiving care from physical therapists, occupational therapists, or speech and language pathology pathologists...
January 9, 2018: Physical Therapy
Aida Sefidani Forough, Simon Y M Wong, Esther T L Lau, Jose Manuel Serrano Santos, Greg J Kyle, Kathryn J Steadman, Julie A Y Cichero, Lisa M Nissen
OBJECTIVE: To identify nurses' experiences of administering oral medications to residents of aged care facilities (ACFs) with swallowing difficulties. INTRODUCTION: Administering medicines to older people with swallowing difficulties is a challenging task. Nurses frequently modify oral medications e.g. by crushing/splitting tablets or opening capsules, to facilitate the administration process. These practices are associated with an increased risk of medication administration errors...
January 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Heidi Elisabeth Nag, Ann Nordgren, Britt-Marie Anderlid, Terje Nærland
Background: A substantial amount of research shows a higher rate of autistic type of problems in males compared to females. The 4:1 male to female ratio is one of the most consistent findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD).Lately, the interest in studying ASD in genetic disorders has increased, and research has shown a higher prevalence of ASD in some genetic disorders than in the general population.Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a rare and complex genetic syndrome caused by an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11...
2018: Molecular Autism
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