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postural function

Ashley de Marchena, Judith Miller
Many individuals with ASD have a distinctive behavioral presentation that is recognizable within moments, a phenomenon we call "frank" ASD. This phenomenon has been discussed informally for decades, perhaps as "classic" ASD; however, there is no unitary "classic" presentation, and classic autism does not seem to correspond to level of functioning. Thus, neither "frank" nor "classic" autism has been delineated or studied as a research construct. To initiate the empirical study of frank ASD, we surveyed 151 clinicians, from a range of disciplines that diagnose ASD, about this phenomenon...
October 21, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Aviroop Dutt-Mazumder, Seymon M Slobounov, John Henry Challis, Karl Maxim Newell
This investigation examined the effects of slope of the surface of support (35°, 30°, 20°, 10° Facing(Toe) Down, 0° Flat and 10°, 20°, 25° Facing (Toe) Up) and postural orientation on the margins of postural stability in quiet standing of young adults. The findings showed that the center of pressure-CoP (displacement, area and length) had least motion at the baseline (0° Flat) platform condition that progressively increased as a function of platform angle in both facing up and down directions. The virtual time to collision (VTC) dynamics revealed that the spatio-temporal margins to the functional stability boundary were progressively smaller and the VTC time series also more regular (SampEn-Sample Entropy) as slope angle increased...
2016: PloS One
K H N Weerdesteijn, F G Schaafsma, A J van der Beek, J R Anema
Purpose The purpose of this study was to obtain consensus among physicians of several medical specialties on the level of limitations to work-related functioning of people with persistent "medically unexplained" physical symptoms (PPS). Methods A modified Delphi study was conducted with 15 physicians of five different medical specialties. The study involved two email rounds and one meeting. In each round, the physicians prioritized the level of limitations in 78 work-related functioning items for four different PPS cases...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
Richard F Lewis
Damage to the peripheral vestibular system can result in debilitating postural, perceptual, and visual symptoms. A new potential treatment for this clinical problem is to replace some aspects of peripheral vestibular function with an implant that senses head motion and provides this information to the brain by stimulating branches of the vestibular nerve. In this review I consider animal studies performed at our institution over the past fifteen years, which have helped elucidate how the brain processes information provided by a vestibular (semicircular canal) implant and how this information could be used to improve the problems experienced by patients with peripheral vestibular damage...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Eric N Beck, Quincy J Almeida
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) impairs control of well-learned movements. Movement control improvements are found when individuals complete tasks while focusing attention externally on manipulating an object, which is argued to occur due to automatic processing associated with well-learned movements. Focusing attention internally (on movements of ones' limbs) is believed to involve conscious control networks, and hinders movement performance. Previous work has found that an external focus of attention improved postural stability in individuals with PD (compared to internal), but this was when patients were taking dopamine medication, which modulates basal ganglia functioning responsible for well-learned movements...
October 6, 2016: Physical Therapy
Carolina Souza Neves da Costa, Sandra L Saavedra, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira Rocha, Marjorie H Woollacott
BACKGROUND: External support has been viewed as an important biomechanical constraint for children with deficits in postural control. Nonlinear analysis of head stability is necessary to confirm benefits of interaction between external trunk support and level of trunk control. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of biomechanical constraints (trunk support) on neural control of head stability during development of trunk control. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental repeated measure study...
October 6, 2016: Physical Therapy
Arnaldina Sampaio, Elisa A Marques, Jorge Mota, Joana Carvalho
This study examined the effect of a Multicomponent Training (MT) intervention on cognitive function, functional fitness and anthropometric variables in institutionalized patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thirty-seven institutionalized elders (84.05 ± 5.58 years) clinically diagnosed with AD (mild and moderate stages) were divided into two groups: Experimental Group (EG, n = 19) and Control Group (CG, n = 18). The EG participated in a six-month supervised MT program (aerobic, muscular resistance, flexibility and postural exercises) of 45-55 minutes/session, twice/week...
October 18, 2016: Dementia
Peter R Bieck, Mark Leibowitz, D Richard Lachno, Edouard Ledent, Robert Padich, Stan Jhee
To assess the primary metabolite of norepinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG), as a sensitive biomarker for norepinephrine transporter (NET) function and the relationship of DHPG measured peripherally and centrally, NET was antagonized with 80 mg/d atomoxetine for 18 days. Twelve healthy subjects were treated with atomoxetine in an open-label, multiple-dose exploratory study. Plasma atomoxetine reached steady state by day 6, and the pharmacokinetic results demonstrated availability of atomoxetine to the central nervous system...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Francine Marques, Nina Eikelis, Richard Bayles, Nora Straznicky, Dagmara Hering, Murray Esler, Geoffrey Head, Markus Schlaich, Gavin Lambert
OBJECTIVE: Noradrenaline released from sympathetic nerves is removed from the neuroeffector junction via the action of the noradrenaline transporter (NET). NET impairment is evident in several clinically important conditions including essential hypertension, major depressive disorder, panic disorder and the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. Only in rare instances, however, do coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) seem to account for a defect in NET. The aim of this study was to determine whether rs7194256 (C/T), a SNP in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the NET gene, is associated with diseases associated with NET dysfunction, and to elucidate the mechanism involved...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Rainer von Coelln, Lisa M Shulman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies on clinical, genetic and pathological heterogeneity of Parkinson disease have renewed the old debate whether we should think of Parkinson disease as one disease with variations, or as a group of independent diseases that happen to present with similar phenotypes. Here, we provide an overview of where the debate is coming from, and how recent findings in clinical subtyping, genetics and clinico-pathological correlation have shaped this controversy over the last few years...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
Alon Kalron, Uri Givon, Lior Frid, Mark Dolev, Anat Achiron
Balance impairment is common in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and frequently impacts quality of life by decreasing mobility and increasing the risk of falling. However, there are only scarce data examining the contribution of specific neurological functional systems on balance measures in MS. Therefore, the primary aim of our study was to examine the differences in posturography parameters and fall incidence according to the pyramidal, cerebellar and sensory systems functional systems in PwMS. The study included 342 PwMS, 211 women and mean disease duration of 8...
2016: PloS One
Cynthia Lions, Maria Pia Bucci, Cédrick Bonnet
PURPOSE: To challenge the validity of existing cognitive models of postural control, we recorded eye movements and postural sway during two visual tasks (a control free-viewing task and a difficult searching task), and two postural tasks (one static task in which the platform was maintained stable and a dynamic task in which the platform moved in a sway-referenced manner.) We expected these models to be insufficient to predict the results in postural control both in static-as already shown in the literature reports-and in dynamic platform conditions...
2016: PloS One
Valeriya Gritsenko, Russell L Hardesty, Mathew T Boots, Sergiy Yakovenko
Neural control of movement can only be realized though the interaction between the mechanical properties of the limb and the environment. Thus, a fundamental question is whether anatomy has evolved to simplify neural control by shaping these interactions in a beneficial way. This inductive data-driven study analyzed the patterns of muscle actions across multiple joints using the musculoskeletal model of the human upper limb. This model was used to calculate muscle lengths across the full range of motion of the arm and examined the correlations between these values between all pairs of muscles...
2016: PloS One
Eugenio Maria Pistone, Luca Laudani, Gianluca Camillieri, Alessandra Di Cagno, Gabriele Tomassi, Andrea Macaluso, Arrigo Giombini
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of adding a whole-body vibration protocol at optimal frequency (WBV-OF) to a traditional rehabilitation programme (TRP) early after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, on maximal strength and balance, in comparison with a traditional rehabilitation programme. DESIGN: A total of 34 anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed patients with hamstring-tendon graft underwent either 4 weeks of WBV-OF training in addition to a traditional rehabilitation programme, or a traditional rehabilitation programme only, starting from the first month after surgery...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Nicola Marchili, Eleonora Ortu, Davide Pietropaoli, Ruggero Cattaneo, Annalisa Monaco
Stomatognathic system is strictly correlated to other anatomical regions; many studies investigated relationship between temporomandibular joint and posture, several articles describe cranio-facial pain from dental causes, such as trigger points. Until now less interest has been given to connections between dental occlusion and ophthalmology, even if they are important and involving. Clinical experience in dental practice claims that mandibular latero-deviation is connected both to eye dominance and to defects of ocular convergence...
2016: Open Dentistry Journal
Craig P Smith, Raymond F Reynolds
When using our arms to interact with the world, unintended body motion can introduce movement error. A mechanism which could detect and compensate for such motion would be beneficial. Observations of arm movements evoked by vestibular stimulation provide some support for this mechanism. However, the physiological function underlying these artificially-evoked movements is unclear from previous research. For such a mechanism to be functional, it should only operate when the arm is being controlled in an earth-fixed rather than body-fixed reference frame...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Pramila Kalra, Vikram K Yeragani, K M Prasanna Kumar
BACKGROUND: Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) may have higher incidence of coronary heart disease and autonomic dysfunction. DESIGN OF THE STUDY: Prospective case control study. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate beat-to-beat QT variability and vascular stiffness in patients with SH compared to normal controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared linear and nonlinear measures of cardiac repolarization liability using beat-to-beat QT intervals derived from the surface electrocardiogram during supine posture and vascular indices including pulse wave velocity and ankle-brachial index (ABI) during supine posture between female patients with SH and age- and sex-matched normal controls...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Mohammed H Iqbal, Abdullatif Aydin, Oliver Brunckhorst, Prokar Dasgupta, Kamran Ahmed
With rapid advances in technology, wearable devices have evolved and been adopted for various uses, ranging from simple devices used in aiding fitness to more complex devices used in assisting surgery. Wearable technology is broadly divided into head-mounted displays and body sensors. A broad search of the current literature revealed a total of 13 different body sensors and 11 head-mounted display devices. The latter have been reported for use in surgery (n = 7), imaging (n = 3), simulation and education (n = 2) and as navigation tools (n = 1)...
October 2016: Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
Isabelle Breton-Torres, Manon Serre, Patrick Jammet, Jacques Yachouh
INTRODUCTION: The temporomandibular joint is highly adaptive and masticatory apparatus disorders (MAD) can occur when its ability to adapt is overwhelmed. Occlusal etiologies were long pinpointed as the sole culprits. However, a consensus now exists which minimizes their involvement. It is recognized that the etiology of MAD is multifactorial, combining occlusal problems, parafunctions, postural anomalies, orofacial dyspraxia and stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this article, the authors review the role of physiotherapy in managing these pathologies...
September 2016: L' Orthodontie Française
Jess E Reynolds, Sophie Kerrigan, Catherine Elliott, Brendan S Lay, Melissa K Licari
It has been hypothesized that deficits in imitation, linked to abnormal functioning of the mirror neuron system (MNS), may contribute to the motor impairments associated with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The authors aimed to examine imitation of complex novel postures and sequences of gestures in children with and without probable DCD (pDCD), using the postural praxis and sequencing praxis subtests of the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (Ayres, 1989 ). Participants were 29 boys with pDCD between 6...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
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