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Kejing Wu, Guangrong Feng, Yingying Liu, Changjun Liu, Xingyilong Zhang, Shijie Liu, Bin Liang, Houfang Lu
The aim of this work was to study promotion of ball milling and CO2 assistance on cellulose hydrolysis kinetics in water medium. Kinetic behaviors were analyzed based on first-order and shrinking core models. The results showed that cellulose hydrolysis is enhanced by ball milling and CO2 assistance. Ball milling reduced crystallinity and particle size of cellulose, resulting in high cellulose conversion, while hydrolysis promoted by CO2 assistance was weaker. Double-layer hydrolysis was observed for ball-milled cellulose, and rate constant in active layer is higher...
March 31, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Said Amer, Fernando Lenin Aguilar Gálvez, Yasuhiro Fukuda, Chika Tada, Ivan Ludeña Jimenez, Wunster Favian Maza Valle, Yutaka Nakai
This study described the occurrence of clinical and subclinical forms of mastitis in 250 cattle from 5 dairy farms around the cities of Santa Rosa and Machala, El Oro Province, Ecuador. Clinical mastitis (CM) was determined based on obvious changes in milk (mild), signs of inflammation in the udder (moderate), and/or generalized clinical symptoms (severe). Subclinical mastitis (SCM) was assessed using the California mastitis test. CM and SCM were detected in 30 (12.0%) and 150 (60%) of the 250 tested cattle, respectively...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Wenjing Jiang, Chengqi Jiao, Yinshan Meng, Liang Zhao, Qiang Liu, Tao Liu
The preparation of single-chain magnets (SCMs) with photo-switchable bistable states is essential for the development of high-density photo-recording devices. However, the reversible switching of the SCM behavior upon light irradiation is a formidable challenge. Here we report a well-isolated double zigzag chain {[Fe(bpy)(CN)4 ]2 [Co(phpy)2 ]}·2H2 O (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, phpy = 4-phenylpyridine), which exhibits reversible redox reactions with interconversion between FeIIILS(μ-CN)CoIIHS(μ-NC)FeIIILS (LS = low-spin, HS = high-spin) and FeIIILS(μ-CN)CoIIILS(μ-NC)FeIILS linkages under alternating irradiation with 808 and 532 nm lasers...
January 21, 2018: Chemical Science
Rui Lin, Yufeng Wang, Quanning Chen, Zhongyan Liu, Shuai Xiao, Bingyi Wang, Baomin Shi
The aim of the present study was to investigate transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 2 (TRPM2), a promising therapeutic target and biomarker for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) prognosis, in addition to determining its effects regarding tumor progression and invasion. PDAC is a fatal disease with a poor prognosis, and its associated pathogenic molecular mechanisms remain to be determined. In the present study, combined analysis using genomic and transcriptomic data from two PDAC studies was performed to discover a survival‑associated biomarker of PDAC...
March 28, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Reyka G Jayasinghe, Song Cao, Qingsong Gao, Michael C Wendl, Nam Sy Vo, Sheila M Reynolds, Yanyan Zhao, Héctor Climente-González, Shengjie Chai, Fang Wang, Rajees Varghese, Mo Huang, Wen-Wei Liang, Matthew A Wyczalkowski, Sohini Sengupta, Zhi Li, Samuel H Payne, David Fenyö, Jeffrey H Miner, Matthew J Walter, Benjamin Vincent, Eduardo Eyras, Ken Chen, Ilya Shmulevich, Feng Chen, Li Ding
For the past decade, cancer genomic studies have focused on mutations leading to splice-site disruption, overlooking those having splice-creating potential. Here, we applied a bioinformatic tool, MiSplice, for the large-scale discovery of splice-site-creating mutations (SCMs) across 8,656 TCGA tumors. We report 1,964 originally mis-annotated mutations having clear evidence of creating alternative splice junctions. TP53 and GATA3 have 26 and 18 SCMs, respectively, and ATRX has 5 from lower-grade gliomas. Mutations in 11 genes, including PARP1, BRCA1, and BAP1, were experimentally validated for splice-site-creating function...
April 3, 2018: Cell Reports
Yanfeng Zhang, Shuhua Huang, Xuefang Wang, Jianwei Liu, Xupeng Guo, Jianxin Mu, Jianhua Tian, Xiaofeng Wang
Many vegetable and oilseed crops belong to Brassica species. The seed production of these crops is hampered often by abnormal floral organs, especially under the conditions of abiotic conditions. However, the molecular reasons for these abnormal floral organs remains poorly understood. Here, we report a novel pistil-like flower mutant of B. rapa . In the flower of this mutant, the four sepals are modified to one merged carpel that look like a ring in the sepal positions, enveloping some abnormal stamens and a pistil, and resulting in poor seed production...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Dirk Johrendt, Arthur Haffner, Anna Katharina Hatz, Igor Moudrakovski, Bettina Valeska Lotsch
Fast sodium ion conductors are key components of sodium-based all-solid-state batteries which hold promise as safe systems for large-scale storage of electrical power. Here, we report the synthesis, crystal structure determination and Na+ ion conductivities of six new sodium ion conductors, the phosphidosilicates Na19Si13P25, Na23Si19P33, Na23Si28P45, Na23Si37P57, LT-NaSi2P3 and HT-NaSi2P3, which are entirely based on earth-abundant elements. The new structures exhibit SiP4 tetrahedra assembling interpenetrating networks of T3 to T5 supertetrahedral clusters which can be hierarchically assigned to sphalerite- or diamond-type structures...
April 3, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Andrés Ojeda, Robin A Murphy, Alex Kacelnik
Decision-makers benefit from information only when they can use it to guide behavior. However, recent experiments found that pigeons and starlings value information that they cannot use. Here we show that this paradox is also present in rats, and explore the underlying decision process. Subjects chose between two options that delivered food probabilistically after a fixed delay. In one option ("info"), outcomes (food/no-food) were signaled immediately after choice, whereas in the alternative ("non-info") the outcome was uncertain until the delay lapsed...
March 30, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Vibhu K Viswanathan, Amy J Minnema, H Francis Farhadi
Split cord malformation (SCM) is a rare form of spinal dysraphism wherein the spinal cord is divided longitudinally into two distinct hemicords. Surgery is usually performed in children while management in adults, who rarely manifest symptoms, remains controversial. Both expectant management and prophylactic surgery have been variously advocated. The present article describes our experience in two adult patients with predominant pain-related complaints who underwent surgical excision of type 1 SCM lesions. A comprehensive review of the literature on SCM in adults is also provided...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Beuriat Pierre-Aurelien, Di Rocco Federico, Szathmari Alexandru, Mottolese Carmine
INTRODUCTION: Split cord malformation (SCM) is a rare congenital spinal abnormality. Clinical presentation varies. Other congenital defects can be associated. Management is surgical. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all our SCM cases and reported our experience for its management. From 1990 to 2014, 37 patients were operated. Five situations lead to the diagnosis (orthopedic disorders (n = 8), orthopedic and neurological disorders (n = 16), pure neurological disorders (n = 5), no symptoms except cutaneous signs (n = 7), antenatal diagnosis (n = 1))...
March 26, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Jong-Hoon Moon, Jin-Hwa Jung, Suk-Chan Hahm, Kyoung-Sim Jung, Hye Rim Suh, Hwi-Young Cho
[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of chin tuck exercise (CTE) using a neckline slimmer device on suprahyoid (SH) and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle activation in healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] We measured activation of the SH and SCM muscles using surface electromyography in 20 healthy adults during head lift exercise (HLE) and CTE using a neckline slimmer device. The order of exercises was randomized and the mean and peak values of each muscle's activation were assessed. [Results] During the CTE using a neckline slimmer device, SH activation was significantly greater and SCM activation was significantly lower than during the HLE...
March 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Ning Wang, Zi-Han Liu, Hong Zou, Li-Juan Pang, Wen-Yi Gu, Jian-Ming Hu, Dong-Mei Li, Jin Zhao, Jun Zhang, Chun-Xia Liu, Wen-Jie Zhang, Yan Qi, Feng Li
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a mesenchymal malignant neoplasm showing characteristics of epithelial-mesenchymal biphasic differentiation. SS is of uncertain cellular origin; however, studies have suggested that SS originates from a somatic stem cell population.In this study, we aimed to determine whether differential morphological features of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributed to the tumorigenesis of SS invasion and metastasis. Twelve paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed tissue (FFPE) SS tissue specimens were obtained, and laser capture microdissection (LCM) with the ArcturusXT system and small chip method (SCM) were used to isolate and purify spindle and epithelial cells from SS specimens...
March 25, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Taraknath Mandal, Ronald G Larson
Using fully atomistic and coarse-grained (CG) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we report, for the first time, the self-assembly of initially randomly dispersed dodecyl-β-d-maltoside (DDM) surfactants into a striped cylindrical micelle (SCM) with lamellae of surfactant heads and tails alternating along the cylindrical axis, with both heads and tails in contact with the water. By changing the interaction strength of the head group with water relative to itself, we find that such micelles are most likely for head groups with marginal solubility in the water solvent...
March 22, 2018: Soft Matter
Yul-Hyun Park, Chul-Ho Kim, Jang-Hee Kim, Jun-Eun Park, Shin-Young Yim
While congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) can occur along with other conditions, such as clavicle fracture or brachial plexus injury, these conditions exist outside the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). We present a rare case with concurrence of CMT and a malignant tumor inside the same SCM, along with serial clinical and radiological findings of the atypical features of CMT. The malignant tumor was in fact a low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. To the best of our knowledge, the current case is the first of a concurrent condition of CMT inside the SCM...
February 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Cheleka A M Mpande, One B Dintwe, Munyaradzi Musvosvi, Simbarashe Mabwe, Nicole Bilek, Mark Hatherill, Elisa Nemes, Thomas J Scriba
Background: Maintenance of long-lasting immunity is thought to depend on stem cell memory T cells (TSCM ), which have superior self-renewing capacity, longevity and proliferative potential compared with central memory (TCM ) or effector (TEFF ) T cells. Our knowledge of TSCM derives primarily from studies of virus-specific CD8+ TSCM . We aimed to determine if infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M. tb ), the etiological agent of tuberculosis, generates antigen-specific CD4+ TSCM and to characterize their functional ontology...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
N Shaari, S K Kamarudin, S Basri, L K Shyuan, M S Masdar, D Nordin
The high methanol crossover and high cost of Nafion® membrane are the major challenges for direct methanol fuel cell application. With the aim of solving these problems, a non-Nafion polymer electrolyte membrane with low methanol permeability and high proton conductivity based on the sodium alginate (SA) polymer as the matrix and sulfonated graphene oxide (SGO) as an inorganic filler (0.02-0.2 wt%) was prepared by a simple solution casting technique. The strong electrostatic attraction between -SO3 H of SGO and the sodium alginate polymer increased the mechanical stability, optimized the water absorption and thus inhibited the methanol crossover in the membrane...
March 13, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Magdalena Lachowska, Paulina Glinka, Kazimierz Niemczyk
BACKGROUND: Air-conducted and skull-tap cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (AC-cVEMP and Tap-cVEMP) have been shown to be very promising tools in clinical practice. They are noninvasive, easy to obtain and - importantly - they require little time and the cost of the instruments is low. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the combined use of ACand Tap-cVEMPs as a diagnostic tool for advanced assessment of vestibular schwannoma in determining tumor origin, and to investigate whether the results are helpful for a surgeon as an additional source of information about the tumor before surgery...
March 13, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Watsana Penkhrue, Kanaporn Sujarit, Takuji Kudo, Moriya Ohkuma, Kazuo Masaki, Tomoyasu Aizawa, Wasu Pathom-Aree, Chartchai Khanongnuch, Saisamorn Lumyong
A novel bioplastic-degrading actinomycete, strain SCM_MK2-4T , was isolated from paddy soil in Thailand. The 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain SCM_MK2-4T belonged to the genus Amycolatopsis, with the highest sequence similarity to Amycolatopsisazurea JCM 3275T (99.4 %), and was phylogenetically clustered with this strain along with Amycolatopsislurida JCM 3141T (99.3 %), A. japonica DSM 44213T (99.2 %), A. decaplanina DSM 44594T (99.0 %), A. roodepoortensis M29T (98.9 %), A. keratiniphilasubsp...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Michael A Chen, Benjamin D Kocar
Radium (Ra) is a radioactive element commonly found within soils, sediments and natural waters. Elevated Ra activities arising through natural and anthropogenic processes pose a threat to groundwater resources and human health, and Ra isotope ratios are used to decipher groundwater movement, estimate submarine discharge flux, and fingerprint contamination associated with hydraulic fracturing operations. Although adsorption to metal (hydr)oxides and certain clay minerals is well established as a dominant mechanism controlling Ra transport and retention, the extent of Ra sorption to other minerals and under variable environmental conditions (e...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Chenchen Qu, Huihui Du, Mingkai Ma, Wenli Chen, Peng Cai, Qiaoyun Huang
Though abundant studies have targeted the characterization of heavy metal adsorption by either clay minerals or bacteria, to date, minimal literature exists which specifically assesses bacteria-clay mineral interactions in the context of metal immobilization. The adsorption of Pb onto montmorillonite, Pseudomonas putida, and their 1:1, 2:1, 6:1 and 12:1 mass ratio composites were investigated by using a combination of atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface complexation modeling (SCM), Pb-LIII edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC)...
February 22, 2018: Chemosphere
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