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lower protein in infant formula. Koletzko

Birgit Ahrens, Christian Hellmuth, Nadja Haiden, Dirk Olbertz, Eckard Hamelmann, Milica Vusurovic, Manja Fleddermann, Robert Roehle, Anette Knoll, Berthold Koletzko, Ulrich Wahn, Kirsten Beyer
OBJECTIVE: A high protein content of non-hydrolyzed infant formula exceeding metabolic requirements can induce rapid weight gain and obesity. Hydrolyzed formula with too low protein (LP) content may result in inadequate growth. The aim of this study was to investigate non-inferiority of partial and extensively hydrolyzed formulas (pHF, eHF) with lower hydrolyzed protein content than conventionally, regularly used formulas, with or without synbiotics for normal growth of healthy term infants...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Natalia Ferré, Carmen Rubio-Torrents, Veronica Luque, Ricardo Closa-Monasterolo, Veit Grote, Berthold Koletzko, Piotr Socha, Dariusz Gruszfeld, Jean Paul Langhendries, Anne Sengier, Elvira Verduci, Joaquin Escribano
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dietary factors can modify calciuria. We aim to investigate urinary calcium excretion in healthy infants according to their protein. METHODS: Secondary data analysis from a randomized clinical trial where healthy term infants were randomized after birth to a higher (HP) or lower (LP) protein content formula that was consumed until age 1 year. A non-randomized group of breastfed (BF) infants was used for reference. Anthropometry, dietary intakes and calciuria (calcium/creatinine ratios) from spot urine samples were assessed at ages 3 and 6 months...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Bernadeta Patro-Gołąb, Bartłomiej M Zalewski, Maciej Kołodziej, Stefanie Kouwenhoven, Lucilla Poston, Keith M Godfrey, Berthold Koletzko, Johannes Bernard van Goudoever, Hania Szajewska
This study, performed as part of the international EarlyNutrition research project (, provides a systematic review of systematic reviews on the effects of nutritional interventions or exposures in children (up to 3 years of age) on the subsequent risk of obesity, overweight and adiposity. Electronic databases (including MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library) were searched up until September 2015. Forty systematic reviews were included. A consistent association of breastfeeding with a modest reduction in the risk of later overweight and obesity in childhood and adulthood was found (the odds decreased by 13% based on high-quality studies), but residual confounding cannot be excluded...
December 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Christine Prell, Berthold Koletzko
BACKGROUND: Proper infant nutrition promotes healthy growth and development and lowers the risk of disease in later life. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent articles retrieved by a selective search, including guidelines, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews. RESULTS: Infants should be exclusively breast-fed until at least the age of 4 months. Infants who are no longer being breast-fed, or no longer exclusively so, should be given commercially available low-protein infant formula containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids...
June 24, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
D Gruszfeld, M Weber, K Gradowska, P Socha, V Grote, A Xhonneux, E Dain, E Verduci, E Riva, R Closa-Monasterolo, J Escribano, B Koletzko
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The double-blind randomized European Childhood Obesity Project (CHOP) demonstrated that reduced protein content in infant formula leads to a lower body mass index (BMI) up to six years of age. Here we aimed at assessing pre-peritoneal fat, a marker of visceral fat, in children participating in the CHOP trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: Healthy term formula-fed infants in five European countries were randomized either to higher (n = 550) or lower (n = 540) protein formulas in the first year of life...
September 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Christian Hellmuth, Olaf Uhl, Franca F Kirchberg, Veit Grote, Martina Weber, Peter Rzehak, Clotilde Carlier, Natalia Ferre, Elvira Verduci, Dariusz Gruszfeld, Piotr Socha, Berthold Koletzko
Breastfeeding induces a different metabolic and endocrine response than feeding conventional infant formula, and it has also been associated with slower weight gain and reduced disease risk in later life. The underlying programming mechanisms remain to be explored. Breastfeeding has been reported to induce lower levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 and some amino acids (AAs) than formula feeding. In the Childhood Obesity Project (CHOP), infants fed a conventional protein-rich formula had a higher BMI at 2 and 6 years than those fed a protein-reduced formula...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Piotr Socha, Christian Hellmuth, Dariusz Gruszfeld, Hans Demmelmair, Peter Rzehak, Veit Grote, Martina Weber, Joaquin Escribano, Ricardo Closa-Monasterolo, Elena Dain, Jean-Paul Langhendries, Enrica Riva, Elvira Verduci, Berthold Koletzko
There is growing evidence of long-term effects of early dietary intervention in infancy on later obesity risk. Many studies showed reduced risk of obesity with breastfeeding in infancy, which could be related to the reduced protein intake with human milk compared to infant formula. In a randomized controlled trial (Childhood Obesity Project), we were able to show that infant formula with reduced protein content results in lower BMI both at 2 and 6 years. These effects seem to be mediated mainly by branched-chain amino acids which stimulate the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis and insulin release...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
M Fleddermann, A Rauh-Pfeiffer, H Demmelmair, L Holdt, D Teupser, B Koletzko
UNLABELLED: Effects of the dietary glycaemic load on postprandial blood glucose and insulin response might be of importance for fat deposition and risk of obesity. We aimed to investigate the metabolic effects, acceptance and tolerance of a follow-on formula containing the low glycaemic and low insulinaemic carbohydrate isomaltulose replacing high glycaemic maltodextrin. Healthy term infants aged 4 to 8 completed months (n = 50) were randomized to receive the intervention follow-on formula (IF, 2...
2016: PloS One
Rosa Collell, Ricardo Closa-Monasterolo, Natalia Ferré, Veronica Luque, Berthold Koletzko, Veit Grote, Roman Janas, Elvira Verduci, Joaquín Escribano
BACKGROUND: Protein intake may modulate cardiac structure and function in pathological conditions, but there is a lack of knowledge on potential effects in healthy infants. METHODS: Secondary analysis of an ongoing randomized clinical trial comparing two groups of infants receiving a higher (HP) or lower (LP) protein content formula in the first year of life, and compared with an observational group of breastfed (BF) infants. Growth and dietary intake were assessed periodically from birth to 2 y...
June 2016: Pediatric Research
Bernadeta Patro-Gołąb, Bartłomiej M Zalewski, Stefanie Mp Kouwenhoven, Jacek Karaś, Berthold Koletzko, Johannes Bernard van Goudoever, Hania Szajewska
BACKGROUND: Protein intake may influence important health outcomes in later life. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate current evidence on the effects of infant formulas and follow-on formulas with different protein concentrations on infants' and children's growth, body composition, and later risk of overweight and obesity. METHODS: In this systematic review, we searched electronic databases (including MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library) up until November 2014 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
March 2016: Journal of Nutrition
J Escribano, V Luque, J Canals-Sans, N Ferré, B Koletzko, V Grote, M Weber, D Gruszfeld, K Szott, E Verduci, E Riva, G Brasselle, P Poncelet, R Closa-Monasterolo
In humans, maximum brain development occurs between the third trimester of gestation and 2 years of life. Nutrition during these critical windows of rapid brain development might be essential for later cognitive functioning and behaviour. In the last few years, trends on protein recommendations during infancy and childhood have tended to be lower than that in the past. It remains to be demonstrated that lower protein intakes among healthy infants, a part of being able to reduce obesity risk, is safe in terms of mental performance achievement...
January 22, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Manja Fleddermann, Hans Demmelmair, Veit Grote, Martin Bidlingmaier, Philipp Grimminger, Maximilian Bielohuby, Berthold Koletzko
PURPOSE: Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is related to growth and its secretion is modified by protein intake in early infancy. We examined the relationship of dietary protein and circulating amino acids on plasma IGF-I levels and early growth. METHODS: Healthy formula-fed infants (n = 213) were randomly assigned to receive either a protein-reduced infant formula with alpha-lactalbumin-enriched whey and free tryptophan and phenylalanine (IF) or an isocaloric standard formula without free amino acids (CF) for the first 120 days of life...
March 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
Dariusz Gruszfeld, Martina Weber, Monika Nowakowska-Rysz, Roman Janas, Rainer Kozlik-Feldmann, Annick Xhonneux, Clotilde Carlier, Enrica Riva, Elvira Verduci, Ricardo Closa-Monasterolo, Joaquin Escribano, Anna Dobrzanska, Berthold Koletzko
BACKGROUND: Nutrition in childhood has an influence on the cardiovascular function later on in life. European Childhood Obesity Project is a multicenter, randomized clinical intervention trial examining the effect of early protein intake on later health outcomes, particularly adiposity and related disorders. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of nutritional intervention--different protein intake in infancy on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) at 5 years. The association of cardiovascular risk factors with cIMT was also assessed...
2015: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Franca F Kirchberg, Ulrike Harder, Martina Weber, Veit Grote, Hans Demmelmair, Wolfgang Peissner, Peter Rzehak, Annick Xhonneux, Clotilde Carlier, Natalia Ferre, Joaquin Escribano, Elvira Verduci, Piotr Socha, Dariusz Gruszfeld, Berthold Koletzko, Christian Hellmuth
CONTEXT: The protective effect of breast-feeding against later obesity may be explained by the lower protein content compared with formula milk. However, the metabolic mechanisms remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: We studied the metabolic response to a higher or lower protein supply in infancy. DESIGN AND SETTING: The Childhood Obesity Project study is a double-blind, randomized, multicenter intervention trial. Infants were randomized to receive a higher (HP) or lower protein (LP) content infant formula or were breast-fed...
January 2015: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Martina Weber, Veit Grote, Ricardo Closa-Monasterolo, Joaquín Escribano, Jean-Paul Langhendries, Elena Dain, Marcello Giovannini, Elvira Verduci, Dariusz Gruszfeld, Piotr Socha, Berthold Koletzko
BACKGROUND: Early nutrition is recognized as a target for the effective prevention of childhood obesity. Protein intake was associated with more rapid weight gain during infancy-a known risk factor for later obesity. OBJECTIVE: We tested whether the reduction of protein in infant formula reduces body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) and the prevalence of obesity at 6 y of age. DESIGN: The Childhood Obesity Project was conducted as a European multicenter, double-blind, randomized clinical trial that enrolled healthy infants born between October 2002 and July 2004...
May 2014: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Peter Rzehak, Veit Grote, Eva Lattka, Martina Weber, Dariusz Gruszfeld, Piotr Socha, Ricardo Closa-Monasterolo, Joaquín Escribano, Marcello Giovannini, Elvira Verduci, Philippe Goyens, Françoise Martin, Jean-Paul Langhendries, Hans Demmelmair, Norman Klopp, Thomas Illig, Berthold Koletzko
OBJECTIVE: The interplay of genetic and nutritional regulation of the insulin-like growth factor-I axis in children is unclear. Therefore, potential gene-nutrient effects on serum levels of the IGF-I axis in a formula feeding trial were studied. DESIGN: European multicenter randomized clinical trial of 1090 term, formula-fed infants assigned to receive cow's milk-based infant and follow-on formulae with lower (LP: 1.25 and 1.6 g/100 mL) or higher (HP: 2.05 and 3...
October 2013: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Veronica Luque, Joaquin Escribano, Veit Grote, Natalia Ferre, Berthold Koletzko, Dariusz Gruszfeld, Piotr Socha, Jean-Paul Langhendries, Philippe Goyens, Ricardo Closa-Monasterolo
BACKGROUND: Animal models have shown that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) may mediate protein-induced kidney growth. Our aim was to analyze the effect of IGF-I on protein-induced kidney growth in healthy infants. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a randomized trial that compared growth of infants fed with a higher-protein (HP) (n = 169) vs. lower-protein (LP) (n = 182) formula (in the first year of life). Outcome measures were anthropometric parameters, kidney volume (cm(3)), and total and free IGF-I (ng/ml)...
August 2013: Pediatric Research
Berthold Koletzko, Jeanette Beyer, Brigitte Brands, Hans Demmelmair, Veit Grote, Gudrun Haile, Dariusz Gruszfeld, Peter Rzehak, Piotr Socha, Martina Weber
Health and nutrition modulate postnatal growth. The availability of amino acids and energy, and insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) regulates early growth through the mTOR pathway. Amino acids and glucose also stimulate the secretion of IGF-I and insulin. Postnatal growth induces lasting, programming effects on later body size and adiposity in animals and in human observational studies. Rapid weight gain in infancy and the first 2 years was shown to predict increased obesity risk in childhood and adulthood...
2013: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
J Escribano, V Luque, N Ferre, G Mendez-Riera, B Koletzko, V Grote, H Demmelmair, L Bluck, A Wright, R Closa-Monasterolo
INTRODUCTION: Higher protein intake during the first year of life is associated with increased weight gain velocity and body mass index (BMI). However, the relationship of protein intake and weight gain velocity with body composition is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess if the increases in weight gain velocity and BMI induced by protein intake early in life are related to an increase in fat or fat-free mass. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In all, 41 infants randomized at birth to a higher or lower protein content formula (HP=17 and LP=24, respectively) and 25 breastfed infants were included...
April 2012: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Ricardo Closa-Monasterolo, Natàlia Ferré, Verónica Luque, Marta Zaragoza-Jordana, Veit Grote, Martina Weber, Berthold Koletzko, Piotr Socha, Dariusz Gruszfeld, Roman Janas, Annick Xhonneux, Elena Dain, Silvia Scaglioni, Joaquin Escribano
BACKGROUND: Nutritional factors during a sensitive period can influence child development in a sex-related manner. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate whether sex modulates the responses of relevant biochemical parameters and growth to different protein intakes early in life. DESIGN: In a randomized controlled trial, formula-fed infants were assigned to receive formula with higher protein (HP) or lower protein (LP) content. The main outcome measures were insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis parameters, weight, length, BMI, leptin, and C-peptide/creatinine ratio at 6 mo of age...
December 2011: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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