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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161274/bacillus-spp-a-bio-control-agent-enhances-the-activity-of-antioxidant-defense-enzymes-in-rice-against-pyricularia-oryzae
#1
Afroz Rais, Zahra Jabeen, Faluk Shair, Fauzia Yusuf Hafeez, Muhammad Nadeem Hassan
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are found to control the plant diseases by adopting various mechanisms. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) is an important defensive strategy manifested by plants against numerous pathogens especially infecting at aerial parts. Rhizobacteria elicit ISR by inducing different pathways in plants through production of various metabolites. In the present study, potential of Bacillus spp. KFP-5, KFP-7, KFP-17 was assessed to induce antioxidant enzymes against Pyricularia oryzae infection in rice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160197/isolation-and-molecular-characterization-of-group-b-streptococcus-from-laboratory-long-evans-rats-rattus-norvegicus-with-and-without-invasive-group-b-streptococcal-disease
#2
Caroline Bodi Winn, Vasudevan Bakthavatchalu, Michael Y Esmail, Yan Feng, JoAnn Dzink-Fox, Lauren Richey, Scott E Perkins, Eric K Nordberg, James G Fox
PURPOSE: Group B Streptococcus (S. agalactiae, GBS) is a Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen that inhabits the respiratory, urogenital and gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. Maternal colonization of GBS is a risk factor for a spectrum of clinical diseases in humans and a principle cause of neonatal meningitis and septicaemia. METHODOLOGY: We describe polymicrobial sepsis including GBS in two gravid adult female Long-Evans rats experiencing acute mortality from a colony of long-term breeding pairs...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159172/examining-the-link-between-biofilm-formation-and-the-ability-of-pathogenic-salmonella-strains-to-colonize-multiple-host-species
#3
REVIEW
Keith D MacKenzie, Melissa B Palmer, Wolfgang L Köster, Aaron P White
Salmonella are important pathogens worldwide and a predominant number of human infections are zoonotic in nature. The ability of strains to form biofilms, which is a multicellular behavior characterized by the aggregation of cells, is predicted to be a conserved strategy for increased persistence and survival. It may also contribute to the increasing number of infections caused by ingestion of contaminated fruits and vegetables. There is a correlation between biofilm formation and the ability of strains to colonize and replicate within the intestines of multiple host species...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159165/clinical-features-and-factors-associated-with-surgical-treatment-in-patients-with-complicated-colonic-diverticulitis
#4
Pill Sun Paik, Jung-A Yun
Purpose: Colonic diverticulitis is uncommon in Korea, but the incidence is rapidly increasing nowadays. The clinical features and the factors associated with complications of diverticulitis are important for properly treating the disease. Methods: A retrospective review of the medical records of 225 patients that were prospectively collected between October 2007 and September 2016 was conducted. Results: Diverticulitis was detected mainly in men and women aged 30 to 50 years...
October 2017: Annals of Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158969/5-fluorouracil-and-irinotecan-sn-38-have-limited-impact-on-colon-microbial-functionality-and-composition-in-vitro
#5
Eline Vanlancker, Barbara Vanhoecke, Andrea Stringer, Tom Van de Wiele
Gastrointestinal mucositis is a debilitating side effect of chemotherapy treatment, with currently no treatment available. As changes in microbial composition have been reported upon chemotherapy treatment in vivo, it is thought that gut microbiota dysbiosis contribute to the mucositis etiology. Yet it is not known whether chemotherapeutics directly cause microbial dysbiosis, thereby increasing mucositis risk, or whether the chemotherapeutic subjected host environment disturbs the microbiome thereby aggravating the disease...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158764/fetal-and-preterm-infant-microbiomes-a-new-perspective-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#6
REVIEW
Yong-Sung Choi, In Gyu Song
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating condition of hospitalized preterm infants. Numerous studies have attempted to identify the cause of NEC by examining the immunological features associated with pathogenic microorganisms. No single organism has proven responsible for the disease; however, immunological studies are now focused on the microbiome. Recent research has investigated the numerous bacterial species residing in the body and their role in diseases in preterm infants. The timing of initial microbial colonization is a subject of interest...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158433/whole-genome-characterization-of-bacillus-cereus-associated-with-specific-disease-manifestations
#7
T Chang, J W Rosch, Z Gu, H Hakim, C Hewitt, A Gaur, G Wu, R T Hayden
Bacillus cereus remains an important cause of infections, particularly in immunocompromised hosts. While typically associated with enteric infections, disease manifestations can be quite diverse and include skin infections, bacteremia, pneumonia, and meningitis. Whether there are any genetic correlates of bacterial strains with particular clinical manifestations remains unknown. To address this gap in understanding we undertook whole genome analysis of B. cereus strains isolated from patients with a range of disease manifestations, including non-invasive colonizing disease, superficial skin infections, and invasive bacteremia...
November 20, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158428/borrelia-burgdorferi-glycosaminoglycan-binding-protein-bgp-in-the-b31-strain-is-not-essential-for-infectivity-despite-facilitating-adherence-and-tissue-colonization
#8
Samantha Schlachter, Janakiram Seshu, Tao Lin, Steven Norris, Nikhat Parveen
Lyme disease causing Borrelia burgdorferi is transmitted into the mammalian host by an infected tick bite. Successful infection relies on the ability of this extracellular pathogen to persist and colonize different tissues. B. burgdorferi encodes a large number of adhesins that are able to interact with host ligands to facilitate adherence, and tissue colonization. Multiple glycosaminoglycan binding proteins presence in B. burgdorferi offer a degree of redundancy of function during infection, and highlights the importance for glycosaminoglycans as host cell receptors for spirochete adherence...
November 20, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158163/identification-of-tissue-damage-extracellular-matrix-remodeling-and-bacterial-challenge-as-common-mechanisms-associated-with-high-risk-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#9
Melanie C Föll, Matthias Fahrner, Christine Gretzmeier, Käthe Thoma, Martin L Biniossek, Dimitra Kiritsi, Frank Meiss, Oliver Schilling, Alexander Nyström, Johannes S Kern
In this study we used a genetic extracellular matrix (ECM) disease to identify mechanisms associated with aggressive behavior of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). cSCC is one of the most common malignancies and usually has a good prognosis. However, some cSCCs recur or metastasize and cause significant morbidity and mortality. Known factors that are associated with aggressiveness of cSCCs include tumor grading, size, localization and microinvasive behavior. To investigate molecular mechanisms that influence biologic behavior we used global proteomic and histologic analyses of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue of primary human cSCCs...
November 17, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157735/validation-a-critical-step-in-bringing-biomarkers-to-clinical-fruition
#10
Sudhir Srivastava, Barnett S Kramer
Screening is vital to reducing morbidity and mortality due to cancer. A primary cause of poor survival is that many cancers are detected late and often after they have metastasized to distant sites. Therapies, therefore, become challenging for late-stage disease and are not successful for nearly all cancer types. The mortality rates from cancers where screening tools are available are lower than from cancers for which no viable screening tools exist. Even for cancers where screening tools currently exist, there is room for improvement, either in the accuracy of the tests or in increasing widespread use of screening by making the tests less invasive...
November 9, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156934/-short-chain-fatty-acids-butyric-acid-and-intestinal-diseases
#11
David Manrique Vergara, María Eugenia González Sánchez
INTRODUCTION: Short chain fatty acids contain up to 6 carbon atoms. Among them, butyric acid stands out for its key role in pathologies with intestinal affectation. Butyric acid is the main energetic substrate of the colonocyte, it stimulates the absorption of sodium and water in the colon, and presents trophic action on the intestinal cells. OBJECTIVES: To review the clinical use of formulations for the oral use of butyric acid. METHODS: Review of published articles on oral supplementation with butyric acid in intestinal pathologies...
October 15, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156792/liquid-biopsy-in-colon-cancer-comparison-of-different-circulating-dna-extraction-systems-following-absolute-quantification-of-kras-mutations-using-intplex-allele-specific-pcr
#12
Vera Kloten, Nadine Rüchel, Nadina Ortiz Brüchle, Janina Gasthaus, Nils Freudenmacher, Florian Steib, Jolein Mijnes, Julian Eschenbruch, Marcel Binnebösel, Ruth Knüchel, Edgar Dahl
Non-invasive molecular analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a promising application in personalized cancer management, although there is still much to learn about the biological characteristics of ctDNA. The present study compared absolute amounts of KRAS mutated ctDNA and total circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients (n=50) from various stages and healthy controls (n=8) by Intplex allele-specific and digital droplet PCR. In addition, the impact of two prominent extraction techniques (silica-based membrane vs...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156761/extracts-from-hericium-erinaceus-relieve-inflammatory-bowel-disease-by-regulating-immunity-and-gut-microbiota
#13
Chen Diling, Yang Xin, Zheng Chaoqun, Yang Jian, Tang Xiaocui, Chen Jun, Shuai Ou, Xie Yizhen
Hericium erinaceus (HE), a traditional edible mushroom, is known as a medicine food homology to ameliorate gastrointestinal diseases. To investigate whether HE is clinically effective in alleviating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), HE extracts (polysaccharide, alcoholic extracts and whole extracts were prepared using solvent extraction methods) were administrated for 2 weeks in rats with IBD induced by trinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS) enema (150 mg/kg). Significant clinical and histological changes in IBD rats were identified, including damage activity, common morphous and tissue damage index scores in colonic mucosa and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156750/somatic-mutations-in-cdh1-and-ctnnb1-in-primary-carcinomas-at-13-anatomic-sites
#14
Evan L Busch, Jason L Hornick, Renato Umeton, Adem Albayrak, Neal I Lindeman, Laura E MacConaill, Elizabeth P Garcia, Matthew Ducar, Timothy R Rebbeck
Metastases are involved in most cancer deaths. Evidence has suggested that cancer cell detachment from primary tumors might occur largely via the mechanism of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) activated by epigenetic events, but data addressing other possible triggers of detachment, particularly genetic mutations, have been limited. Using the Profile study of cancer genomics at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, we examined somatic mutations in the EMT genes CDH1 in 5,106 primary carcinomas and CTNNB1 in 7,578 primary carcinomas across 13 anatomic sites: urinary bladder, breast, colon/rectum, endometrium, esophagus, kidney, lung, ovary, pancreas, prostate, skin (non-melanoma), stomach, and thyroid...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156742/prmda-personalized-recommendation-based-mirna-disease-association-prediction
#15
Zhu-Hong You, Luo-Pin Wang, Xing Chen, Shanwen Zhang, Xiao-Fang Li, Gui-Ying Yan, Zheng-Wei Li
Recently, researchers have been increasingly focusing on microRNAs (miRNAs) with accumulating evidence indicating that miRNAs serve as a vital role in various biological processes and dysfunctions of miRNAs are closely related with human complex diseases. Predicting potential associations between miRNAs and diseases is attached considerable significance in the domains of biology, medicine, and bioinformatics. In this study, we developed a computational model of Personalized Recommendation-based MiRNA-Disease Association prediction (PRMDA) to predict potential related miRNA for all diseases by implementing personalized recommendation-based algorithm based on integrated similarity for diseases and miRNAs...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155830/molecular-characterization-of-tsetse-s-proboscis-and-its-response-to-trypanosoma-congolense-infection
#16
Erick O Awuoche, Brian L Weiss, Aurélien Vigneron, Paul O Mireji, Emre Aksoy, Benson Nyambega, Geoffrey M Attardo, Yineng Wu, Michelle O'Neill, Grace Murilla, Serap Aksoy
Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) transmit parasitic African trypanosomes (Trypanosoma spp.), including Trypanosoma congolense, which causes animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT). AAT detrimentally affects agricultural activities in sub-Saharan Africa and has negative impacts on the livelihood and nutrient availability for the affected communities. After tsetse ingests an infectious blood meal, T. congolense sequentially colonizes the fly's gut and proboscis (PB) organs before being transmitted to new mammalian hosts during subsequent feedings...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155731/the-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans-a-versatile-in-vivo-model-to-study-host-microbe-interactions
#17
Luca Issi, Meredith Rioux, Reeta Rao
We demonstrate a method using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model host to study microbial interaction. Microbes are introduced via the diet making the intestine the primary location for disease. The nematode intestine structurally and functionally mimics mammalian intestines and is transparent making it amenable to microscopic study of colonization. Here we show that pathogens can cause disease and death. We are able to identify microbial mutants that show altered virulence. Its conserved innate response to biotic stresses makes C...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155498/global-impact-of-nephropathies
#18
REVIEW
Philip Kam-Tao Li, Terry King-Wing Ma
The global burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased substantially in recent years, partly attributed to the global epidemic of diabetes mellitus. In many countries including China, glomerulonephritis was the most common cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD). The mortality rate of dialysis patients can be as high as patients with colon, breast and prostate cancers. CKD has important socio-economic impact on the healthcare system and society. Increasing awareness and early detection of CKD cannot be overemphasized...
December 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155483/modeling-persistent-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-of-human-airway-epithelium
#19
Oliver A Prince, Thomas M Krunkosky, Edward S Sheppard, Duncan C Krause
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a human respiratory tract pathogen causing acute and chronic airway disease states that can include long-term carriage and extra-pulmonary spread. The mechanisms of persistence and migration beyond the conducting airways, however, remain poorly understood. We previously described an acute exposure model using normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE) in air-liquid interface culture, showing that M. pneumoniae gliding motility is essential for initial colonization and subsequent spread, including localization to epithelial cell junctions...
November 20, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154757/macrophage-polarization-and-meta-inflammation
#20
REVIEW
Chuan Li, Maria M Xu, Kepeng Wang, Adam J Adler, Anthony T Vella, Beiyan Zhou
Chronic overnutrition and obesity induces low-grade inflammation throughout the body. Termed "meta-inflammation," this chronic state of inflammation is mediated by macrophages located within the colon, liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. A sentinel orchestrator of immune activity and homeostasis, macrophages adopt variable states of activation as a function of time and environmental cues. Meta-inflammation phenotypically skews these polarization states and has been linked to numerous metabolic disorders. The past decade has revealed several key regulators of macrophage polarization, including the signal transducer and activator of transcription family, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, the CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) family, and the interferon regulatory factors...
November 3, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
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