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Penile transplant

Eileen M Burd, Christina L Dean
Individuals with inherited immunodeficiencies, autoimmune disorders, organ or bone marrow transplantation, or infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at increased risk of infection with both low-risk and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types. Chronic immunosuppression provides an environment for persistent HPV infection which carries a higher risk of malignant transformation. Screening guidelines have been developed or advocated for processes that have detectable premalignant lesions, such as anal cancer or cervical cancer...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Michael Bickell, Jonathan Beilan, Jared Wallen, Lucas Wiegand, Rafael Carrion
This article reviews the most up-to-date surgical treatment options for the reconstructive management of patients with penile, urethral, and scrotal cancer. Each organ system is examined individually. Techniques and discussion for penile cancer reconstruction include Mohs surgery, glans resurfacing, partial and total glansectomy, and phalloplasty. Included in the penile cancer reconstruction section is the use of penile prosthesis in phalloplasty patients after penectomy, tissue engineering in phallic regeneration, and penile transplantation...
November 2016: Urologic Clinics of North America
Shane D Morrison, Afaaf Shakir, Krishna S Vyas, Johanna Kirby, Curtis N Crane, Gordon K Lee
BACKGROUND: Acquired or congenital absence of the penis can lead to severe physical limitations and psychological outcomes. Phallic reconstruction can restore various functional aspects of the penis and reduce psychosocial sequelae. Moreover, some female-to-male transsexuals desire creation of a phallus as part of their gender transition. Because of the complexity of phalloplasty, there is not an ideal technique for every patient. This review sets out to identify and critically appraise the current literature on phalloplasty techniques and outcomes...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Y D Xu, R L Guan, Y Y Wu, H E Lei, B C Yang, H X Li, L Wang, Y L Guo, Z C Xin
OBJECTIVE: To study the feasibility of transplantation of normal rat penile corpus cavernosum and major pelvic ganglion (MPG) into the renal subserous region of a Nu/Nu mouse based on allograft technology. METHODS: Penile corpus cavernosum and MPG, harvested from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats under sterile condition, were transplanted underneath the kidney capsule of Nu/Nu mice through the microsurgery instruments and surgery microscope. The histopathologic changes and cellular proliferation in the transplanted penile corpus cavernosum and MPG were then analyzed at the end of 1week and 4 weeks after transplantation...
February 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Ariella A Friedman, Paul F Zelkovic, Edward F Reda, Israel Franco, Lane S Palmer
INTRODUCTION: Aphallia is exceedingly rare (1/30 million births). Previous reports have provided limited detail on associated urinary tract findings. OBJECTIVE: We reviewed urinary tract anomalies in two boys with aphallia (patients 1 and 2) and a girl with urinary tract dysplasia, a similar external appearance and lack of corporal tissue (patient 3), also consistent with aphallia. CASE REPORTS (FIGURE): Patients 1 and 2 both had a 46XY karyotype, bilateral descended testes in well-formed scrotums, and posterior skin tags containing rudimentary urethras...
August 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Sheila Jowsey-Gregoire, Martin Kumnig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) encompasses hand, face, uterus, penile and lower extremity transplantation. Psychosocial factors are recognized as important, but no standard approach to the evaluation, selection or posttransplant care has been described and thus, the development of a standardized approach is needed. RECENT FINDINGS: Various psychosocial assessment tools have been reported. Body image and the functional impact of hand versus face transplantation are notable issues...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Nikolai A Sopko, Hotaka Matsui, Denver M Lough, Devin Miller, Kelly Harris, Max Kates, Xiaopu Liu, Kevin Billups, Richard Redett, Arthur L Burnett, Gerald Brandacher, Trinity J Bivalacqua
BACKGROUND: Penile transplantation is a potential treatment option for severe penile tissue loss. Models of human penile rejection are lacking. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate effects of rejection and immunosuppression on cavernous tissue using a novel ex vivo mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) model. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Cavernous tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 10 patients undergoing penile prosthesis operations and PBMCs from a healthy volunteer were obtained...
July 15, 2016: European Urology
Hai-Tao Shan, Hai-Bo Zhang, Wen-Tao Chen, Feng-Zhi Chen, Tao Wang, Jin-Tai Luo, Min Yue, Ji-Hong Lin, An-Yang Wei
Stem cell transplantation and low-energy shock-wave therapy (LESWT) have emerged as potential and effective treatment protocols for diabetic erectile dysfunction. During the tracking of transplanted stem cells in diabetic erectile dysfunction models, the number of visible stem cells was rather low and decreased quickly. LESWT could recruit endogenous stem cells to the cavernous body and improve the microenvironment in diabetic cavernous tissue. Thus, we deduced that LESWT might benefit transplanted stem cell survival and improve the effects of stem cell transplantation...
July 12, 2016: Asian Journal of Andrology
Arthur L Caplan, Laura L Kimberly, Brendan Parent, Michael Sosin, Eduardo D Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: For men with significant genitourinary injury, penile transplantation is being considered as an option when reconstruction is not feasible or proves unacceptable to the injured patient. METHODS: A review of the literature was conducted to assess the current state of penile reconstruction and transplantation options, as well as to evaluate scholarly research addressing the ethical dimensions of penile transplantation. RESULTS: The state of penile transplantation is elementary...
July 7, 2016: Transplantation
Yang Yang, Zhong-Yang Shen, Bin Wu, Ming-Li Yin, Bo-Ya Zhang, Hong-Li Song
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) exert immunosuppressive activities in transplantation. This study aimed to determine whether BMMSCs reduce acute rejection and improve outcomes of liver transplantation in rats. METHODS: Orthotopic liver transplantation from Lewis to Brown Norway rats was performed, which was followed by the infusion of BMMSCs through the penile superficial dorsal vein. Normal saline infusion was used as a control. Animals were sacrificed at 0, 24, 72, or 168 hours after BMMSCs infusion...
June 2016: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
Qiyun Yang, Xin Chen, Tao Zheng, Dayu Han, Heng Zhang, Yanan Shi, Jun Bian, Xiangzhou Sun, Kai Xia, Xiaoyan Liang, Guihua Liu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Chunhua Deng
The aim of this study was to investigate whether intracavernous injection of urine-derived stem cells (USCs) or USCs genetically modified with pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) could protect the erectile function and cavernous structure in a bilateral cavernous nerve injury-induced erectile dysfunction (CNIED) rat model. USCs were cultured from the urine of 6 healthy male donors. Seventy-five rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=15 per group): Sham, BCNI, USC, USC(GFP+) and USC(GFP/PEDF+) group...
April 8, 2016: Cell Transplantation
Yigit Ozer Tiftikcioglu, Cagil Meric Erenoglu, William C Lineaweaver, Okan Bilge, Servet Celik, Cuneyt Ozek
We present a cadaveric dissection study to investigate the anatomic feasibility of penile transplantation. Seventeen male cadavers were dissected to reveal detailed anatomy of the dorsal neurovascular structures including dorsal arteries, superficial and deep dorsal veins, and dorsal nerves of the penis. Dorsal artery diameters showed a significant decrease from proximal to distal shaft. Dominance was observed in one side. Deep dorsal vein showed a straight course and less decrease in diameter compared to artery...
June 2016: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Martin Kumnig, Sheila G Jowsey-Gregoire
Psychosocial factors are important elements in the assessment and follow-up care for vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) and require multidisciplinary evaluation protocols. This review will highlight differences between VCA with solid organ transplantation (SOT), provide information on the psychosocial selection of VCA candidates, ethical issues, psychological outcomes, and on the need for multicenter research. VCA is primarily a life-enhancing procedure to improve recipients' quality of life and psychological well-being and it represents a potential option to provide reproduction in case of penile or uterine transplantation...
March 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
Yongbin Zhao, Weilie Hu, Lichao Zhang, Fei Guo, Wei Wang, Bangqi Wang, Changzheng Zhang
This is an original research of penis allotransplantation. The paper presents an experiment allogenic penis transplantation model in Beagles, with a focus on recovery of blood supply and changes in tissue architecture. Twenty adult Beagles were allocated to 10 pairs for penile transplantation. After operation, the skin and glans were observed. If adverse symptoms occurred, the transplanted penis was resected and pathologically examined. Frequency of urination, urinary stream, and patency level were recorded 7 days after transplantation...
2016: BioMed Research International
L J Thomas, T N Shim, C Borysiewicz, M Dinneen, H Fawcett, A Roy, N Francis, C B Bunker
We describe two patients who received haematopoietic stem cell marrow transplantation, and developed male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc), one of whom also had squamous carcinoma in situ (Bowen disease). MGLSc has previously been associated with graft-versus-host disease. Various aetiological factors for LSc have been proposed, including a role for chronic occluded epithelial exposure to urine. A number of factors imply that the risk of malignant transformation in this bone marrow transplant group is likely to be higher than the overall figure of 2-9% cited for MGLSc...
July 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Yigit O Tiftikcioglu, Cagil M Erenoglu, William C Lineaweaver, Feng Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Microsurgery
Luz I Pascual-Mathey, Fausto Rojas-Duran, Gonzalo E Aranda-Abreu, Jorge Manzo, Deissy Herrera-Covarrubias, David A Muñoz-Zavaleta, Luis I Garcia, Ma Elena Hernandez
The abnormal elevation of serum PRL, referred to as hyperprolactinemia (HyperPRL), produces alterations in several reproductive parameters of male rats such as penile erection or decreased tendency to reach ejaculation. Additionally, this situation produces a significant modification of prostate histology, as observed in the epithelial structure and alveolar area, which could reach a level of hyperplasia in the long-term. In this tissue, HyperPRL produces an increase in expression of PRL receptors and activation of the Stat3 signaling pathway that is correlated with the evolution of prostate pathologies...
April 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Natasha A Jain, Krishnan Venkatesan, Prathima Anandi, Sawa Ito, Dhruv Kumar, Kit Lu, Minoo Battiwalla, A John Barrett
Chronic graft versus host disease (GvHD) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) may involve any organ system, but male genital involvement is rare. Peyronie's Disease (PD) is an acquired, localized fibrotic disorder of the tunica albuginea, which leads to penile deformity, pain, and eventually to erectile dysfunction. We report the case of a 52 year old African American male with Acute Myeloid Leukemia who underwent human leucocyte antigen (HLA) matched sibling allogeneic peripheral blood SCT. His post transplant course was complicated by development of acute and multi-organ chronic GvHD requiring prolonged immunosuppression...
2015: Archives in Cancer Research
Ahmet Gokce, Taylor C Peak, Asim B Abdel-Mageed, Wayne J Hellstrom
Although a spectrum of options is available for erectile dysfunction (ED) treatment, ED in diabetics, post-prostatectomy patients, and those with Peyronie's disease (PD) may be more severe in degree and less likely to respond to conventional medical therapies. Unfortunately, there have been limited breakthroughs in therapeutic options for severe ED during the past decade. However, one of the more fascinating strategies in preclinical development to treat ED is stem cell transplantation. Depending on the cell type, recent research has demonstrated that with transplantation, these stem cells can exert a paracrine effect on surrounding penile tissues and differentiate into smooth muscle, endothelium, and neurons...
February 2016: Current Urology Reports
Jun Wang, Hao Wang, Jiong Shi, Yitao Ding
BACKGROUND: High mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB1) is an important proinflammatory molecule in many inflammatory disorders, but little is known about its role in acute liver failure (ALF). In this study, we determined the plasma and hepatic tissue levels of HMGB1 in a d-galactosamine-induced rat ALF model and investigated the effect of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) on ALF successfully. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups randomly...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
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