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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911755/transformation-of-vestibular-signals-for-the-control-of-standing-in-humans
#1
Patrick A Forbes, Billy L Luu, H F Machiel Van der Loos, Elizabeth A Croft, J Timothy Inglis, Jean-Sébastien Blouin
: During standing balance, vestibular signals encode head movement and are transformed into coordinates that are relevant to maintaining upright posture of the whole body. This transformation must account for head-on-body orientation as well as the muscle actions generating the postural response. Here, we investigate whether this transformation is dependent upon a muscle's ability to stabilize the body along the direction of a vestibular disturbance. Subjects were braced on top of a robotic balance system that simulated the mechanics of standing while being exposed to an electrical vestibular stimulus that evoked a craniocentric vestibular error of head roll...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870878/3d-vmat-verification-based-on-monte-carlo-log-file-simulation-with-experimental-feedback-from-film-dosimetry
#2
A R Barbeiro, A Ureba, J A Baeza, R Linares, M Perucha, E Jiménez-Ortega, S Velázquez, J C Mateos, A Leal
A model based on a specific phantom, called QuAArC, has been designed for the evaluation of planning and verification systems of complex radiotherapy treatments, such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). This model uses the high accuracy provided by the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of log files and allows the experimental feedback from the high spatial resolution of films hosted in QuAArC. This cylindrical phantom was specifically designed to host films rolled at different radial distances able to take into account the entrance fluence and the 3D dose distribution...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842972/influence-of-the-punch-head-design-on-the-physical-quality-of-tablets-produced-in-a-rotary-press
#3
Parthiban Anbalagan, Srimanta Sarkar, Celine V Liew, Paul W S Heng
This study aims to investigate the influence of tablet punch head design on compaction and the resultant tablet mechanical properties. Tablets were prepared using flat-face punches with different head flat and head radius configurations, on a rotary tablet press with compression rolls of different diameters. The results showed that tablets produced using punches with head flats consistently displayed higher tensile strengths and lower capping tendencies. Exclusion of the head flat in the punch head geometry caused the compacts to undergo a state of continual deformation during the compaction cycle, possibly with increasing elasticity without the opportunity for more prolonged stress relaxation...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814310/asymmetries-and-three-dimensional-features-of-vestibular-cross-coupled-stimuli-illuminated-through-modeling
#4
Jan E Holly, M Arjumand Masood, Chiran S Bhandari
Head movements during sustained rotation can cause angular cross-coupling which leads to tumbling illusions. Even though angular vectors predict equal magnitude illusions for head movements in opposite directions, the magnitudes of the illusions are often surprisingly asymmetric, such as during leftward versus rightward yaw while horizontal in a centrifuge. This paper presents a comprehensive investigation of the angular-linear stimulus combinations from eight different published papers in which asymmetries were found...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769560/developmental-milestones-in-type-i-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#5
Roberto De Sanctis, Giorgia Coratti, Amy Pasternak, Jacqueline Montes, Marika Pane, Elena S Mazzone, Sally Dunaway Young, Rachel Salazar, Janet Quigley, Maria C Pera, Laura Antonaci, Leonardo Lapenta, Allan M Glanzman, Danilo Tiziano, Francesco Muntoni, Basil T Darras, Darryl C De Vivo, Richard Finkel, Eugenio Mercuri
The aim of this retrospective multicentric study was to assess developmental milestones longitudinally in type I SMA infants using the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination. Thirty-three type I SMA infants, who classically do not achieve the ability to sit unsupported, were included in the study. Our results confirmed that all patients had a score of 0 out of a scale of 4 on items assessing sitting, rolling, crawling, standing or walking. A score of more than 0 was only achieved in three items: head control (n = 13), kicking (n = 15) and hand grasp (n = 18)...
November 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741377/comparison-of-set-up-accuracy-among-three-common-immobilisation-systems-for-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-patients
#6
Cheng-Guang Lin, Sen-Kui Xu, Wen-Yan Yao, Yu-Qi Wu, Jian-Lan Fang, Vincent W C Wu
INTRODUCTION: In intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients, an effective immobilisation system is important to minimise set up deviation. This study evaluated the effectiveness of three immobilisation systems by assessing their set up deviations. METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to one of the three immobilisation systems: (1) supine on head rest and base plate (HB); (2) supine with alpha cradle supporting the head and shoulder (AC); (3) supine with vacuum bag supporting the head and shoulder (VB)...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730008/the-cambridge-face-tracker-accurate-low-cost-measurement-of-head-posture-using-computer-vision-and-face-recognition-software
#7
Peter B M Thomas, Tadas Baltrušaitis, Peter Robinson, Anthony J Vivian
PURPOSE: We validate a video-based method of head posture measurement. METHODS: The Cambridge Face Tracker uses neural networks (constrained local neural fields) to recognize facial features in video. The relative position of these facial features is used to calculate head posture. First, we assess the accuracy of this approach against videos in three research databases where each frame is tagged with a precisely measured head posture. Second, we compare our method to a commercially available mechanical device, the Cervical Range of Motion device: four subjects each adopted 43 distinct head postures that were measured using both methods...
September 2016: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672673/data-on-galvanic-evoked-head-movements-in-healthy-and-unilaterally-labyrinthectomized-rats
#8
Moslem Shaabani, Yones Lotfi, Seyed Morteza Karimian, Mehdi Rahgozar, Mehdi Hooshmandi
In this dataset, we analyzed galvanic-evoked head movements (GEHMs) in the spatial planes of yaw, and roll in normal and unilaterally labyrinthectomized (UL) Wistar rats. The rats were assigned in 4 groups of 10: control, sham, right-UL and left-UL. Bilateral galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) was presented by our "ring-shaped electrode" design (see "Short-term galvanic vestibular stimulation promotes functional recovery and neurogenesis in unilaterally labyrinthectomized rats" (M. Shaabani et al., 2016) [1])...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586110/quantitative-evaluation-of-the-occupant-kinematic-response-of-the-thums-50th-percentile-male-model-relative-to-pmhs-laboratory-rollover-tests
#9
David Poulard, Qi Zhang, Jack Ryan Cochran, Bronislaw Gepner, Jason Kerrigan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the current study was to evaluate the whole-body kinematic response of the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) occupant model in controlled laboratory rollover tests by comparing the model response to postmortem human surrogate (PMHS) kinematic response targets published in 2014. METHODS: A computational model of the parametric vehicle buck environment was developed and the AM50 THUMS occupant model (Ver 4.01) was subjected to a pure dynamic roll at 360°/s in trailing-side front-row seating position...
September 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535987/to-crash-or-not-to-crash-how-do-hoverflies-cope-with-free-fall-situations-and-weightlessness
#10
Roman Goulard, Jean-Louis Vercher, Stéphane Viollet
Insects' aptitude to perform hovering, automatic landing and tracking tasks involves accurately controlling their head and body roll and pitch movements, but how this attitude control depends on an internal estimation of gravity orientation is still an open question. Gravity perception in flying insects has mainly been studied in terms of grounded animals' tactile orientation responses, but it has not yet been established whether hoverflies use gravity perception cues to detect a nearly weightless state at an early stage...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27532316/the-effectiveness-of-ayurvedic-oil-based-nasal-instillation-nasya-medicines-in-the-treatment-of-facial-paralysis-ardita-a-systematic-review
#11
Manuel Joseph Vivera, Judith Streak Gomersall
BACKGROUND: Ardita (facial paralysis) is a medical condition that disfigures or distorts the facial appearance of the sufferer causing facial asymmetry and malfunction. Ardita patients may benefit from considering alternative treatments such as Ayurveda, including Taila Nasya (nasal instillation of medicated oil). OBJECTIVES: To synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of different Nasya oils in the treatment of Ardita. INCLUSION CRITERIA TYPES OF PARTICIPANTS: Studies conducted on adult sufferers (18-70 years) of Ardita (chronic or acute) in any setting were considered...
April 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486390/whisking-kinematics-enables-object-localization-in-head-centered-coordinates-based-on-tactile-information-from-a-single-vibrissa
#12
Anne E T Yang, Mitra J Z Hartmann
During active tactile exploration with their whiskers (vibrissae), rodents can rapidly orient to an object even though there are very few proprioceptors in the whisker muscles. Thus a long-standing question in the study of the vibrissal system is how the rat can localize an object in head-centered coordinates without muscle-based proprioception. We used a three-dimensional model of whisker bending to simulate whisking motions against a peg to investigate the possibility that the 3D mechanics of contact from a single whisker are sufficient for localization in head-centered coordinates...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479967/towards-kilo-hertz-6-dof-visual-tracking-using-an-egocentric-cluster-of-rolling-shutter-cameras
#13
Akash Bapat, Enrique Dunn, Jan-Michael Frahm
To maintain a reliable registration of the virtual world with the real world, augmented reality (AR) applications require highly accurate, low-latency tracking of the device. In this paper, we propose a novel method for performing this fast 6-DOF head pose tracking using a cluster of rolling shutter cameras. The key idea is that a rolling shutter camera works by capturing the rows of an image in rapid succession, essentially acting as a high-frequency 1D image sensor. By integrating multiple rolling shutter cameras on the AR device, our tracker is able to perform 6-DOF markerless tracking in a static indoor environment with minimal latency...
November 2016: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477714/an-evaluation-of-3d-head-pose-estimation-using-the-microsoft-kinect-v2
#14
John Darby, María B Sánchez, Penelope B Butler, Ian D Loram
The Kinect v2 sensor supports real-time non-invasive 3D head pose estimation. Because the sensor is small, widely available and relatively cheap it has great potential as a tool for groups interested in measuring head posture. In this paper we compare the Kinect's head pose estimates with a marker-based record of ground truth in order to establish its accuracy. During movement of the head and neck alone (with static torso), we find average errors in absolute yaw, pitch and roll angles of 2.0±1.2°, 7.3±3...
July 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27370490/a-miniature-shoe-mounted-orientation-determination-system-for-accurate-indoor-heading-and-trajectory-tracking
#15
Shengzhi Zhang, Shuai Yu, Chaojun Liu, Sheng Liu
Tracking the position of pedestrian is urgently demanded when the most commonly used GPS (Global Position System) is unavailable. Benefited from the small size, low-power consumption, and relatively high reliability, micro-electro-mechanical system sensors are well suited for GPS-denied indoor pedestrian heading estimation. In this paper, a real-time miniature orientation determination system (MODS) was developed for indoor heading and trajectory tracking based on a novel dual-linear Kalman filter. The proposed filter precludes the impact of geomagnetic distortions on pitch and roll that the heading is subjected to...
June 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339731/head-movement-during-walking-in-the-cat
#16
Humza N Zubair, Irina N Beloozerova, Hai Sun, Vladimir Marlinski
Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20-90°...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329283/sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss-with-positional-vertigo-initial-findings-of-positional-nystagmus-and-hearing-outcomes
#17
Chang-Hee Kim, Jung Eun Shin, Young Soo Yang, Donghyuk Im
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the initial findings of positional nystagmus in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) and positional vertigo, and to compare hearing improvement among patients with different types of positional nystagmus. DESIGN: The characteristics of positional nystagmus upon initial examination were analysed, and the initial mean pure-tone audiometry (PTA) threshold was compared with that at three months after treatment. STUDY SAMPLE: Forty-four SSNHL patients with concomitant positional vertigo were included...
October 2016: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27274349/children-s-behavioral-pain-reactions-during-local-anesthetic-injection-using-cotton-roll-vibration-method-compared-with-routine-topical-anesthesia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Ali Bagherian, Mahmood Sheikhfathollahi
BACKGROUND: Topical anesthesia has been widely advocated as an important component of atraumatic administration of intraoral local anesthesia. The aim of this study was to use direct observation of children's behavioral pain reactions during local anesthetic injection using cotton-roll vibration method compared with routine topical anesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight children participated in this randomized controlled clinical trial. They received two separate inferior alveolar nerve block or primary maxillary molar infiltration injections on contralateral sides of the jaws by both cotton-roll vibration (a combination of topical anesthesia gel, cotton roll, and vibration for physical distraction) and control (routine topical anesthesia) methods...
May 2016: Dental Research Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27255575/discontinuation-of-peri-operative-gentamicin-use-for-indwelling-urinary-catheter-manipulation-in-orthopaedic-surgery
#19
Stuart E Bond, Craig S Boutlis, Stuart G Jansen, Spiros Miyakis
BACKGROUND: Gentamicin has historically been used prior to insertion and removal of indwelling urinary catheters (IDCs) around elective joint replacement surgery to prevent infection; however, this indication is not recognized in the Australian Therapeutic Guidelines: Antibiotic and the paradigm for safe use of gentamicin has shifted. METHODS: The antimicrobial stewardship team of a 500 bed tertiary regional hospital performed a retrospective clinical study of gentamicin IDC prophylaxis around total hip and knee arthroplasties...
June 3, 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27244893/expression-and-mutational-analysis-of-c-cbl-and-its-relationship-to-the-met-receptor-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#20
Cleo E Rolle, Yi-Hung Carol Tan, Tanguy Y Seiwert, Sapana Vora, Rajani Kanteti, Rifat Hasina, George B Carey, Mosmi Surati, Ralph R Weichselbaum, Mark W Lingen, Everett E Vokes, Ravi Salgia
MET is frequently overexpressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and degraded by c-CBL E3-ubiquitin ligase. We investigated genetic variations of c-CBL in HNSCC and the relationship between c-CBL and MET expression. High MET, low c-CBL expression was detected in 10 cell lines and 73 tumor tissues. Two novel mutations (L254S, L281F), and the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) P782L were identified from archival tumor tissues. 27.3% of loss of heterozygosity was found at CBL locus. Ectopic expression of wild-type c-CBL in SCC-35 cells downregulated MET expression and decreased cell viability...
May 26, 2016: Oncotarget
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