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Philip Kinghorn, Joanna Coast
BACKGROUND: Sen's capability approach is underspecified; one decision left to those operationalising the approach is how to identify sets of relevant and important capabilities. Sen has suggested that lists be developed for specific policy or research objectives through a process of public reasoning and discussion. Robeyns offers further guidance in support of Sen's position, suggesting that lists should be explicit, discussed and defended; methods be openly scrutinised; lists be considered both in terms of what is ideal and what is practical ('generality'); and that lists be exhaustive...
2018: PloS One
Kathy Goggin, Emily A Hurley, Glenn J Wagner, Vincent Staggs, Sarah Finocchario-Kessler, Jolly Beyeza-Kashesya, Deborah Mindry, Josephine Birungi, Rhoda K Wanyenze
High rates of fertility desires, childbearing and serodiscordant partnerships among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Uganda underscore the need to promote use of safer conception methods (SCM). Effective SCM exist but few PLHIV benefit from provider-led safer conception counseling (SCC) and comprehensive national SCC guidelines are still lacking. Providers' self-efficacy, intentions and attitudes for SCC impact provision and should inform development of services, but there are no longitudinal studies that assess these important constructs...
February 20, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Melissa R Wrobel, Harini G Sundararaghavan
Following peripheral nerve injury (PNI), inflammatory cues impede repair. We have previously demonstrated that spinal cord matrix (SCM) proteins and hyaluronic acid (HA) nanofibers mitigate chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) inhibition and promote growth in peripheral neurons. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a characteristic CSPG, Chondroitin sulfate A (CSA), SCM, and HA fibers on macrophages and Schwann Cells (SCs). We hypothesized that our cues would accelerate the macrophages return to rest following classical activation (M1/pro-inflammatory) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1μg/mL) and would accelerate the transformation of SCs from an immature state following injury to a mature/pro-myelinating phenotype...
February 17, 2018: Neuroscience
Laura Franitza, Luca Nicolotti, Michael Granvogl, Peter Schieberle
A large set of volatiles (a metabolome) was isolated by SAFE distillation from twenty-five high priced rums prepared from sugar cane juice (SCJ) and twenty-six high priced rums manufactured from sugar cane molasses (SCM). The volatile fractions were first analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF-MS) and the 'comprehensive template matching fingerprinting' was used to extract the entire features present in the respective set of volatile compounds...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ozcan Kaya, Onur Levent Ulusoy, Selhan Karadereler, Azmi Hamzaoglu
PURPOSE: Spine duplication is a very rare condition with the literature being composed of only case reports. All previously reported cases were thoracolumbar spine duplications. Here, we report cervicothoracic spine duplication in a neurological intact male. According to our knowledge, it is the first case in the literature of cervicothoracic spine duplication. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 3-year-old patient presented to a primary physician with a complaint of short stature...
February 17, 2018: European Spine Journal
D Vanitha, Sultan Asath Bahadur, Nallaperumal Nallamuthu, Athimoolam Shunmuganarayanan, A Manikandan
Calcium ion conducting polymer blend electrolyte films based on PVA/PVP complexed with CaCl2 have been prepared by solution casting technique. The structural changes of the polymer blends have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. XRD and FT-IR studies confirmed the complex formation of polymer blends. Electrical conductivity was calculated with impedance analyzer within the frequency range 42 Hz-1 MHz and in the temperature range 303 K-340 K. The higher electrical conductivity value of 1...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
K Jeyabanu, V Siva, N Nallamuthu, S Selvanayagam, S Asath Bahadur, A Manikandan
Polymer blend electrolytes based on magnesium ion conducting PVA-PVP-MgCl2 polymer were prepared at different compositions by solution casting techniques. The prepared films were characterised by various techniques such as XRD and FTIR. Amorphous nature and structural coordination of polymer electrolyte were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies. The ionic conductivity of the prepared polymer electrolytes were analysed through ac impedance spectroscopy. The highest conductivity was found to be in the order of ~10-6 Scm-1 at an ambient temperature for the composition of 50PVA:50PVP:5 wt% MgCl2...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Banghong Jiang, Wenxuan Zu, Jing Xu, Zhuyou Xiong, Yichao Zhang, Song Gao, Shuxing Ge, Li Zhang
Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is a neck deformity that involves shortening of sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) characterized by muscle atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. To investigate wheatear Botulinum toxin type A (BTA) has anti-fibrotic effects in CMT, we established acquired muscular torticollis that mimetics CMT in rabbit by intra-SCM injection of anhydrous alcohol. The treatment groups received BTA (2.5 units or 5 units) injection into the fibrotic SCM. The shortening and thickening of SCM were recorded by B-mode ultrasound...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
V Parameswaran, N Nallamuthu, P Devendran, A Manikandan, E R Nagarajan
Biodegradable polymer blend electrolyte based on ammonium based salt in variation composition consisting of PVA:PVP were prepared by using solution casting technique. The obtained films have been analyzed by various technical methods like as XRD, FT-IR, TG-DSC, SEM analysis and impedance spectroscopy. The XRD and FT-IR analysis exposed the amorphous nature and structural properties of the complex formation between PVA/PVP/NH4Br. Impedance spectroscopy analysis revealed the ionic conductivity and the dielectric properties of PVA/PVP/NH4Br polymer blend electrolyte films...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Joao Henrique Neves Soares, Alysson Roncally Carvalho, Bruno Curty Bergamini, Maria Alice Kuster Gress, Frederico Caetano Jandre, Walter Araujo Zin, Antonio Giannella-Neto
PURPOSE: We compared respiratory mechanics between the positive end-expiratory pressure of minimal respiratory system elastance (PEEP minErs ) and three levels of PEEP during low-tidal-volume (6 mL/kg) ventilation in rats. METHODS: Twenty-four rats were anesthetized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated. Airway pressure (P aw ), flow (F), and volume (V) were fitted by a linear single compartment model (LSCM) P aw (t) = E rs × V(t) + R rs × F(t) + PEEP or a volume- and flow-dependent SCM (VFDSCM) P aw (t) = (E 1 + E 2 × V(t)) × V(t) + (K 1 + K 2 × |F(t)|) × F(t) + PEEP, where E rs and R rs are respiratory system elastance and resistance, respectively; E 1 and E 2 × V are volume-independent and volume-dependent E rs , respectively; and K 1 and K 2 × F are flow-independent and flow-dependent R rs , respectively...
February 12, 2018: Lung
Xuan Ye, Yun-Dong Shen, Jun-Tao Feng, Wen-Dong Xu
OBJECTIVE Spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury results in a series of shoulder dysfunctions and continuous pain. However, current treatments are limited by the lack of donor nerves as well as by undesirable nerve regeneration. Here, the authors report a modified nerve transfer technique in which they employ a nerve fascicle from the posterior division (PD) of the ipsilateral C-7 nerve to repair SAN injury. The technique, first performed in cadavers, was then undertaken in 2 patients. METHODS Six fresh cadavers (12 sides of the SAN and ipsilateral C-7) were studied to observe the anatomical relationship between the SAN and C-7 nerve...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Bhillie D Luciani, David M Desmet, Amani A Alkayyali, Joshua M Leonardis, David Benjamin Lipps
Neck muscles are preferentially activated in specific force directions, but the constraints that the central nervous system considers when programming these preferred directions of muscle activity are unknown. The current study utilized ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) to investigate whether the material properties of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles exhibit preferred directions similar to their preferred direction of muscle activity during an isometric task. Twenty-four healthy participants matched isometric forces in 16 axial directions...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Gi Young Park, Dong Rak Kwon, Dae Gil Kwon
Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is characterized by shortening or excessive contraction of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of quantifying SCM stiffness using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) sonoelastography in infants with CMT. Twenty infants with an SCM thickness greater than 10 mm with or without involvement of the entire SCM length (limitation of neck rotation passive range of motion [PROM]: group 1S >30°, group 1M = 15°-30°) and 12 infants with an SCM thickness smaller than 10 mm with or without involvement of any part of SCM (group 2) were included...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Meng-Yang Jia, Zhi-Ming Zhang, Liang-Min Yu, Jia Wang, Tong-Tong Zheng
Cathodic polarization antifouling deserves attention because of its environmentally friendly nature and good sustainability. It has been proven that cathodic voltages applied on metal substrates exhibit outstanding antifouling effects. However, most metals immersed in marine environment are protected by insulated anticorrosive coatings, restricting the cathodic polarization applied on metals. This study developed a conducting polypyrrole (PPy)/acrylic resin coating (σ = 0.18 Scm-1), which can be applied in cathodic polarization antifouling...
February 1, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Bara Alsalaheen, Ryan Bean, Andrea Almeida, James Eckner, Matthew Lorincz
BACKGROUND: The majority of studies examining the role of cervical muscles on head-neck kinematics focused on musculoskeletal attributes (e.g. strength). Cervical neuromuscular response to perturbation may represent a divergent construct that has not been examined under various perturbation conditions. This study examined the association between cervical musculoskeletal attributes and cervical neuromuscular response of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) to perturbation. Furthermore, this study examined the effect of anticipation and preload on the SCM neuromuscular response...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Chen Li, Noel W Solomons, Marilyn E Scott, Kristine G Koski
The possibility that either subclinical mastitis (SCM), an inflammatory condition of the breast, or elevations in breast milk proinflammatory cytokines alter breast milk mineral and trace element composition in humans has not been investigated. In this cross-sectional study, breast milk samples (n=108) were collected from Guatemalan Mam-Mayan mothers at one of three stages of lactation (transitional, early and established), and categorized as SCM (Na:K >0.6) or non-SCM (Na:K ≤0.6). Milk concentrations of 12 minerals (calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, rubidium, selenium, sodium, strontium, and zinc) and 4 proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), Lachat analyzer or Luminex multiplex bead cytokine assay...
March 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Guo-Wei Lu, Ruben S Luís, José Manuel Delgado Mendinueta, Takahide Sakamoto, Naokatsu Yamamoto
As one of the promising multiplexing and multicarrier modulation technologies, Nyquist subcarrier multiplexing (Nyquist SCM) has recently attracted research attention to realize ultra-fast and ultra-spectral-efficient optical networks. In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate optical subcarrier processing technologies for Nyquist SCM signals such as frequency conversion, multicast and data aggregation of subcarriers, through the coherent spectrum overlapping between subcarriers in four-wave mixing (FWM) with coherent multi-tone pump...
January 22, 2018: Optics Express
S Ali Naqvi, Jeroen De Buck, Simon Dufour, Herman W Barkema
Mastitis is the most prevalent and costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide, with implications for animal health and welfare as well as production and economics. Nonlactating heifers are an often-neglected group of animals concerning mastitis management, as they are assumed to be free of mastitis. An observational field study was conducted between 2007 and 2008 on 91 dairy herds across Canada, representative of provincial averages of bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) and barn type. The aims of that study were to (1) estimate in early-lactating heifers overall and pathogen-specific incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM), prevalence of intramammary infection (IMI), and prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM; defined as SCC ≥200,000 cells/mL); (2) compare these udder health parameters between heifers and multiparous cows; and (3) determine regional patterns and variations in these udder health parameters across BMSCC categories...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Mai Mochizuki, Taka Nakahara
BACKGROUND: Currently, ex-vivo handling of stem cells, including transport after harvest and therapeutic preparation, is generally done in culture media containing fetal bovine serum (FBS), which promotes cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. However, because of safety concerns associated with the use of FBS, including potential transmission of zoonotic agents and transplant rejection because of the incorporation of foreign proteins into the stem cells, there is a need for xenogeneic serum-free culture media for clinical handling of stem cells...
February 3, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
P Baas, B J H van de Wiel, S J A van der Linden, F C Bosveld
The performance of an atmospheric single-column model (SCM) is studied systematically for stably-stratified conditions. To this end, 11 years (2005-2015) of daily SCM simulations were compared to observations from the Cabauw observatory, The Netherlands. Each individual clear-sky night was classified in terms of the ambient geostrophic wind speed with a [Formula: see text] bin-width. Nights with overcast conditions were filtered out by selecting only those nights with an average net radiation of less than [Formula: see text]...
2018: Boundary-layer Meteorology
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