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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353013/bottom-up-gamma-maintenance-in-various-disorders
#1
REVIEW
E Garcia-Rill, S Mahaffey, James R Hyde, F J Urbano
Maintained gamma band activity is a key element of higher brain function, participating in perception, executive function, and memory. The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), as part of the reticular activating system (RAS), is a major source of the "bottom-up" flow of gamma activity to higher regions. However, interruption of gamma band activity is associated with a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. This review will focus on the role of the PPN in activating higher regions to induce arousal and descending pathways to modulate posture and locomotion...
January 15, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351510/scapular-focused-interventions-to-improve-shoulder-pain-and-function-in-adults-with-subacromial-pain-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Hiroki Saito, Meg E Harrold, Vinicius Cavalheri, Leanda McKenna
The relationship between subacromial pain syndrome (SAPS) and altered scapular movement has been previously reported. The purpose of this review was to determine the effect of interventions that focus on addressing scapular components to improve shoulder pain, function, shoulder range of motion (ROM), and muscle strength in adults with SAPS. Databases searched in September 2016 were: PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials [Central], EMBASE [via Ovid] and PEDro. All studies selected for this review were randomized controlled trials...
January 19, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351473/sympathetically-mediated-cardiac-responses-to-isolated-muscle-metaboreflex-activation-following-exercise-are-modulated-by-body-position-in-humans
#3
André L Teixeira, Mauricio Daher, Mayara Souza, Plinio Santos Ramos, James P Fisher, Lauro C Vianna
Isolated muscle metaboreflex activation with post-handgrip exercise ischemia (PEI) increases sympathetic nerve activity and partially maintains the exercise-induced increase in blood pressure, but a smaller heart rate (HR) response occurs. The cardiopulmonary baroreceptors, mechanically sensitive receptors that respond to changes in central blood volume and pressure, are strongly associated with changes in body position and upon activation elicit reflex sympathoinhibition. Here, we tested the hypothesis that postural changes modulate the sympathetically-mediated cardiac response to PEI in humans...
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349832/effects-of-yoga-interventions-practiced-in-heated-and-thermoneutral-conditions-on-endothelium-dependent-vasodilation-the-bikram-yoga-heart-study
#4
Stacy D Hunter, Jitanan Laosiripisan, Ahmed Elmenshawy, Hirofumi Tanaka
We have previously documented improvements in endothelium-dependent vasodilation with a Bikram (hot) yoga intervention in middle-aged adults. Presently, the effect of environmental temperature in hot yoga on endothelial function is unknown. PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of Bikram yoga interventions performed in the heated and thermoneutral conditions on endothelium-dependent vasodilation. METHODS: Fifty-two sedentary but apparently healthy adults aged 40-60 years were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Bikram yoga practiced at 40...
January 18, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347946/effects-of-long-term-balance-training-with-vibrotactile-sensory-augmentation-among-community-dwelling-healthy-older-adults-a-randomized-preliminary-study
#5
Tian Bao, Wendy J Carender, Catherine Kinnaird, Vincent J Barone, Geeta Peethambaran, Susan L Whitney, Mohammed Kabeto, Rachael D Seidler, Kathleen H Sienko
BACKGROUND: Sensory augmentation has been shown to improve postural stability during real-time balance applications. Limited long-term controlled studies have examined retention of balance improvements in healthy older adults after training with sensory augmentation has ceased. This pilot study aimed to assess the efficacy of long-term balance training with and without sensory augmentation among community-dwelling healthy older adults. METHODS: Twelve participants (four males, eight females; 75...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344941/systemic-patterns-of-trabecular-bone-across-the-human-and-chimpanzee-skeleton
#6
Zewdi J Tsegai, Matthew M Skinner, Dieter H Pahr, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Tracy L Kivell
Aspects of trabecular bone architecture are thought to reflect regional loading of the skeleton, and thus differ between primate taxa with different locomotor and postural modes. However, there are several systemic factors that affect bone structure that could contribute to, or be the primary factor determining, interspecific differences in bone structure. These systemic factors include differences in genetic regulation, sensitivity to loading, hormone levels, diet, and activity levels. Improved understanding of inter-/intraspecific variability, and variability across the skeleton of an individual, is required to interpret properly potential functional signals present within trabecular structure...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341797/visual-dependence-affects-postural-sway-responses-to-continuous-visual-field-motion-in-individuals-with-cerebral-palsy
#7
Yawen Yu, Richard T Lauer, Carole A Tucker, Elizabeth D Thompson, Emily A Keshner
The current study aimed to explore the impact of visual dependence on sensorimotor coupling of postural sway and visual motion in adults and teens with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). We hypothesized that individuals with CP would exhibit greater magnitudes of sway than healthy individuals, and the presence of visual dependence (VD) would produce instability in the direction of visual motion. Participants stood in a virtual environment in which the visual scene remained static or continuously rotated 30 degree/second in pitch-up or pitch-down...
January 17, 2018: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335773/effects-of-combining-ergonomic-interventions-and-motor-control-exercises-on-muscle-activity-and-kinematics-in-people-with-work-related-neck-shoulder-pain
#8
Sharon M H Tsang, Billy C L So, Rufina W L Lau, Jie Dai, Grace P Y Szeto
PURPOSE: This study compared the effects of "Ergomotor" intervention and conventional physiotherapy, on influencing the motor control in the neck-shoulder region in people with work-related neck-shoulder pain (WRNSP). METHODS: 101 patients (age range 20-54 years) diagnosed with chronic WRNSP were randomized into control (CO) group (n = 50) and Ergomotor (EM) group (n = 51). Each group received a 12-week intervention. Participants in CO group received treatment for pain relief and general exercises...
January 15, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333725/chemoreflex-function-and-brain-blood-flow-during-upright-posture-in-men-and-women
#9
Christopher Hazlett, Heather Edgell
Orthostatic intolerance is more common in women than men, and some studies have found that women in the early follicular (EF) phase of the menstrual cycle experience the greatest feelings of lightheadedness. Chemoreflex function while supine or upright was investigated to determine the potential contribution of ventilatory control to these phenomena. Men (n = 13) and women (n = 14) were tested while supine and 70° upright (head-up tilt [HUT]) and given: (1) normoxia or (2) hypercapnia (5% CO2 ). Women were tested during the EF phase (days 2-5) and the midluteal phase (ML; days 18-24)...
January 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332761/exercise-on-balance-and-function-for-knee-osteoarthritis-a%C3%A2-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Roberta de Matos Brunelli Braghin, Elisa Cavalheiro Libardi, Carina Junqueira, Marcello Henrique Nogueira-Barbosa, Daniela Cristina Carvalho de Abreu
OBJECTIVES: To assess balance and function of symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and investigate the influence of physical exercise. DESIGN: Subjects were divided into three groups: Group 1 (n = 15), symptomatic knee OA; Group 2 (n = 11), asymptomatic knee OA; and Group 3 (n = 16), knee OA and no intervention. History of falls, the WOMAC questionnaire, balance and functionality were assessed. RESULTS: After intervention, there was a significant difference in the total WOMAC score and in the pain and function domains only in Group 1...
January 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331975/is-postoperative-bracing-after-pedicle-screw-fixation-of-spine-fractures-necessary-study-protocol-of-the-ornot-study-a-randomised-controlled-multicentre-trial
#11
Arjen Johannes Smits, Jaap Deunk, Agnita Stadhouder, Mark Cornelis Altena, Diederik Hendrik Ruth Kempen, Frank Willem Bloemers
INTRODUCTION: The most common surgical treatment of traumatic spine fractures is through a posterior approach using pedicle screws and rods. Postoperative treatment protocols including the use of postoperative orthoses however differ between hospitals and surgeons. A three-point hyperextension orthosis is designed to support proper posture and unload the anterior column. Some motion remains when wearing an orthosis, and its main value in postoperative treatment is therefore believed to be pain relief and patient confidence...
January 13, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331936/influence-of-custom-foot-orthoses-on-venous-status-a-quasi-experimental-study
#12
Daniel López-López, Romeu Araújo, Marta Elena Losa-Iglesias, Ricardo Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo, António Santos, David Rodríguez-Sanz, César Calvo-Lobo
BACKGROUND: Customized foot orthoses (CFO) have been widely accepted to reduce the frequency of foot problems and postural disorders. The purpose of the research was to compare the influence of CFO utilization on the venous status among healthy females and males. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study (NCT03329430), which included 20 healthy subjects that completed all the stages of the process. The subjects showed an age mean of 20.00 ± 1.62 years and were recruited in a foot and ankle specialist center...
January 5, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331491/investigating-the-relationship-between-cardiac-interoception-and-autonomic-cardiac-control-using-a-predictive-coding-framework
#13
Andrew P Owens, Karl J Friston, David A Low, Christopher J Mathias, Hugo D Critchley
Predictive coding models, such as the 'free-energy principle' (FEP), have recently been discussed in relation to how interoceptive (afferent visceral feedback) signals update predictions about the state of the body, thereby driving autonomic mediation of homeostasis. This study appealed to 'interoceptive inference', under the FEP, to seek new insights into autonomic (dys)function and brain-body integration by examining the relationship between cardiac interoception and autonomic cardiac control in healthy controls and patients with forms of orthostatic intolerance (OI); to (i) seek empirical support for interoceptive inference and (ii) delineate if this relationship was sensitive to increased interoceptive prediction error in OI patients during head-up tilt (HUT)/symptom provocation...
January 9, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329261/sitting-posture-monitoring-system-based-on-a-low-cost-load-cell-using-machine-learning
#14
Jongryun Roh, Hyeong-Jun Park, Kwang Jin Lee, Joonho Hyeong, Sayup Kim, Boreom Lee
Sitting posture monitoring systems (SPMSs) help assess the posture of a seated person in real-time and improve sitting posture. To date, SPMS studies reported have required many sensors mounted on the backrest plate and seat plate of a chair. The present study, therefore, developed a system that measures a total of six sitting postures including the posture that applied a load to the backrest plate, with four load cells mounted only on the seat plate. Various machine learning algorithms were applied to the body weight ratio measured by the developed SPMS to identify the method that most accurately classified the actual sitting posture of the seated person...
January 12, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327661/evaluations-of-the-tongue-and-hyoid-bone-positions-and-pharyngeal-airway-dimensions-after-maxillary-protraction-treatment
#15
Dong-Min Hwang, Ji-Yeon Lee, Yoon Jeong Choi, Chung-Ju Hwang
Objective To assess changes in the tongue and hyoid bone positions and airway dimensions after maxillary protraction using lateral cephalograms. Methods Lateral cephalograms were obtained before (C0) and after (C1) an observation period for untreated children with skeletal Class I malocclusion and before (T0), immediately after (T1), and one year after (T2) maxillary protraction in children with skeletal Class III malocclusion. Cephalometric measurements were compared between the time points in both patient groups...
January 12, 2018: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326899/effectiveness-of-a-multimodal-exercise-rehabilitation-program-on-walking-capacity-and-functionality-after-a-stroke
#16
Montserrat Grau Pellicer, Andrés Chamarro Lusar, Josep Medina Casanovas, Bernat-Carles Serdà Ferrer
The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 12-week multimodal exercise rehabilitation program on walking speed, walking ability and activities of daily living (ADLs) among people who had suffered a stroke. Thirty-one stroke survivors who had completed a conventional rehabilitation program voluntarily participated in the study. Twenty-six participants completed the multimodal exercise rehabilitation program (2 days/wk, 1 hr/session). Physical outcome measures were: walking speed (10-m walking test), walking ability (6-min walking test and functional ambulation classification) and ADLs (Barthel Index)...
December 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326318/long-term-benefits-of-airway-clearance-in-bronchiectasis-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#17
Gerard Muñoz, Javier de Gracia, Maria Buxó, Antonio Alvarez, Montserrat Vendrell
Keeping airways clear of mucus by airway clearance techniques seems essential in bronchiectasis treatment, although no placebo-controlled trials or any studies lasting longer than 3 months have been conducted. We evaluate the efficacy of the ELTGOL (slow expiration with the glottis opened in the lateral posture) technique over a 1-year period in bronchiectasis patients with chronic expectoration in a randomised placebo-controlled trial.Patients were randomised to perform the ELTGOL technique (n=22) or placebo exercises (n=22) twice-daily (ClinicalTrials...
January 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325794/association-of-posture-and-ambulation-with-function-at-30-days-post-hospital-discharge-in-older-adults-with-heart-failure
#18
Theresa A Floegel, Jared M Dickinson, Cheryl DerAnanian, Marianne McCarthy, Steven P Hooker, Matthew P Buman
PURPOSE: To investigate the predictive value of in-hospital posture and ambulatory activity for 30-d following discharge on functional status in older patients with heart failure. METHODS: Prospective observational pilot study of 27 patients (78 ± 9.8yrs; 51.8% female) admitted with heart failure. Participants wore two inclinometric accelerometers to record posture in-hospital, and an ankle accelerometer to record ambulatory activity in-hospital and 30 days after discharge...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324829/electrode-placement-on-the-forearm-for-selective-stimulation-of-finger-extension-flexion
#19
Xueliang Bao, Yuxuan Zhou, Yunlong Wang, Jianjun Zhang, Xiaoying Lü, Zhigong Wang
It is still challenging to achieve a complex grasp or fine finger control by using surface functional electrical stimulation (FES), which usually requires a precise electrode configuration under laboratory or clinical settings. The goals of this study are as follows: 1) to study the possibility of selectively activating individual fingers; 2) to investigate whether the current activation threshold and selective range of individual fingers are affected by two factors: changes in the electrode position and forearm rotation (pronation, neutral and supination); and 3) to explore a theoretical model for guidance of the electrode placement used for selective activation of individual fingers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324510/reliability-and-validity-of-computerized-force-platform-measures-of-balance-function-in-healthy-older-adults
#20
Cathy C Harro, Chelsea Garascia
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Postural control declines with aging and is an independent risk factor for falls in older adults. Objective examination of balance function is warranted to direct fall prevention strategies. Force platform (FP) systems provide quantitative measures of postural control and analysis of different aspects of balance. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of FP measures in healthy older adults. METHODS: This study enrolled 46 healthy elderly adults, mean age 67...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
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