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Athanasios Raikos, Thomas English, Omar Khalid Yousif, Mandeep Sandhu, Allan Stirling
PURPOSE: The great auricular point (GAP) marks the exit of the great auricular nerve at the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). It is a key landmark for the identification of the spinal accessory nerve, and its intraoperative localization is vital to avoid neurological sequelae. This study delineates the topography and surface anatomy landmarks that used to localize the GAP. METHODS: Thirty cadaveric heminecks were dissected on a layer-by-layer approach...
October 15, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Fernanda Pasinato, Clarissa C Santos-Couto-Paz, Jorge Luis Lopes Zeredo, Sergio Bruzadelli Macedo, Eliane C R Corrêa
The aim of this study was to verify the effects of induced masseter-muscle pain on the amplitude of muscle activation, symmetry and coactivation of jaw- and neck-muscles during mastication. Twenty-eight male volunteers, mean age±SD 20.6±2.0years, participated in this study. Surface electromyography of the masseter and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles was performed bilaterally during mastication of a gummy candy before and after injections of monosodium glutamate solution and isotonic saline solution. As a result, we observed a decrease in the amplitude of activation of the masseter muscle on the working side (p=0...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Daniele Starnoni, John Michael Duff, Gopalakrishnan Chittur Viswanathan
CONTEXT: Anatomical variations of the filum terminale (FT) have been described in association with split cord malformations (SCM) but they appear to be a rare finding in its absence. We report the first case in literature of a duplicated FT in a patient presenting with tethered cord syndrome (TCS) without any radiological evidence of SCM. FINDINGS: A 47-year-old man presented with invalidating back pain radiating to both legs. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural dorsal lipoma in a low-lying conus...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Muhammed Ajmal C, Faseela K P, Swati Singh, Seunghyun Baik
Silver has long been employed as an electrically conductive component, and morphology-dependent properties have been actively investigated. Here we present a novel scalable synthesis method of flower-shaped silver nanoparticles (silver nanoflowers, Ag NFs). The preferential affinity of citrate molecules on (111) surface of silver enabled spontaneous anisotropic growth of Ag NFs (bud size: 250~580 nm, single crystalline petal thickness: 9~22 nm) with high reproducibility and a high yield of >99.5%. The unique hierarchical structure resulted in coalescence of petals over 80~120 °C which was practically employed in conductive inks to construct percolation pathways among Ag NFs...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Dannuey M Cardoso, Guilherme A F Fregonezi, Renan T Jost, Ricardo Gass, Cristine L Alberton, Isabella M Albuquerque, Dulciane N Paiva, Sérgio S M Barreto
Objective: To investigate the acute effects of EPAP on the activity of sternocleidomastoid (SCM), parasternal muscles and ventilatory parameters in COPD patients. Method: Twenty-four patients with COPD were studied using surface electromyography (sEMG) and a ventilometer. Patients were randomly assigned to EPAP 10 cmH2O-EPAP10 or 15 cmH2O-EPAP15 for 20 minutes. Results: The parasternal muscle sEMG activity increased during EPAP10 and EPAP15; however, a greater and significant increase was observed with EPAP10 (mean between-group difference: 12...
September 16, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
Xuming Zhang, Jinxia Ren, Zhiwen Huang, Fei Zhu
Multimodal medical image fusion (MIF) plays an important role in clinical diagnosis and therapy. Existing MIF methods tend to introduce artifacts, lead to loss of image details or produce low-contrast fused images. To address these problems, a novel spiking cortical model (SCM) based MIF method has been proposed in this paper. The proposed method can generate high-quality fused images using the weighting fusion strategy based on the firing times of the SCM. In the weighting fusion scheme, the weight is determined by combining the entropy information of pulse outputs of the SCM with the Weber local descriptor operating on the firing mapping images produced from the pulse outputs...
2016: Sensors
C L Daleu, R S Plant, S J Woolnough, S Sessions, M J Herman, A Sobel, S Wang, D Kim, A Cheng, G Bellon, P Peyrille, F Ferry, P Siebesma, L van Ulft
As part of an international intercomparison project, a set of single-column models (SCMs) and cloud-resolving models (CRMs) are run under the weak-temperature gradient (WTG) method and the damped gravity wave (DGW) method. For each model, the implementation of the WTG or DGW method involves a simulated column which is coupled to a reference state defined with profiles obtained from the same model in radiative-convective equilibrium. The simulated column has the same surface conditions as the reference state and is initialized with profiles from the reference state...
December 2015: J Adv Model Earth Syst
Tao Feng, Zhongping Xiao, Li Geng, Peng Gao, Kun Fu, Zhibo Li
The application of Doxorubicin (DOX) in the chemotherapy for lymphoma is seriously hampered by the side effects of DOX, especially the cardiotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Nanoscale micelle as a promising drug delivery system has gained more and more interest in malignancy chemotherapy. In this study, we successfully fabricated DOX-loaded stereocomplex micelle (SCM/DOX) from the equimolar mixture of the enantiomeric four-armed poly(ethylene glycol)-polylactide (PDM and PLM) copolymers. The SCM/DOX showed proper hydrodynamic size of ~90 nm and slow DOX release in phosphate-buffered saline at pH 7...
December 2016: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
Sorout Shalini, Vishal M Dhavale, Kavalakal M Eldho, Sreekumar Kurungot, Thallaseril G Ajithkumar, Ramanathan Vaidhyanathan
Pyridinol, a coordinating zwitter-ionic species serves as stoichiometrically loadable and non-leachable proton carrier. The partial replacement of the pyridinol by stronger hydrogen bonding, coordinating guest, ethylene glycol (EG), offers 1000-fold enhancement in conductivity (10(-6) to 10(-3) Scm(-1)) with record low activation energy (0.11 eV). Atomic modeling coupled with (13)C-SSNMR provides insights into the potential proton conduction pathway functionalized with post-synthetically anchored dynamic proton transporting EG moieties...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yasin Abanoz, Yeşim Abanoz, Ayşegül Gündüz, Murat Uludağ, Nurettin I˙rem Örnek, Nurten Uzun, Halil Ünalan, Meral Kızıltan
INTRODUCTION: Spinal cord injury (SCI) may cause functional changes at various levels in central and peripheral nervous systems. One of these changes is increased excitability above the lesion such as enhanced auditory startle responses (ASR). Startle response may also be obtained after somatosensory stimulus (startle reflex to somatosensory stimuli, SSS). In this study, we investigated changes of both ASR and SSS in SCI. METHOD: We examined ASR and SSS in 14 patients with SCI and 18 age-matched healthy volunteers...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
A Karthikeyan, G Radhika, T V Aravindhakshan, K Anilkumar
Innate immune mechanism plays a key role in mammary defense, from recognition of pathogens to activation of nonspecific and specific immunity involved in elimination of pathogens. Expression profiles of innate immune response genes namely Toll like receptor 2 (TLR-2), Peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 (PGLYRP-1), Interleukin 8 receptor (IL-8 R), L-Selectin (SELL), and Osteopontin (OPN) in milk somatic cells of subclinical mastitis (SCM) affected crossbred cows were investigated under this study at transcript level using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
October 2016: Animal Biotechnology
Ji-Yun Jung, Eun-Hee Kim, In-Kyung Song, Ji-Hyun Lee, Hee-Soo Kim, Jin-Tae Kim
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to analyze the distances between the conus medullaris and the Tuffier's line, and between the dural sac and the sacrococcygeal membrane (SCM) in the same pediatric population. METHODS: Spinal magnetic resonance images and simple X-ray images of 350 patients aged from 1 month to 20 years were reviewed. Positions of the conus medullaris, Tuffier's line, the dural sac, and the SCM were identified. Each position was recorded in relation to the corresponding vertebral body segments...
August 26, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Rémi Martin-Fardon, Gabrielle Cauvi, Tony M Kerr, Friedbert Weiss
Hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin (Orx/Hcrt) neurons are thought to mediate both food-reinforced behaviors and behavior motivated by drugs of abuse. However, the relative role of the Orx/Hcrt system in behavior motivated by food versus drugs of abuse remains unclear. This investigation addressed this question by contrasting hypothalamic Orx/Hcrt neuronal activation associated with reinstatement of reward seeking induced by stimuli conditioned to cocaine (COC) versus highly palatable food reward, sweetened condensed milk (SCM)...
August 24, 2016: Addiction Biology
Amit Sharma, Sanjita Sharma, Navav Singh, Vishnu Sharma, Rahul Singh Pal
Prevention of subclinical mastitis (SCM) is an important tool for sustainable dairying and implementing higher production level in animals. The present investigation involved a total of 397 quarters of milk examination of 105 indigenous Tharparkar cows at Livestock Research Centre, Chandan located in the Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan in Thar Desert to study the impact of udder and teat morphometry on udder health. Udder health was examined by somatic cell count to check the status of subclinical mastitis while udder and teat morphometry of 90 udder and 386 quarters, i...
August 24, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Priyanka Saha, Omkar Shinde, Supriya Sarkar
The waste water at Sukinda chromite mines (SCM) area of Orissa (India) showed high levels of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr VI). Chromium contaminated mines waste water having potential threats for biotic community in the vicinity. The aim of the present investigation is to develop a suitable phytoremediation technology for the effective removal of toxic hexavalent chromium from mines wastewater. A water hyacinth species Eichhornia crassipes was chosen to remediate the problem of Cr (VI) pollution from waste water...
August 23, 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Rong Lan, Peter I Cowin, Sivaprakash Sengodan, Shanwen Tao
Electrode materials which exhibit high conductivities in both oxidising and reducing atmospheres are in high demand for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and solid oxide electrolytic cells (SOECs). In this paper, we investigated Cu-doped SrFe0.9Nb0.1O3-δ finding that the primitive perovskite oxide SrFe0.8Cu0.1Nb0.1O3-δ (SFCN) exhibits a conductivity of 63 Scm(-1)and 60 Scm(-1) at 415 °C in air and 5%H2/Ar respectively. It is believed that the high conductivity in 5%H2/Ar is related to the exsolved Fe (or FeCu alloy) on exposure to a reducing atmosphere...
2016: Scientific Reports
Catherine Hume, Barbara Jachs, John Menzies
OBJECTIVE: Energy intake is regulated by overlapping homeostatic and hedonic systems. Consumption of palatable foods has been implicated in weight gain, but this assumes that homeostatic control systems do not accurately detect this hedonically driven energy intake. This study tested this assumption, hypothesizing that satiated rats would reduce their voluntary food intake and maintain a stable body weight after consuming a palatable food. METHODS: Lean rats or rats previously exposed to an obesogenic diet were schedule-fed with fixed or varying amounts of palatable sweetened condensed milk (SCM) daily, and their voluntary energy intake and body weight were monitored...
October 2016: Obesity
Makara Lay, J Alberto Méndez, Marc Delgado-Aguilar, Kim Ngun Bun, Fabiola Vilaseca
In this work, we prepare cellulose nanopapers of high mechanical performance and with the electrical conductivity of a semiconductor. Cellulose nanofibers (CNF) from bleached softwood pulp were coated with polypyrrole (PPy) via in situ chemical polymerization, in presence of iron chloride (III) as oxidant agent. The structure and morphology of nanopapers were studied, as well as their thermal, mechanical and conductive properties. Nanopaper from pure CNF exhibited a very high tensile response (224MPa tensile strength and 14...
November 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Kevin Sung, Yichen Ding, Jianguo Ma, Harrison Chen, Vincent Huang, Michelle Cheng, Cindy F Yang, Jocelyn T Kim, Daniel Eguchi, Dino Di Carlo, Tzung K Hsiai, Atsushi Nakano, Rajan P Kulkarni
Tissue clearing methods promise to provide exquisite three-dimensional imaging information; however, there is a need for simplified methods for lower resource settings and for non-fluorescence based phenotyping to enable light microscopic imaging modalities. Here we describe the simplified CLARITY method (SCM) for tissue clearing that preserves epitopes of interest. We imaged the resulting tissues using light sheet microscopy to generate rapid 3D reconstructions of entire tissues and organs. In addition, to enable clearing and 3D tissue imaging with light microscopy methods, we developed a colorimetric, non-fluorescent method for specifically labeling cleared tissues based on horseradish peroxidase conversion of diaminobenzidine to a colored insoluble product...
2016: Scientific Reports
Xiaoyun Wu, Huiyan Kang, Xuemin Liu, Jin Gao, Kuijun Zhao, Zhijie Ma
OBJECTIVES: Umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (UCMSCs) can be considered to become a new gold standard for MSC-based therapies. A serum and xeno-free, chemically defined and no-plate-coating-based culture system will greatly facilitate development of robust, clinically acceptable bioprocesses for reproducibly generating quality-assured UCMSCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we report for the first time, such a serum-free, xeno-free, completely chemically defined and no-plate-coating-based culture system for the isolation and expansion of UCMSCs, whose biological characteristics were evaluated and compared with serum-containing medium (SCM) methods...
October 2016: Cell Proliferation
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