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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076365/gene-expression-profiling-in-slow-type-calf-soleus-muscle-of-30-days-space-flown-mice
#1
Guido Gambara, Michele Salanova, Stefano Ciciliot, Sandra Furlan, Martina Gutsmann, Gudrun Schiffl, Ute Ungethuem, Pompeo Volpe, Hanns-Christian Gunga, Dieter Blottner
Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice) skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype) but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075704/changes-in-cardiorespiratory-responses-and-kinematics-with-hippotherapy-in-youth-with-and-without-cerebral-palsy
#2
Brandon Rhett Rigby, Adam Robert Gloeckner, Suzanne Sessums, Beth Anne Lanning, Peter Walter Grandjean
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize pelvic displacement and cardiorespiratory responses to simulated horseback riding and walking in youth with cerebral palsy and to compare responses to youth without cerebral palsy before and after 8 weeks of hippotherapy. METHOD: Eight youth with cerebral palsy (Mage = 10 ± 4 years; Mheight = 137 ± 24 cm; Mweight = 32 ± 16 kg) and 8 youth without cerebral palsy (Mage = 11 ± 2 years; Mheight = 149 ± 14 cm; Mweight = 48 ± 15 kg) underwent a hippotherapy intervention...
January 11, 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073044/influence-of-the-body-schema-on-mirror-touch-synesthesia
#3
Jared Medina, Carrie DePasquale
Individuals with mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) report feeling touch on their own body when seeing someone else being touched. We examined how the body schema - an on-line representation of body position in space - is involved in mapping touch from a viewed body to one's own body. We showed 45 mirror-touch synesthetes videos of a hand being touched, varying the location of the viewed touch by hand (left, right), skin surface (palmar, dorsal) and finger (index, ring). Participant hand posture was either congruent or incongruent with the posture of the viewed hand...
December 24, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069490/sexual-segregation-of-forage-patch-use-support-for-the-social-factors-and-predation-hypotheses
#4
Michael T Biggerstaff, Marcus A Lashley, M Colter Chitwood, Christopher E Moorman, Christopher S DePerno
Nearly all species of sexually dimorphic ungulates sexually segregate. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, including the social-factors hypothesis (SFH) and the predation hypothesis (PH). Interestingly, previous studies have accepted and rejected each hypothesis within and across species but few studies have simultaneously tested both hypotheses in the same population. In August 2011 and 2012 using 7,680 photographs taken with camera traps in standardized forage patches, we tested two predictions of the SFH: 1) foraging efficiency of both sexes would decrease when foraging rate in mixed-sex groups relative to single-sex groups, and 2) activity patterns (i...
January 6, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068962/correlation-between-lumbar-dysfunction-and-fat-infiltration-in-lumbar-multifidus-muscles-in-patients-with-low-back-pain
#5
Markus Hildebrandt, Gabriela Fankhauser, André Meichtry, Hannu Luomajoki
BACKGROUND: Lumbar multifidus muscles (LMM) are important for spinal motion and stability. Low back pain (LBP) is often associated with fat infiltration in LMM. An increasing fat infiltration of LMM may lead to lumbar dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between the severity of lumbar dysfunction and the severity of fat infiltration of LMM. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 42 patients with acute or chronic LBP were recruited...
January 10, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067120/standing-balance-in-people-with-trans-tibial-amputation-due-to-vascular-causes-a-literature-review
#6
Mayank Seth, Eric Lamberg
BACKGROUND: Balance is an important variable to consider during the rehabilitation process of individuals with trans-tibial amputation. Limited evidence exists on the balance abilities of people with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to review literature and determine if standing balance is diminished in people with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes. STUDY DESIGN: Literature review...
January 1, 2017: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063866/chemotherapy-induced-neuropathy-in-cancer-survivors
#7
Christine Miaskowski, Judy Mastick, Steven M Paul, Kimberly Topp, Betty Smoot, Gary Abrams, Lee-May Chen, Kord M Kober, Yvette P Conley, Margaret Chesney, Kay Bolla, Grace Mausisa, Melissa Mazor, Melisa Wong, Mark Schumacher, Jon D Levine
CONTEXT: Evidence suggests that chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIN) is a significant problem for cancer survivors. However, a detailed phenotypic characterization of CIN in cancer survivors is not available. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate between group differences in demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as in measures of sensation, function, and postural control, in a sample of cancer survivors who received a platinum and/or a taxane-based CTX regimen and did (n=426) and did not (n=197) develop CIN...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063853/reaction-time-and-postural-sway-modify-the-effect-of-executive-function-on-risk-of-falls-in-older-people-with-mild-to-moderate-cognitive-impairment
#8
Morag E Taylor, Stephen R Lord, Kim Delbaere, Susan E Kurrle, A Stefanie Mikolaizak, Jacqueline C T Close
OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between cognitive performance and falls in older people with mild to moderate cognitive impairment (CI) by investigating the mediational effects of medical, medication, neuropsychological, and physiological factors. DESIGN: Secondary analysis, prospective cohort study. SETTING: Community and low-level care. PARTICIPANTS: 177 older people (aged 82 ± 7 years) with mild to moderate CI (MMSE 11-23; ACE-R < 83)...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060387/reversible-median-nerve-impairment-after-three-weeks-of-repetitive-work
#9
Sorosh Tabatabaeifar, Susanne Wulff Svendsen, Birger Johnsen, Gert-Åke Hansson, Anders Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Poul Frost
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of impaired median nerve function in relation to hand-intensive seasonal work. We hypothesized that at end-season, median nerve conduction would be impaired and then recover within weeks. Methods Using nerve conduction studies (NCS), we examined median nerve conduction before, during, and after engaging in 22 days of mink skinning. For a subgroup, we used goniometry and surface electromyography to characterize occupational mechanical exposures...
January 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060275/automated-analysis-of-c-elegans-swim-behavior-using-celest-software
#10
Carolina Ibáñez-Ventoso, Christopher Herrera, Esteban Chen, Douglas Motto, Monica Driscoll
Dissecting the neuronal and neuromuscular circuits that regulate behavior remains a major challenge in biology. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has proven to be an invaluable model organism in helping to tackle this challenge, from inspiring technological approaches, building the human brain connectome, to actually shedding light on the specific molecular drivers of basic functional patterns. The bulk of the behavioral studies in C. elegans have been performed on solid substrates. In liquid, animals exhibit behavioral patterns that include movement at a range of speeds in 3D, as well as partial body movements, such as a posterior curl without anterior shape change, which introduce new challenges for quantitation...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056097/functionality-and-robustness-of-injured-connectomic-dynamics-in-c-elegans-linking-behavioral-deficits-to-neural-circuit-damage
#11
James M Kunert, Pedro D Maia, J Nathan Kutz
Using a model for the dynamics of the full somatic nervous system of the nematode C. elegans, we address how biological network architectures and their functionality are degraded in the presence of focal axonal swellings (FAS) arising from neurodegenerative disease and/or traumatic brain injury. Using biophysically measured FAS distributions and swelling sizes, we are able to simulate the effects of injuries on the neural dynamics of C. elegans, showing how damaging the network degrades its low-dimensional dynamical responses...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055084/forward-head-posture-and-activation-of-rectus-capitis-posterior-muscles
#12
Richard C Hallgren, Steven J Pierce, Dhruv B Sharma, Jacob J Rowan
CONTEXT: Rectus capitis posterior (RCP) muscles have physical attachments to the pain-sensitive spinal dura. Atrophy of these muscles is associated with chronic headache in some patients. The authors suspect that the significance of atrophy in the RCP muscles has been undervalued because the functional role of these muscles is not well defined. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a statistically significant change in normalized levels of electromyographic activity in RCP muscles occurs when the head is voluntarily moved from a self-selected neutral head position to a protruded head position...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054910/examining-effects-of-physical-exertion-on-the-dynamic-visual-acuity-test-in-collegiate-athletes
#13
Jessie N Patterson, Anna M Murphy, Julie A Honaker
BACKGROUND: Acute symptoms of dizziness and/or imbalance commonly experienced in athletes postconcussion are speculated to arise from dysfunction at multiple levels (i.e., inner ear or central vestibular system) to appropriately integrate afferent sensory information. Disruption along any pathway of the balance system can result in symptoms of dizziness, decreased postural control function (vestibulospinal reflex), and reduced vestibulo-ocular reflex function. This may also lead to decreased gaze stability with movements of the head and may account for symptoms of blurred vision or diplopia reported in almost half of athletes sustaining a concussion...
January 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052435/lumbar-spine-postures-in-marines-during-simulated-operational-positions
#14
David B Berry, Ana E Rodríguez-Soto, J Su, Sara P Gombatto, Bahar Shahidi, Laura Palombo, Christine Chung, Andrew Jensen, Karen R Kelly, Samuel R Ward
Low back pain has a 70% higher prevalence in members of the armed forces than in the general population, possibly due to the loads and positions soldiers experience during training and combat. Although the influence of heavy load carriage on standing lumbar spine posture in this population is known, postures in other operationally relevant positions are unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of simulated military operational positions under relevant loading conditions on global and local lumbar spine postures in active duty male US Marines...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050918/unstable-footwear-affects-magnitude-and-structure-of-variability-in-postural-control
#15
Michael Buchecker, Stefan Wegenkittl, Thomas Stöggl, Erich Müller
This study evaluated the amount, and particularly the structure of variability in postural control accompanying an unstable shoe (US) application. Medio-lateral and anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP) signals, plus electromyographic (EMG) profiles of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis were recorded in 29 asymptomatic men while wearing both US and flat shoes (FS). Statistical analysis included common measures of dispersion, as well as sample entropy (SEn) and largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE) estimates...
January 4, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050266/from-slow-to-fast-hypogravity-induced-remodeling-of-muscle-fiber-myosin-phenotype
#16
B S Shenkman
Skeletal muscle consists of different fiber types arranged in a mosaic pattern. These fiber types are characterized by specific functional properties. Slow-type fibers demonstrate a high level of fatigue resistance and prolonged contraction duration, but decreased maximum contraction force and velocity. Fast-type fibers demonstrate high contraction force and velocity, but profound fatigability. During the last decades, it has been discovered that all these properties are determined by the predominance of slow or fast myosin-heavy-chain (MyHC) isoforms...
October 2016: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045553/the-functional-effect-of-segmental-trunk-and-head-control-training-in-moderate-to-severe-cerebral-palsy-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Derek John Curtis, Marjorie Woollacott, Jesper Bencke, Hanne Bloch Lauridsen, Sandy Saavedra, Thomas Bandholm, Stig Sonne-Holm
PURPOSE: To determine whether segmental training is more effective in improving gross motor function in children and young people with moderate-to-severe cerebral palsy than conventional physiotherapy. METHODS: Twenty-eight participants were randomized to a segmental training or control group. Outcomes were Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo), and postural sway at baseline, at primary endpoint (6 months), and at follow-up (12 months)...
January 3, 2017: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038342/atypical-anticipatory-postural-adjustments-during-gait-initiation-among-individuals-with-sub-acute-stroke
#18
Roshanth Rajachandrakumar, Julia E Fraser, Alison Schinkel-Ivy, Elizabeth L Inness, Lou Biasin, Karen Brunton, William E McIlroy, Avril Mansfield
Anticipatory postural adjustments, executed prior to gait initiation, help preserve lateral stability when stepping. Atypical patterns of anticipatory activity prior to gait initiation may occur in individuals with unilateral impairment (e.g., stroke). This study aimed to determine the prevalence, correlates, and consequences of atypical anticipatory postural adjustment patterns prior to gait initiation in a sub-acute stroke population. Forty independently-ambulatory individuals with sub-acute stroke stood on two force plates and initiated gait at a self-selected speed...
December 21, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032253/effect-of-cadence-on-locomotor-respiratory-coupling-during-upper-body-exercise
#19
Nicholas B Tiller, Mike J Price, Ian G Campbell, Lee M Romer
INTRODUCTION: Asynchronous arm-cranking performed at high cadences elicits greater cardiorespiratory responses compared to low cadences. This has been attributed to increased postural demand and locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC), and yet, this has not been empirically tested. This study aimed to assess the effects of cadence on cardiorespiratory responses and LRC during upper-body exercise. METHODS: Eight recreationally-active men performed arm-cranking exercise at moderate and severe intensities that were separated by 10 min of rest...
December 28, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032002/fmri-functional-connectivity-of-the-periaqueductal-gray-in-ptsd-and-its-dissociative-subtype
#20
Sherain Harricharan, Daniela Rabellino, Paul A Frewen, Maria Densmore, Jean Théberge, Margaret C McKinnon, Allan N Schore, Ruth A Lanius
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with hyperarousal and active fight or flight defensive responses. By contrast, the dissociative subtype of PTSD, characterized by depersonalization and derealization symptoms, is frequently accompanied by additional passive or submissive defensive responses associated with autonomic blunting. Here, the periaqueductal gray (PAG) plays a central role in defensive responses, where the dorsolateral (DL-PAG) and ventrolateral PAG (VL-PAG) are thought to mediate active and passive defensive responses, respectively...
December 2016: Brain and Behavior
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