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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339477/six-degree-of-freedom-knee-joint-kinematics-in-obese-individuals-with-knee-pain-during-gait
#1
Jing-Sheng Li, Tsung-Yuan Tsai, David T Felson, Guoan Li, Cara L Lewis
Knee joint pain is a common symptom in obese individuals and walking is often prescribed as part of management programs. Past studies in obese individuals have focused on standing alignment and kinematics in the sagittal and coronal planes. Investigation of 6 degree-of-freedom (6DOF) knee joint kinematics during standing and gait is important to thoroughly understand knee function in obese individuals with knee pain. This study aimed to investigate the 6DOF knee joint kinematics in standing and during gait in obese patients using a validated fluoroscopic imaging system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337941/lesion-symptom-map-of-cognitive-postural-interference-in-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Serena Ruggieri, Fulvia Fanelli, Letizia Castelli, Nikolaos Petsas, Laura De Giglio, Luca Prosperini
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the disease-altered structure-function relationship underlying the cognitive-postural interference (CPI) phenomenon in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: We measured postural sway of 96 patients and 48 sex-/age-matched healthy controls by force platform in quiet standing (single-task (ST)) while performing the Stroop test (dual-task (DT)) to estimate the dual-task cost (DTC) of balance. In patient group, binary T2 and T1 lesion masks and their corresponding lesion volumes were obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain...
March 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335860/-muscling-throughout-life-integrating-studies-of-muscle-development-homeostasis-and-disease-in-zebrafish
#3
Michelle F Goody, Erin V Carter, Elisabeth A Kilroy, Lisa Maves, Clarissa A Henry
The proper development and function of skeletal muscle is vital for health throughout the lifespan. Skeletal muscle function enables posture, breathing, and locomotion; and also impacts systemic processes-such as metabolism, thermoregulation, and immunity. Diseases of skeletal muscle (myopathies, muscular dystrophies) and even some neurological, age-related, and metabolic diseases compromise muscle function and negatively affect health span and quality of life. There have been numerous, recent examples of studies on skeletal muscle development with exciting, therapeutic implications for muscle diseases...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334035/early-inner-retinal-thinning-and-cardiovascular-autonomic-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetes
#4
Jin A Choi, Hyo Won Kim, Jin-Woo Kwon, Yun-Sub Shim, Dong Hyun Jee, Jae-Seung Yun, Yu-Bae Ahn, Chan Kee Park, Seung-Hyun Ko
BACKGROUND: To investigate changes in the neural retina according to the presence of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects in type 2 diabetes, and to determine the association between inner retina thickness and the severity of diabetic complications. METHODS: We studied non-glaucomatous patients with type 2 diabetes and control subjects Circumpapillary RNFL and macula ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thicknesses were measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332604/phenotype-of-postural-instability-gait-difficulty-in-parkinson-disease-relevance-to-cognitive-impairment-and-mechanism-relating-pathological-proteins-and-neurotransmitters
#5
Li-Jun Zuo, Ying-Shan Piao, Li-Xia Li, Shu-Yang Yu, Peng Guo, Yang Hu, Teng-Hong Lian, Rui-Dan Wang, Qiu-Jin Yu, Zhao Jin, Ya-Jie Wang, Xiao-Min Wang, Piu Chan, Sheng-Di Chen, Yong-Jun Wang, Wei Zhang
Parkinson disease (PD) is identified as tremor-dominant (TD) and postural instability and gait difficulty (PIGD) phenotypes. The relationships between motor phenotypes and cognitive impairment and the underlying mechanisms relating pathological proteins and neurotransmitters in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are unknown. We evaluated the motor symptoms and cognitive function by scales, and detected the levels of pathological proteins and neurotransmitters in CSF. TD group and PIGD group had significantly higher levels of total tau, tau phosphorylated at the position of threonine 181(P-tau181t), threonine 231, serine 396, serine 199 and lower β amyloid (Aβ)1-42 level in CSF than those in control group; PIGD group had significantly higher P-tau181t level and lower Aβ1-42 level than those in TD group...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332011/delayed-otolith-development-does-not-impair-vestibular-circuit-formation-in-zebrafish
#6
Richard Roberts, Jeffrey Elsner, Martha W Bagnall
What is the role of normally patterned sensory signaling in development of vestibular circuits? For technical reasons, including the difficulty in depriving animals of vestibular inputs, this has been a challenging question to address. Here we take advantage of a vestibular-deficient zebrafish mutant, rock solo (AN66) , in order to examine whether normal sensory input is required for formation of vestibular-driven postural circuitry. We show that the rock solo (AN66) mutant is a splice site mutation in the secreted glycoprotein otogelin (otog), which we confirm through both whole genome sequencing and complementation with an otog early termination mutant...
March 22, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331800/altered-functional-brain-connectivity-in-patients-with-visually-induced-dizziness
#7
Angelique Van Ombergen, Lizette Heine, Steven Jillings, R Edward Roberts, Ben Jeurissen, Vincent Van Rompaey, Viviana Mucci, Stefanie Vanhecke, Jan Sijbers, Floris Vanhevel, Stefan Sunaert, Mohamed Ali Bahri, Paul M Parizel, Paul H Van de Heyning, Steven Laureys, Floris L Wuyts
BACKGROUND: Vestibular patients occasionally report aggravation or triggering of their symptoms by visual stimuli, which is called visually induced dizziness (VID). These patients therefore experience dizziness, discomfort, disorientation and postural unsteadiness. The underlying pathophysiology of VID is still poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current explorative study was to gain a first insight in the underlying neural aspects of VID. METHODS: We included 10 VID patients and 10 healthy matched controls, all of which underwent a resting state fMRI scan session...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331301/correlation-between-movement-complexity-during-static-standing-and-balance-function-in-institutionalized-older-adults
#8
Momoko Yamagata, Tome Ikezoe, Midori Kamiya, Mitsuhiro Masaki, Noriaki Ichihashi
PURPOSE: Sample entropy (SampEn) is an analysis to evaluate movement complexity of the center of pressure (COP). A lower value of SampEn indicates lower complexity of COP variability, that is, rigidity, and lower degrees of freedom. Previous studies reported the association of increased SampEn with improved standing balance ability in young subjects. However, no studies have examined these relationships among older adults. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relationship between SampEn and standing balance ability in older adults...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329183/remote-traumatic-brain-injury-is-associated-with-motor-dysfunction-in-older-military-veterans
#9
Raquel C Gardner, Carrie B Peltz, Kimbra Kenney, Kenneth E Covinsky, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Kristine Yaffe
Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been identified as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Motor dysfunction among TBI-exposed elders without PD has not been well characterized. We sought to determine whether remote TBI is a risk factor for motor dysfunction on exam and functionally relevant motor dysfunction in day-to-day life among independently living elders without PD. Methods: This is a cross-sectional cohort study of independently living retired military veterans aged 50 or older with (n = 78) and without (n = 85) prior TBI-all without diagnosed PD...
January 20, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327054/effects-of-low-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-and-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-on-upper-extremity-motor-recovery-in-the-early-period-after-stroke-a-preliminary-study
#10
Aliye Tosun, Sabiha Türe, Ayhan Askin, Engin Ugur Yardimci, Secil Umit Demirdal, Tülay Kurt Incesu, Ozgur Tosun, Hikmet Kocyigit, Galip Akhan, Fazıl Mustafa Gelal
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on upper extremity motor function in patients with acute/subacute ischemic stroke. METHODS: Twenty-five ischemic acute/subacute stroke subjects were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial. Experimental group 1 received low frequency (LF) rTMS to the primary motor cortex of the unaffected side + physical therapy (PT) including activities to improve strength, flexibility, transfers, posture, balance, coordination, and activities of daily living, mainly focusing on upper limb movements; experimental group 2 received the same protocol combined with NMES to hand extensor muscles; and the control group received only PT...
March 22, 2017: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326869/design-and-evaluation-of-vibratory-shoe-on-balance-control-for-elderly-subjects-technical-note
#11
Atefeh Aboutorabi, Mokhtar Arazpour, Farzam Farahmand, Mahmood Bahramizadeh, Reza Fadayevatan, Ehsan Abdollahi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Aging often results in a decline in somatosensory function, and such changes are associated with diminished motor performance. Input noise can enhance sensory and motor function through a mechanism known as stochastic resonance (SR). This paper describes the development and testing of a new vibrating shoe to possibly assist the elderly patients in controlling their balance and decreasing their falling risks. TECHNIQUE: The new vibrating shoe was evaluated to ascertain its ability to generate appropriate random and nonlinear vibrations...
March 22, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325598/sudomotor-dysfunction-as-a-measure-of-small-fiber-neuropathy-in-type-1-diabetes
#12
Lynn Ang, Mamta Jaiswal, Brian Callaghan, David Raffel, Morton B Brown, Rodica Pop-Busui
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated whether measuring the electrochemical skin conductance (ESC), as an indirect measure of sudomotor function, may be also a reliable surrogate for early cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN). METHODS: Longitudinal study included 37 type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects (mean age 38±13years, duration 15±7years, HbA1c 7.9±1.1%, no known complications at baseline), and 40 age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects. Mean hands ESC (ESChands) and feet (ESCfeet) were measured with the SUDOSCAN (Impeto Medical, France)...
March 10, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325096/effects-of-elastic-therapeutic-taping-on-motor-function-in-children-with-motor-impairments-a-systematic-review
#13
Andréa Baraldi Cunha, Carolina Daniel de Lima-Alvarez, Ana Carolinne Portela Rocha, Eloisa Tudella
BACKGROUND: The elastic therapeutic taping has been considered a promising resource for disabled children. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence of the effects of elastic therapeutic taping on motor function in children with motor impairments. METHOD: Three independent evaluators conducted searches in electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, LILACS, BIREME/BVS, Science Direct, SciELO, and PEDro). Clinical studies design, published until 2016, involving elastic therapeutic taping and children aged 0-12 years with motor impairments were included...
March 22, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324754/effects-of-sit-to-stand-training-combined-with-transcutaneous-electrical-stimulation-on-spasticity-muscle-strength-and-balance-ability-in-patients-with-stroke-a-randomized-controlled-study
#14
Kyoung-Sim Jung, Tae-Sung In, Hwi-Young Cho
Sit-to-stand is a fundamental movement of human being for performing mobility and independent activity. However, Stroke people symptoms experience difficulty in conducting the sit-to-stand due to paralysis and especially ankle spasticity. Recently, transcutaneouselectrical- stimulation (TENS) is used to reduce pain but also to manage spasticity. The purpose of this study was to determine (1) whether TENS would lead to ankle spasticity reduction and (2) whether sit-to-stand training combined with TENS would improve spasticity, muscle strength and balance ability in stroke patients...
March 10, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323803/patient-response-to-an-integrated-orthotic-and-rehabilitation-initiative-for-traumatic-injuries-the-prioriti-mtf-study
#15
Joseph R Hsu, Johnny G Owens, Jennifer DeSanto, John R Fergason, Kevin M Kuhn, Benjamin K Potter, Daniel J Stinner, Robert G Sheu, Sandra L Waggoner, Jason M Wilken, Yanjie Huang, Daniel O Scharfstein, Ellen J MacKenzie
Although limb salvage is now possible for many high-energy open fractures and crush injuries to the distal tibia, ankle, hindfoot, and midfoot, orthotic options are limited. The Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis (IDEO) is a custom, energy-storing carbon fiber orthosis developed for trauma patients undergoing limb salvage. The IDEO differs from other orthoses in that it allows patients with ankle weakness to have more normal ankle biomechanics and increased ankle power. This article describes the design of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of the IDEO when delivered together with a high-intensity, sports medicine-based approach to rehabilitation...
April 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321945/quantitative-representations-of-an-exaggerated-anxiety-response-in-the-brain-of-female-spider-phobics-a-parametric-fmri-study
#16
Anna Zilverstand, Bettina Sorger, Anita Kaemingk, Rainer Goebel
We employed a novel parametric spider picture set in the context of a parametric fMRI anxiety provocation study, designed to tease apart brain regions involved in threat monitoring from regions representing an exaggerated anxiety response in spider phobics. For the stimulus set, we systematically manipulated perceived proximity of threat by varying a depicted spider's context, size, and posture. All stimuli were validated in a behavioral rating study (phobics n = 20; controls n = 20; all female). An independent group participated in a subsequent fMRI anxiety provocation study (phobics n = 7; controls n = 7; all female), in which we compared a whole-brain categorical to a whole-brain parametric analysis...
March 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320889/trunk-muscle-activation-during-movement-with-a-new-exercise-device-for-lumbo-pelvic-reconditioning
#17
Tobias Weber, Dorothée Debuse, Sauro E Salomoni, Edith L Elgueta Cancino, Enrico De Martino, Nick Caplan, Volker Damann, Jonathan Scott, Paul W Hodges
Gravitational unloading leads to adaptations of the human body, including the spine and its adjacent structures, making it more vulnerable to injury and pain. The Functional Re-adaptive Exercise Device (FRED) has been developed to activate the deep spinal muscles, lumbar multifidus (LM) and transversus abdominis (TrA), that provide inter-segmental control and spinal protection. The FRED provides an unstable base of support and combines weight bearing in up-right posture with side alternating, elliptical leg movements, without any resistance to movement...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319490/position-between-trunk-and-pelvis-during-gait-depending-on-the-gross-motor-function-classification-system
#18
Jose Manuel Sanz-Mengibar, Natalie Altschuck, Paloma Sanchez-de-Muniain, Christian Bauer, Fernando Santonja-Medina
PURPOSE: To understand whether there is a trunk postural control threshold in the sagittal plane for the transition between the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels measured with 3-dimensional gait analysis. METHOD: Kinematics from 97 children with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy from spine angles according to Plug-In Gait model (Vicon) were plotted relative to their GMFCS level. RESULTS: Only average and minimum values of the lumbar spine segment correlated with GMFCS levels...
March 17, 2017: Pediatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319133/effects-of-sudden-walking-perturbations-on-neuromuscular-reflex-activity-and-three-dimensional-motion-of-the-trunk-in-healthy-controls-and-back-pain-symptomatic-subjects
#19
Juliane Mueller, Tilman Engel, Steffen Mueller, Josefine Stoll, Heiner Baur, Frank Mayer
BACKGROUND: Back pain patients (BPP) show delayed muscle onset, increased co-contractions, and variability as response to quasi-static sudden trunk loading in comparison to healthy controls (H). However, it is unclear whether these results can validly be transferred to suddenly applied walking perturbations, an automated but more functional and complex movement pattern. There is an evident need to develop research-based strategies for the rehabilitation of back pain. Therefore, the investigation of differences in trunk stability between H and BPP in functional movements is of primary interest in order to define suitable intervention regimes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317555/the-cervical-spine-of-australopithecus-sediba
#20
Marc R Meyer, Scott A Williams, Peter Schmid, Steven E Churchill, Lee R Berger
Cervical vertebrae are rare in the early hominin fossil record, presenting a challenge for understanding the evolution of the neck and head carriage in hominin evolution. Here, we examine the cervical vertebrae of Australopithecus sediba, which unlike other South African taxa is known from associated cervical vertebrae. The A. sediba cervical vertebrae exhibit human-like values for wedging, pedicle cross-sectional areas, and articular facet heights, indicating reduced ventral loading relative to African apes...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
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