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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911755/transformation-of-vestibular-signals-for-the-control-of-standing-in-humans
#1
Patrick A Forbes, Billy L Luu, H F Machiel Van der Loos, Elizabeth A Croft, J Timothy Inglis, Jean-Sébastien Blouin
: During standing balance, vestibular signals encode head movement and are transformed into coordinates that are relevant to maintaining upright posture of the whole body. This transformation must account for head-on-body orientation as well as the muscle actions generating the postural response. Here, we investigate whether this transformation is dependent upon a muscle's ability to stabilize the body along the direction of a vestibular disturbance. Subjects were braced on top of a robotic balance system that simulated the mechanics of standing while being exposed to an electrical vestibular stimulus that evoked a craniocentric vestibular error of head roll...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911652/trueness-and-minimal-detectable-change-of-smartphone-inclinometer-measurements-of-shoulder-range-of-motion
#2
Patrick Boissy, Serigne Diop-Fallou, Karina Lebel, Mikael Bernier, Frederic Balg, Yanick Tousignant-Laflamme
BACKGROUND: Digital inclinometer applications using data from embedded sensors on smartphone/multi-purpose pocket computers or "smart digital inclinometers" (SDIs) are now used to clinically assess range of motion (ROM). OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess, compared with a biomechanical gold standard (GS), the trueness and minimal detectable change (MDC) of shoulder range of motion (SROM) measurements obtained from an SDI. METHODS: Twenty-five (n = 25) asymptomatic healthy participants performed three trials of shoulder flexion (SF), shoulder abduction (SA), and shoulder external rotation (SER) at full-range and mid-range...
December 2, 2016: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909570/need-for-accessible-infertility-care-in-ghana-the-patients-voice
#3
Nana Yaw Osei
According to the Ghana Statistical Service (GSS) infertility and childlessness are the most important reason for divorce in Ghana. The traditional Ghanaian society is pro-natal and voluntary childlessness is very uncommon. Patient groups are almost non-existent in Sub-Saharan Africa, aggravating the situation of childless couples. Due to the lack of enough and affordable high quality infertility services, many women resort to traditional healing, witchcraft and spiritual mediation. Considering the severe sociocultural and economic consequences of childlessness, especially for women, there is an urgent need for accessible and affordable high quality infertility care in Ghana...
June 27, 2016: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903292/evaluation-of-long-lasting-microbial-larvicide-for-malaria-vector-control-in-kenya
#4
Yaw A Afrane, Nixon G Mweresa, Christine L Wanjala, Thomas M Gilbreath Iii, Guofa Zhou, Ming-Chieh Lee, Andrew K Githeko, Guiyun Yan
BACKGROUND: Outdoor malaria transmission is becoming an increasingly important problem in malaria control in Africa. Larval control is a promising intervention as it can target both indoor and outdoor biting mosquitoes. However, the currently available biolarvicide formulations have a short effective duration, and consequently larval control incurs a high operational expense due to the requirement for frequent re-treatment of larval habitats. Formulations of biolarvicides with long-lasting effects is highly desired...
December 1, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899074/antibiotic-resistance-and-clonal-diversity-of-invasive-staphylococcus-aureus-in-the-rural-ashanti-region-ghana
#5
Denise Dekker, Manuel Wolters, Eva Mertens, Kennedy Gyau Boahen, Ralf Krumkamp, Daniel Eibach, Norbert G Schwarz, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Holger Rohde, Martin Christner, Florian Marks, Nimako Sarpong, Jürgen May
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is among the most common pathogens isolated from blood cultures in Ghana; yet the epidemiology of blood infections in rural settings is poorly described. This study aims to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility and clonal diversity of S. aureus causing bloodstream infections in two hospitals in the Ashanti Region, Ghana. METHODS: Blood cultures were performed for all febrile patients (≥37.5 °C) on hospital admission. Antibiotic susceptibility testing for S...
November 29, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892534/improving-estimation-of-fiber-orientations-in-diffusion-mri-using-inter-subject-information-sharing
#6
Geng Chen, Pei Zhang, Ke Li, Chong-Yaw Wee, Yafeng Wu, Dinggang Shen, Pew-Thian Yap
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging is widely used to investigate diffusion patterns of water molecules in the human brain. It provides information that is useful for tracing axonal bundles and inferring brain connectivity. Diffusion axonal tracing, namely tractography, relies on local directional information provided by the orientation distribution functions (ODFs) estimated at each voxel. To accurately estimate ODFs, data of good signal-to-noise ratio and sufficient angular samples are desired. This is however not always available in practice...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890098/ballistics-and-anatomical-modelling-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Caitlin Humphrey, Jaliya Kumaratilake
Ballistics is the study of a projectiles motion and can be broken down into four stages: internal, intermediate, external and terminal ballistics. The study of the effects a projectile has on a living tissue is referred to as wound ballistics and falls within terminal ballistics. To understand the effects a projectile has on living tissues the mechanisms of wounding need to be understood. These include the permanent and temporary cavities, energy, yawing, tumbling and fragmenting. Much ballistics research has been conducted including using cadavers, animal models and simulants such as ballistics ordnance gelatine...
November 2016: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890096/entrance-and-exit-wounds-of-high-velocity-bullet-an-autopsy-analysis-in-the-event-of-dispersing-the-mass-rally-in-bangkok-thailand-may-2010
#8
Vichan Peonim, Smith Srisont, Jitta Udnoon, Sompong Wongwichai, Arisa Thapon, Wisarn Worasuwannarak
Fatal mass casualties by high velocity bullets (HVBs) are rare events in peaceful countries. This study presents 27 forensic autopsy cases with 32 shots fired by 5.56×45mm. HVB (M-16 rifle bullets) during the dispersing the mass rally in Bangkok Thailand, May 2010. It was found that twenty-three (71.88%) typical entrance HVB wounds had round sizes less than the bullet diameters. Most entrance wounds had microtears but no collar abrasion since a HVB has a small streamlined spitzer tip and full metal jacket...
November 2016: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888365/development-of-a-novel-engineered-antibody-targeting-neisseria-species
#9
Chih-Yueh Liu, Chang-Ching Weng, Chih-Hsiang Lin, Chiou-Ying Yang, Kwok-Kong Tony Mong, Yaw-Kuen Li
OBJECTIVES: A Neissaria bacterial pilus sugar, bacillosamine, was synthesized and, for the first time, used as a probe to screen a single-chain variable fragment (scFv). RESULTS: Four Neisseria, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria sicca and Neisseria subflava, and two negative controls, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, were tested through ELISA, immunostaining and gold nanoparticle immunological assay. All results indicated that the selected scFv is feasible for the specific detection of Neisseria species via the recognition of bacillosamine...
November 25, 2016: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872680/downregulation-of-glutathione-biosynthesis-contributes-to-oxidative-stress-and-liver-dysfunction-in-acute-kidney-injury
#10
Yue Shang, Yaw L Siow, Cara K Isaak, Karmin O
Ischemia-reperfusion is a common cause for acute kidney injury and can lead to distant organ dysfunction. Glutathione is a major endogenous antioxidant and its depletion directly correlates to ischemia-reperfusion injury. The liver has high capacity for producing glutathione and is a key organ in modulating local and systemic redox balance. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which kidney ischemia-reperfusion led to glutathione depletion and oxidative stress. The left kidney of Sprague-Dawley rats was subjected to 45 min ischemia followed by 6 h reperfusion...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862605/neonatal-neural-networks-predict-children-behavioral-profiles-later-in-life
#11
Chong-Yaw Wee, Ta Anh Tuan, Birit F P Broekman, Min Yee Ong, Yap-Seng Chong, Kenneth Kwek, Lynette Shek, Seang-Mei Saw, Peter D Gluckman, Marielle V Fortier, Michael J Meaney, Anqi Qiu
This study aimed to examine heterogeneity of neonatal brain network and its prediction to child behaviors at 24 and 48 months of age. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography was employed to construct brain anatomical network for 120 neonates. Clustering coefficients of individual structures were computed and used to classify neonates with similar brain anatomical networks into one group. Internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems were assessed using maternal reports of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at 24 and 48 months of age...
November 16, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859955/seventeen-years-of-kasai-portoenterostomy-for-biliary-atresia-in-a-single-southeast-asian-paediatric-centre
#12
Li Wei Chiang, Chuan Yaw Lee, Gita Krishnaswamy, Shireen Anne Nah, Ajmal Kader, Christina Ong, Yee Low, Kong Boo Phua
AIM: Biliary atresia (BA) has preponderance in Asian populations with Kasai portoenterostomy (KP) regarded as the first-line standard of care. Yet reports from Southeast Asia remain scant. This study reviews the demographics, short- and medium-term outcomes for our cohort, and evaluates prognostic factors for outcome. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with BA between January 1997 and December 2013 were included. Clinical data were obtained from medical records. Jaundice clearance was defined as total bilirubin < 20 µmol/L within 6 months after KP...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854093/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-mimicking-brainstem-infarction-a-dilemma
#13
Tsung-Han Ho, Chia-Lin Tsai, Yaw-Don Hsu, Jiunn-Tay Lee, Fu-Chi Yang, Chia-Ching Hsu, Chun-Chieh Lin
PURPOSE: We had recently reported one case at American Journal of Emergency Medicine about centralvariant posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in an 84-year-old woman with an initial misdiagnosis as central pontine myelinolysis (CPM). Here, we introduce another case of centralvariant PRES in a 49-year-old man mimicking as acute brainstem infarction in the cranial computed tomography (CT) findings. CASE REPORT: A 49-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with a 5-day history of vertigo, cognitive decline, and difficulty in walking...
June 15, 2016: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852877/community-seroprevalence-survey-for-yaws-and-trachoma-in-the-western-division-of-fiji
#14
Naomi Cocks, Merelesita Rainima-Qaniuci, Chelsea Yalen, Colin Macleod, Apisalome Nakolinivalu, Stephanie Migchelsen, Chrissy H Roberts, Robert Butcher, Mike Kama, David Mabey, Michael Marks
INTRODUCTION: Both yaws and trachoma are endemic in several countries in the Pacific. In co-endemic countries there may be potential synergies between both control programmes. METHODS: We undertook a cluster randomised trachoma and yaws seroprevalence survey of children in the Western Division of Fiji. Children were examined for skin lesions consistent with active yaws. A dried blood spot was collected which was tested using the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) test and an ELISA to detect antibodies against Pgp3...
November 16, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847537/the-effectiveness-of-intrapartum-%C3%A2-ultrasonography-in-assessing-cervical-dilatation-head-station-and-position-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Yaw Amo Wiafe, Bill Whitehead, Heather Venables, Emmanuel Kweku Nakua
The objective of this review was to assess the effectiveness of intrapartum ultrasonography in measuring cervical dilatation, head station and position. Electronic literature searches were carried out of MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Web of Knowledge, plus manual reference list checks of all relevant articles. All published prospective studies comparing intrapartum ultrasonography with digital VE in the determination of cervical dilatation, head station and position were then evaluated for the success rate and level of agreement between ultrasonography and digital VE...
November 2016: Ultrasound: Journal of the British Medical Ultrasound Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845325/structure-of-the-ns2b-ns3-protease-from-zika-virus-after-self-cleavage
#16
Wint Wint Phoo, Yan Li, Zhenzhen Zhang, Michelle Yueqi Lee, Ying Ru Loh, Yaw Bia Tan, Elizabeth Yihui Ng, Julien Lescar, CongBao Kang, Dahai Luo
The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in the Americas represents a serious threat to the global public health. The viral protease that processes viral polyproteins during infection appears as an attractive drug target. Here we report a crystal structure at 1.84 Å resolution of ZIKV non-structural protein NS2B-NS3 protease with the last four amino acids of the NS2B cofactor bound at the NS3 active site. This structure represents a post-proteolysis state of the enzyme during viral polyprotein processing and provides insights into peptide substrate recognition by the protease...
November 15, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828413/realization-of-a-robust-homodyne-quadrature-laser-interferometer-by-performing-wave-plate-yawing-to-realize-ultra-low-error-sensitivity
#17
Junning Cui, Zhangqiang He, Jiubin Tan, Tao Sun
The deviation of wave plates' optical axes from their intended angles, which may result from either instability or assembly error, is the main cause of quadrature phase error in homodyne quadrature laser interferometers (HQLIs). The quadrature phase error sensitivity to wave plate angle deviations, which is an effective measure of HQLI robustness, is further amplified by beam splitter imperfections. In this paper, a new HQLI design involving non-polarization beam splitting is presented, and a method of making this HQLI robust by yawing the wave plates in the measurement and reference arms is proposed...
October 3, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828310/tunable-scalar-solitons-from-a-polarization-maintaining-mode-locked-fiber-laser-using-carbon-nanotube-and-chirped-fiber-bragg-grating
#18
Jie Wang, Yaxi Yan, A Ping Zhang, Bo Wu, Yonghang Shen, Hwa-Yaw Tam
Generation of tunable scalar solitons from a polarization-maintaining (PM) mode-locked fiber laser is presented. A single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) absorber is used for self-started mode locking. A chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) mounted on a cantilever is employed as a tunable all-fiber filter. Mode-locked solitons are obtained with typical pulse duration of ~6.94 ps and repetition rate of 28.94 MHz. Linearly polarized laser emission is characterized with degree of polarization (DOP) of ~99.5%. The wavelength of the emitted scalar soliton can be continuously tuned through adjusting the CFBG, while maintaining the polarization stability...
October 3, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815148/the-effect-of-a-conditional-cash-transfer-on-hiv-incidence-in-young-women-in-rural-south-africa-hptn-068-a-phase-3-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
Audrey Pettifor, Catherine MacPhail, James P Hughes, Amanda Selin, Jing Wang, F Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Susan H Eshleman, Ryan G Wagner, Wonderful Mabuza, Nomhle Khoza, Chirayath Suchindran, Immitrude Mokoena, Rhian Twine, Philip Andrew, Ellen Townley, Oliver Laeyendecker, Yaw Agyei, Stephen Tollman, Kathleen Kahn
BACKGROUND: Cash transfers have been proposed as an intervention to reduce HIV-infection risk for young women in sub-Saharan Africa. However, scarce evidence is available about their effect on reducing HIV acquisition. We aimed to assess the effect of a conditional cash transfer on HIV incidence among young women in rural South Africa. METHODS: We did a phase 3, randomised controlled trial (HPTN 068) in the rural Bushbuckridge subdistrict in Mpumalanga province, South Africa...
November 1, 2016: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814310/asymmetries-and-three-dimensional-features-of-vestibular-cross-coupled-stimuli-illuminated-through-modeling
#20
Jan E Holly, M Arjumand Masood, Chiran S Bhandari
Head movements during sustained rotation can cause angular cross-coupling which leads to tumbling illusions. Even though angular vectors predict equal magnitude illusions for head movements in opposite directions, the magnitudes of the illusions are often surprisingly asymmetric, such as during leftward versus rightward yaw while horizontal in a centrifuge. This paper presents a comprehensive investigation of the angular-linear stimulus combinations from eight different published papers in which asymmetries were found...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
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