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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658321/the-neurobiology-of-focus-and-distraction-the-case-for-incorporating-mindfulness-into-leadership
#1
Paul Mohapel
Increasingly health leaders are experiencing greater demands and pressures, which require the need for better focus while limiting unwarranted distractions. This article offers a neurobiological explanation of how the brain focuses and becomes distracted, in order to help health leaders gain insight into their own effectiveness. Two main neural circuits are contrasted: the mind-wandering default mode circuit and the attentional central executive system. These two systems act in an antagonistic pairing, where the degree of toggling between systems is associated with the degree a person can sustain focus and filter out unwarranted distractions...
January 1, 2018: Healthcare Management Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574056/combining-a-toggle-switch-and-a-repressilator-within-the-ac-dc-circuit-generates-distinct-dynamical-behaviors
#2
Ruben Perez-Carrasco, Chris P Barnes, Yolanda Schaerli, Mark Isalan, James Briscoe, Karen M Page
Although the structure of a genetically encoded regulatory circuit is an important determinant of its function, the relationship between circuit topology and the dynamical behaviors it can exhibit is not well understood. Here, we explore the range of behaviors available to the AC-DC circuit. This circuit consists of three genes connected as a combination of a toggle switch and a repressilator. Using dynamical systems theory, we show that the AC-DC circuit exhibits both oscillations and bistability within the same region of parameter space; this generates emergent behaviors not available to either the toggle switch or the repressilator alone...
March 12, 2018: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540833/off-and-back-on-again-a-tumor-suppressor-s-tale
#3
REVIEW
Jonuelle Acosta, Walter Wang, David M Feldser
Tumor suppressor genes play critical roles orchestrating anti-cancer programs that are both context dependent and mechanistically diverse. Beyond canonical tumor suppressive programs that control cell division, cell death, and genome stability, unexpected tumor suppressor gene activities that regulate metabolism, immune surveillance, the epigenetic landscape, and others have recently emerged. This diversity underscores the important roles these genes play in maintaining cellular homeostasis to suppress cancer initiation and progression, but also highlights a tremendous challenge in discerning precise context-specific programs of tumor suppression controlled by a given tumor suppressor...
March 15, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497852/pedicle-screw-anchorage-of-carbon-fiber-reinforced-peek-screws-under-cyclic-loading
#4
Richard A Lindtner, Rene Schmid, Thomas Nydegger, Marko Konschake, Werner Schmoelz
PURPOSE: Pedicle screw loosening is a common and significant complication after posterior spinal instrumentation, particularly in osteoporosis. Radiolucent carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CF/PEEK) pedicle screws have been developed recently to overcome drawbacks of conventional metallic screws, such as metal-induced imaging artifacts and interference with postoperative radiotherapy. Beyond radiolucency, CF/PEEK may also be advantageous over standard titanium in terms of pedicle screw loosening due to its unique material properties...
March 1, 2018: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432565/an-rna-dependent-mechanism-for-transient-expression-of-bacterial-translocation-filaments
#5
Dai Wang, Sean P McAteer, Agata B Wawszczyk, Clark D Russell, Amin Tahoun, Alex Elmi, Scott L Cockroft, David Tollervey, Sander Granneman, Jai J Tree, David L Gally
The prokaryotic RNA chaperone Hfq mediates sRNA-mRNA interactions and plays a significant role in post-transcriptional regulation of the type III secretion (T3S) system produced by a range of Escherichia coli pathotypes. UV-crosslinking was used to map Hfq-binding under conditions that promote T3S and multiple interactions were identified within polycistronic transcripts produced from the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) that encodes the T3S system. The majority of Hfq binding was within the LEE5 and LEE4 operons, the latter encoding the translocon apparatus (SepL-EspADB) that is positively regulated by the RNA binding protein, CsrA...
February 8, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303571/an-allosterically-regulated-four-state-macrocycle
#6
Andrea I d'Aquino, Ho Fung Cheng, Joaquín Barroso-Flores, Zachary S Kean, Jose Mendez-Arroyo, C Michael McGuirk, Chad A Mirkin
Macrocycles capable of host-guest chemistry are an important class of structures that have attracted considerable attention because of their utility in chemical separations, analyte sensing, signal amplification, and drug delivery. The deliberate design and synthesis of such structures are rate-limiting steps in utilizing them for such applications, and coordination-driven supramolecular chemistry has emerged as a promising tool for rapidly making large classes of such systems with attractive molecular recognition capabilities and, in certain cases, catalytic properties...
April 2, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197392/genetic-toggle-switch-controlled-by-bacterial-growth-rate
#7
Joanna Jaruszewicz-Błońska, Tomasz Lipniacki
BACKGROUND: In favorable conditions bacterial doubling time is less than 20 min, shorter than DNA replication time. In E. coli a single round of genome replication lasts about 40 min and it must be accomplished about 20 min before cell division. To achieve such fast growth rates bacteria perform multiple replication rounds simultaneously. As a result, when the division time is as short as 20 min E. coli has about 8 copies of origin of replication (ori) and the average copy number of the genes situated close to ori can be 4 times larger than those near the terminus of replication (ter)...
December 2, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188788/mechanistic-insights-of-the-min-oscillator-via-cell-free-reconstitution-and-imaging
#8
Kiyoshi Mizuuchi, Anthony G Vecchiarelli
The MinD and MinE proteins of Escherichia coli self-organize into a standing-wave oscillator on the membrane to help align division at mid-cell. When unleashed from cellular confines, MinD and MinE form a spectrum of patterns on artificial bilayers - static amoebas, traveling waves, traveling mushrooms, and bursts with standing-wave dynamics. We recently focused our cell-free studies on bursts because their dynamics recapitulate many features of Min oscillation observed in vivo. The data unveiled a patterning mechanism largely governed by MinE regulation of MinD interaction with membrane...
November 30, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150615/balancing-a-genetic-toggle-switch-by-real-time-feedback-control-and-periodic-forcing
#9
Jean-Baptiste Lugagne, Sebastián Sosa Carrillo, Melanie Kirch, Agnes Köhler, Gregory Batt, Pascal Hersen
Cybergenetics is a novel field of research aiming at remotely pilot cellular processes in real-time with to leverage the biotechnological potential of synthetic biology. Yet, the control of only a small number of genetic circuits has been tested so far. Here we investigate the control of multistable gene regulatory networks, which are ubiquitously found in nature and play critical roles in cell differentiation and decision-making. Using an in silico feedback control loop, we demonstrate that a bistable genetic toggle switch can be dynamically maintained near its unstable equilibrium position for extended periods of time...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125127/design-of-dynamic-genetic-memory
#10
Yu-Jia Hu, Chun-Liang Lin, Wei-Xian Li
In electronic systems, dynamic random access memory (DRAM) is one of the core modules in the modern silicon computer. As for a bio-computer, one would need a mechanism for storage of bio-information named 'data', which, in binary logic, has two levels, logical high and logical low, or in the normalised form, '1' and '0'. This study proposes a possible genetic DRAM based on the modified electronic configuration, which uses the biological reaction to fulfil an equivalent RC circuit constituting a memory cell...
December 2017: IET Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105095/minimally-invasive-technique-for-coxofemoral-luxation-stabilisation-using-transarticular-toggle-system-a-cadaveric-study
#11
U Segal, J Shani, R Joseph
OBJECTIVE: To present a novel, semi-closed, surgical technique for coxofemoral luxation stabilisation using a transarticular toggle rod. STUDY DESIGN: Cadaveric study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Craniodorsal luxation was generated by transecting the ligamentum teres in 12 coxofemoral joints and was then reduced using a closed technique. Anteversion and inclination angles were measured using fluoroscopic projections. An arthroscope was inserted through a bone tunnel drilled from the third trochanter through the femoral neck...
March 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947816/an-integrative-circuit-host-modelling-framework-for-predicting-synthetic-gene-network-behaviours
#12
Chen Liao, Andrew E Blanchard, Ting Lu
One fundamental challenge in synthetic biology is the lack of quantitative tools that accurately describe and predict the behaviours of engineered gene circuits. This challenge arises from multiple factors, among which the complex interdependence of circuits and their host is a leading cause. Here we present a gene circuit modelling framework that explicitly integrates circuit behaviours with host physiology through bidirectional circuit-host coupling. The framework consists of a coarse-grained but mechanistic description of host physiology that involves dynamic resource partitioning, multilayered circuit-host coupling including both generic and system-specific interactions, and a detailed kinetic module of exogenous circuits...
December 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928941/computational-design-of-molecular-motors-as-nanocircuits-in-leishmaniasis
#13
Dipali Kosey, Shailza Singh
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of lesihmaniasis, caused by Leishmania major and is spread by the bite of a sandfly .This species infects the macrophages and dendritic cells Due to multi-drug resistance, there is a need for a new therapeutic technique. Recently, a novel molecular motor of Leishmania, Myosin XXI, was classified and characterized. In addition, the drug resistance in this organism has been linked with the overexpression of ABC transporters. Systems biology aims to study the simulation and modeling of natural biological systems whereas synthetic biology deals with building novel and artificial biological parts and devices  Together they have contributed enormously to drug discovery, vaccine design and development, infectious disease detection and diagnostics...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775277/environmental-influence-on-pristionchus-pacificus-mouth-form-through-different-culture-methods
#14
Michael S Werner, Bogdan Sieriebriennikov, Tobias Loschko, Suryesh Namdeo, Masa Lenuzzi, Mohannad Dardiry, Tess Renahan, Devansh Raj Sharma, Ralf J Sommer
Environmental cues can impact development to elicit distinct phenotypes in the adult. The consequences of phenotypic plasticity can have profound effects on morphology, life cycle, and behavior to increase the fitness of the organism. The molecular mechanisms governing these interactions are beginning to be elucidated in a few cases, such as social insects. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of systems that are amenable to rigorous experimentation, preventing both detailed mechanistic insight and the establishment of a generalizable conceptual framework...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763188/a-tug-of-war-mechanism-for-pattern-formation-in-a-genetic-network
#15
Marcella M Gomez, Murat Arcak
Synthesizing spatial patterns with genetic networks is an ongoing challenge in synthetic biology. A successful demonstration of pattern formation would imply a better understanding of systems in the natural world and advance applications in synthetic biology. In developmental systems, transient patterning may suffice in order to imprint instructions for long-term development. In this paper we show that transient but persistent patterns can emerge from a realizable synthetic gene network based on a toggle switch...
November 17, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747731/dynamical-sensitivity-control-of-a-single-spin-quantum-sensor
#16
Andrii Lazariev, Silvia Arroyo-Camejo, Ganesh Rahane, Vinaya Kumar Kavatamane, Gopalakrishnan Balasubramanian
The Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) defect in diamond is a unique quantum system that offers precision sensing of nanoscale physical quantities at room temperature beyond the current state-of-the-art. The benchmark parameters for nanoscale magnetometry applications are sensitivity, spectral resolution, and dynamic range. Under realistic conditions the NV sensors controlled by conventional sensing schemes suffer from limitations of these parameters. Here we experimentally show a new method called dynamical sensitivity control (DYSCO) that boost the benchmark parameters and thus extends the practical applicability of the NV spin for nanoscale sensing...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724287/active-solvent-modulation-a-valve-based-approach-to-improve-separation-compatibility-in-two-dimensional-liquid-chromatography
#17
Dwight R Stoll, Konstantin Shoykhet, Patrik Petersson, Stephan Buckenmaier
Two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) is increasingly being viewed as a viable tool for solving difficult separation problems, ranging from targeted separations of structurally similar molecules to untargeted separations of highly complex mixtures. In spite of this performance potential, though, many users find method development challenging and most frequently cite the "incompatibility" between the solvent systems used in the first and second dimensions as a major obstacle. This solvent strength related incompatibility can lead to severe peak distortion and loss of resolution and sensitivity in the second dimension...
September 5, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585107/a-technique-to-define-extrahepatic-biliary-anatomy-using-robotic-near-infrared-fluorescent-cholangiography
#18
Ajay V Maker, Nicholas Kunda
BACKGROUND: Bile duct injury is a rare but serious complication of minimally invasive cholecystectomy. Traditionally, intraoperative cholangiogram has been used in difficult cases to help delineate anatomical structures, however, new imaging modalities are currently available to aid in the identification of extrahepatic biliary anatomy, including near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography (NIFC) using indocyanine green (ICG).1-5 The objective of the study was to evaluate if this technique may aid in safe dissection to obtain the critical view...
November 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578162/rapid-convergence-of-optimal-control-in-nmr-using-numerically-constructed-toggling-frames
#19
Paul Coote, Clemens Anklin, Walter Massefski, Gerhard Wagner, Haribabu Arthanari
We present a numerical method for rapidly solving the Bloch equation for an arbitrary time-varying spin-1/2 Hamiltonian. The method relies on fast, vectorized computations such as summation and quaternion multiplication, rather than slow computations such as matrix exponentiation. A toggling frame is constructed in which the Hamiltonian is time-invariant, and therefore has a simple analytical solution. The key insight is that constructing this frame is faster than solving the system dynamics in the original frame...
August 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488874/an-optically-modulated-self-assembled-resonance-energy-transfer-pass-gate
#20
Craig D LaBoda, Alvin R Lebeck, Chris L Dwyer
We demonstrate an optically controlled molecular-scale pass gate that uses the photoinduced dark states of fluorescent molecules to modulate the flow of excitons. The device consists of four fluorophores spatially arranged on a self-assembled DNA nanostructure. Together, they form a resonance energy transfer (RET) network resembling a standard transistor with a source, channel, drain, and gate. When the gate fluorophore is directly excited, the device is toggled on. Excitons flow freely from the source to the drain, producing strong output fluorescence...
June 14, 2017: Nano Letters
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