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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453449/effect-of-upright-and-slouch-sitting-postures-and-voluntary-teeth-clenching-on-hand-grip-strength-in-young-male-adults
#1
Ahmad Alghadir, Hamayun Zafar, Zaheen A Iqbal
BACKGROUND: Estimation of handgrip strength (HGS) is routinely used by clinicians and epidemiologists for objective assessment of functional status of hand and upper extremity. It is also used as an indirect indicator of overall physical strength and health status in variety of clinical situations and chronic general medical conditions. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to examine the effects of upright and slouch sitting postures and voluntary teeth clenching on hand grip strength in healthy young male subjects...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453447/correlation-between-forward-head-posture-respiratory-functions-and-respiratory-accessory-muscles-in-young-adults
#2
Mi-Sun Kim, Yong-Jun Cha, Jong-Duk Choi
BACKGROUND: Forward head posture (FHP) causes changes in the strengths and rigidities of cervical muscles. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate correlations between FHP and respiratory functions and the muscle activities of respiratory accessory muscles in young adults in their 20s. METHODS: A volunteer sample of 33 healthy young adults participated in this study. Craniovertebral angle (CVA), cranial rotational angle (CRA), vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV), and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and upper trapezius activity ratios were measured...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449366/moving-forward-with-the-neuromuscular-junction
#3
REVIEW
Claire Legay, Lin Mei
The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is indispensable for survival. This synapse between motoneurons and skeletal muscle fibers allows posture, movement and respiration. Therefore, its dysfunction creates pathologies than can be lethal. The molecular mechanisms of NMJ development and maintenance are the subject of intensive studies. This mini-review focuses on some of the most recent discoveries. An unexpected role for a protein, rapsyn, which has been known for 40 years to aggregate acetylcholine receptors has emerged...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449202/barn-owls-maximize-head-rotations-by-a-combination-of-yawing-and-rolling-in-functionally-diverse-regions-of-the-neck
#4
Markus Krings, John A Nyakatura, Mark L L M Boumans, Martin S Fischer, Hermann Wagner
Owls are known for their outstanding neck mobility: these birds can rotate their heads more than 270°. The anatomical basis of this extraordinary neck rotation ability is not well understood. We used X-ray fluoroscopy of living owls as well as forced neck rotations in dead specimens and computer tomographic (CT) reconstructions to study how the individual cervical joints contribute to head rotation in barn owls (Tyto furcata pratincola). The X-ray data showed the natural posture of the neck, and the reconstructions of the CT-scans provided the shapes of the individual vertebrae...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449116/the-iconography-of-mourning-and-its-neural-correlates-a-functional-neuroimaging-study
#5
Karin Labek, Samantha Berger, Anna Buchheim, Julia Bosch, Jennifer Spohrs, Lisa Dommes, Petra Beschoner, Julia C Stingl, Roberto Viviani
The present functional neuroimaging study focuses on the iconography of mourning. A culture-specific pattern of body postures of mourning individuals, mostly suggesting withdrawal, emerged from a survey of visual material. When used in different combinations in stylized drawings in our neuroimaging study, this material activated cortical areas commonly seen in studies of social cognition (temporo-parietal junction, superior temporal gyrus, and inferior temporal lobe), empathy for pain (somatosensory cortex), and loss (precuneus, middle/posterior cingular gyrus)...
April 25, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446874/age-related-differences-in-reorganization-of-functional-connectivity-for-a-dual-task-with-increasing-postural-destabilization
#6
Cheng-Ya Huang, Linda L Lin, Ing-Shiou Hwang
The aged brain may not make good use of central resources, so dual task performance may be degraded. From the brain connectome perspective, this study investigated dual task deficits of older adults that lead to task failure of a suprapostural motor task with increasing postural destabilization. Twelve younger (mean age: 25.3 years) and 12 older (mean age: 65.8 years) adults executed a designated force-matching task from a level-surface or a stabilometer board. Force-matching error, stance sway, and event-related potential (ERP) in the preparatory period were measured...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444241/cervical-spine-muscle-tendon-unit-length-differences-between-neutral-and-forward-head-postures-biomechanical-study-using-human-cadaveric-specimens
#7
Saeed Khayatzadeh, Olivia A Kalmanson, Dale Schuit, Robert M Havey, Leonard I Voronov, Alexander J Ghanayem, Avinash G Patwardhan
Background: Forward Head Posture (FHP) may be associated with neck pain and poor health-related quality of life. Literature describes only qualitative muscle length changes associated with FHP. Objective: To quantify how muscle-tendon unit lengths are altered when human cadaveric specimens are placed in alignments representing different severities of FHP. Design: Biomechanical study using 13 fresh-frozen cadaveric cervical spine specimens (Occiput-T1, 54±15yrs)...
April 21, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443790/do-pilates-based-exercises-following-total-knee-arthroplasty-improve-postural-control-and-quality-of-life
#8
Aysenur Karaman, Inci Yuksel, Gizem Irem Kinikli, Omur Caglar
PURPOSE: The aim of this prospective, randomized, controlled study was to investigate the effects of the addition of Pilates-based exercises to standard exercise programs performed after total knee arthroplasty on quality of life and balance. METHOD: Forty-six volunteers were divided into two groups. The control group (n = 17) was assigned a standard exercise program after discharge; the study group (n = 17) was assigned Pilates-based exercises along with the standard exercise program...
April 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443004/assessing-somatosensory-utilization-during-unipedal-postural-control
#9
Rahul Goel, Yiri E De Dios, Nichole E Gadd, Erin E Caldwell, Brian T Peters, Millard F Reschke, Jacob J Bloomberg, Lars I E Oddsson, Ajitkumar P Mulavara
Multisensory-visual, vestibular and somatosensory information is integrated for appropriate postural control. The primary goal of this study was to assess somatosensory utilization during a functional motor task of unipedal postural control, in normal healthy adults. Assessing individual bias in the utilization of individual sensory contributions during postural control may help customization of rehabilitation protocols. In this study, a test paradigm of unipedal stance control in supine orientation with and without vision was assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442382/relationship-between-sensorimotor-peripheral-nerve-function-and-indicators-of-cardiovascular-autonomic-function-in-older-adults-from-the-health-aging-and-body-composition-study
#10
Brittney S Lange-Maia, Anne B Newman, John M Jakicic, Jane A Cauley, Robert M Boudreau, Ann V Schwartz, Eleanor M Simonsick, Suzanne Satterfield, Aaron I Vinik, Sasa Zivkovic, Tamara B Harris, Elsa S Strotmeyer
BACKGROUND: Age-related peripheral nervous system (PNS) impairments are highly prevalent in older adults. Although sensorimotor and cardiovascular autonomic function have been shown to be related in persons with diabetes, the nature of the relationship in general community-dwelling older adult populations is unknown. METHODS: Health, Aging and Body Composition participants (n=2399, age=76.5±2.9years, 52% women, 38% black) underwent peripheral nerve testing at the 2000/01 clinic visit...
April 22, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441425/role-of-route-previewing-strategies-on-climbing-fluency-and-exploratory-movements
#11
Ludovic Seifert, Romain Cordier, Dominic Orth, Yoan Courtine, James L Croft
This study examined the role of route previewing strategies on climbing fluency and on exploratory movements of the limbs, in order to understand whether previewing helps people to perceive and to realize affordances. Eight inexperienced and ten experienced climbers previewed a 10 m high route of 5b difficulty on French scale, then climbed it with a top-rope as fluently as possible. Gaze behavior was collected from an eye tracking system during the preview and allowed us to determine the number of times they scanned the route, and which of four route previewing strategies (fragmentary, ascending, zigzagging, and sequence-of-blocks) they used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440687/the-consequence-of-spatial-visual-processing-dysfunction-caused-by-traumatic-brain-injury-tbi
#12
William V Padula, Jose E Capo-Aponte, William V Padula, Eric L Singman, Jonathan Jenness
OBJECTIVE: A bi-modal visual processing model is supported by research to affect dysfunction following a traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI causes dysfunction of visual processing affecting binocularity, spatial orientation, posture and balance. Research demonstrates that prescription of prisms influence the plasticity between spatial visual processing and motor-sensory systems improving visual processing and reducing symptoms following a TBI. RATIONALE: The rationale demonstrates that visual processing underlies the functional aspects of binocularity, balance and posture...
April 25, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438514/components-of-standing-postural-control-evaluated-in-pediatric-balance-measures-a-scoping-review
#13
REVIEW
Kathryn M Sibley, Marla K Beauchamp, Karen Van Ooteghem, Marie Paterson, Kristy Dm Wittmeier
OBJECTIVE: To identify measures of standing balance validated in pediatric populations and determine the components of postural control captured in each tool. DATA SOURCES: Electronic searches of Medline, Embase, and CINAHL databases using key word combinations of postural balance/ equilibrium, psychometrics/ reproducibility of results/ predictive value of tests, child/ pediatrics; grey literature; and hand searches. STUDY SELECTION: Inclusion criteria were measures with a stated objective to assess balance, pediatric (<=18 years) populations, at least one psychometric evaluation, one standing task, standardized protocol and evaluation criteria, and published in English...
April 21, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437841/characterizing-the-evolution-of-wide-gauge-features-in-stylopodial-limb-elements-of-titanosauriform-sauropods-via-geometric-morphometrics
#14
Paul V Ullmann, Matthew F Bonnan, Kenneth J Lacovara
Wide-gauge posture of titanosauriform sauropods remains an enigmatic peculiarity among terrestrial vertebrates. Here, two-dimensional geometric morphometrics and thin plate splines analyses were used to quantitatively analyze shape differences among sauropodomorph humeri and femora to identify how these elements may differ according to body gauge. Results demonstrate that titanosauriforms generally possess proportionately gracile humeri in comparison to other sauropods, with relatively more medially oriented humeral heads and proximally located deltopectoral crests...
April 24, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437758/balance-impairment-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-without-concurrent-peripheral-neuropathy
#15
T Zanotto, S Gobbo, V Bullo, B Vendramin, F Duregon, L Cugusi, A Di Blasio, L Furian, C Silvestre, D Neunhaeuserer, M Zaccaria, M Bergamin, A Ermolao
Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) present with compromised functional capacity, low levels of physical activity, muscle atrophy, and peripheral nerve dysfunction that may result in high postural instability. This study aimed to compare the static balance control of 19 KTRs with 19 healthy adults (HA). All participants completed the Romberg test on a stabilometric platform with eyes open (EO), eyes closed (EC) and during a dual task (DT) condition. Centre of pressure (COP) measures (COP velocity (COPv) and sway area (SA)), as well as position-based outcomes such as anterior-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) ranges of COP displacements were recorded...
April 15, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437637/analysis-of-free-moment-and-center-of-pressure-frequency-components-during-quiet-standing-using-magnitude-squared-coherence
#16
Dean C Hay, Mark P Wachowiak
To date, no postural studies have investigated the specific relationship between linear (anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML)) postural sway and the free moment (FM) over the range of biomechanically important frequencies. The goal of the current paper is to study the relationship between FM and the AP/ML movements during quiet standing with respect to individual frequencies. Mean squared coherence, which measures the degree of the relationship between two signals as a function of frequency, is employed to address this question...
April 21, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437362/sonotubometric-assessment-for-severity-of-patulous-eustachian-tube
#17
Iori Takata, Ryoukichi Ikeda, Tetsuaki Kawase, Yoko Suzuki, Takeshi Sato, Yukio Katori, Toshimitsu Kobayashi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the morphological patency of the eustachian tube (ET) and sound transmission via the ET. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review and model experiment. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. SUBJECTS: A total of 56 ears of 28 patients (9 men and 19 women, aged from 12 to 82 yr, mean 40.4 ± 21.5 yr) who underwent sonotubometric measurement using postural change as well as computed tomography (CT) of the ET in the sitting position, including 26 ears with definite patulous ET, 9 ears with possible patulous ET, and 21 ears without patulous ET...
April 21, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436247/effects-of-peripheral-vestibular-dysfunction-on-dynamic-postural-stability-measured-by-the-functional-reach-test-and-timed-up-and-go-test
#18
Toshiko Nishi, Teru Kamogashira, Chisato Fujimoto, Makoto Kinoshita, Naoya Egami, Keiko Sugasawa, Tatsuya Yamasoba, Shinichi Iwasaki
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of vestibular function on dynamic postural stability assessed by the functional reach test (FRT) and the timed up and go test (TUG). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The FRT and TUG were performed in 399 patients with dizziness. The effects of peripheral vestibular dysfunction assessed by the caloric test and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) to air-conducted sound (500 Hz, tone burst) on the results of FRT and TUG were analyzed...
June 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435631/the-impact-of-kinesio-taping-technique-on-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#19
REVIEW
Alireza Shamsoddini, Zabihallah Rasti, Minoo Kalantari, Mohammad Taghi Hollisaz, Vahid Sobhani, Hamid Dalvand, Mohammad Kazem Bakhshandeh-Bali
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common movement disorder in children that is associated with life-long disability and multiple impairments. The clinical manifestations of CP vary among children. CP is accompanied by a wide range of problems and has a broad spectrum. Children with CP demonstrate poor fine and dross motor function due to psychomotor disturbances. Early rehabilitation programs are essential for children with CP and should be appropriate for the age and functional condition of the patients. Kinesio taping (KT) technique is a relatively new technique applied in rehabilitation programs of CP...
October 7, 2016: Iranian Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434057/predictive-control-of-intersegmental-tarsal-movements-in-an-insect
#20
Alicia Costalago-Meruelo, David M Simpson, Sandor M Veres, Philip L Newland
In many animals intersegmental reflexes are important for postural and movement control but are still poorly undesrtood. Mathematical methods can be used to model the responses to stimulation, and thus go beyond a simple description of responses to specific inputs. Here we analyse an intersegmental reflex of the foot (tarsus) of the locust hind leg, which raises the tarsus when the tibia is flexed and depresses it when the tibia is extended. A novel method is described to measure and quantify the intersegmental responses of the tarsus to a stimulus to the femoro-tibial chordotonal organ...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
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