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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893511/continuous-infusion-antiepileptic-medications-for-refractory-status-epilepticus-a-review-for-nurses
#1
Adam L Wiss, Michael Samarin, Jacob Marler, G Morgan Jones
Status epilepticus requires treatment with emergent initial therapy with a benzodiazepine and urgent control therapy with an additional antiepileptic drug (AED) to terminate clinical and/or electrographic seizure activity. However, nearly one-third of patients will prove refractory to the aforementioned therapies and are prone to a higher degree of neuronal injury, resistance to pharmacotherapy, and death. Current guidelines for refractory status epilepticus (RSE) recommend initiating a continuous intravenous (CIV) anesthetic over bolus dosing with a different AED...
January 2017: Critical Care Nursing Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890484/25-years-of-advances-in-definition-classification-and-treatment-of-status-epilepticus
#2
Eugen Trinka, Reetta Kälviäinen
PURPOSE: Status epilepticus (SE) requires not only urgent symptomatic treatment with antiepileptic drugs but also rapid identification and treatment of its cause. This narrative review summarizes the most important advances in classification and treatment of SE. METHOD: Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and back tracking of references in pertinent studies, reviews, and books. RESULTS: SE is now defined as "a condition resulting either from the failure of the mechanisms responsible for seizure termination or from the initiation of mechanisms, which lead to abnormally, prolonged seizures (after time point t1)...
November 14, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885664/haloperidol-plus-promethazine-for-psychosis-induced-aggression
#3
REVIEW
Gisele Huf, Jacob Alexander, Pinky Gandhi, Michael H Allen
BACKGROUND: Health services often manage agitated or violent people, and such behaviour is particularly prevalent in emergency psychiatric services (10%). The drugs used in such situations should ensure that the person becomes calm swiftly and safely. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether haloperidol plus promethazine is an effective treatment for psychosis-induced aggression. SEARCH METHODS: On 6 May 2015 we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register of Trials, which is compiled by systematic searches of major resources (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, BIOSIS, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PubMed, and registries of clinical trials) and their monthly updates, handsearches, grey literature, and conference proceedings...
November 25, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826208/sedation-with-a-remifentanil-infusion-to-facilitate-rapid-awakening-and-tracheal-extubation-in-an-infant-with-a-potentially-compromised-airway
#4
Jeffrey Naples, Mark W Hall, Joseph D Tobias
Sedation is generally required during endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation in infants and children. While there are many options for the provision of sedation, the most commonly used agents such as midazolam and fentanyl demonstrate a context-sensitive half-life, which may result in a prolonged effect when these agents are discontinued following a continuous infusion. We present a 20-month-old infant who required endotracheal intubation due to respiratory failure following seizures. At the referring hospital, multiple laryngoscopies were performed with the potential for airway trauma...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625012/barriers-to-seizure-management-in-schools-perceptions-of-school-nurses
#5
Debbie Terry, Anup D Patel, Daniel M Cohen, Daniel Scherzer, Jennifer Kline
The purpose of this study was to assess school nurses' perceptions of barriers to optimal management of seizures in schools. Eighty-three school nurses completed an electronic survey. Most agreed they felt confident they could identify a seizure (97.6%), give rectal diazepam (83.8%), and handle cluster seizures (67.1%), but fewer were confident they could give intranasal midazolam (63.3%), had specific information about a student's seizures (56.6%), or could swipe a vagus nerve stimulator magnet (47.4%). Nurses were more likely to be available at the time of a seizure in rural (17/20) (85%) versus suburban (21/34) (62%) or urban (8/25) (32%) schools (P = ...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602530/implementation-of-intranasal-midazolam-for-prolonged-seizures-in-a-child-neurology-practice
#6
Daniel Crawford
Currently, evidence supports the use of intranasal midazolam as an effective, and in many cases, preferable treatment option for prolonged seizures in children. Despite this knowledge, intranasal midazolam is not routinely found as a standard of care. The goal of this project was to implement the use of intranasal midazolam as a rescue medication for prolonged seizures within a child neurology practice and, in doing so, create a model for implementation that would be replicable for other practice sites. This project focused on the development of a process to make intranasal midazolam available as a treatment option and then the creation of an educational intervention for providers within a child neurology practice...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500978/midazolam-ketamine-dual-therapy-stops-cholinergic-status-epilepticus-and-reduces-morris-water-maze-deficits
#7
Jerome Niquet, Roger Baldwin, Keith Norman, Lucie Suchomelova, Lucille Lumley, Claude G Wasterlain
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacoresistance remains an unsolved therapeutic challenge in status epilepticus (SE) and in cholinergic SE induced by nerve agent intoxication. SE triggers a rapid internalization of synaptic γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA ) receptors and externalization of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors that may explain the loss of potency of standard antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). We hypothesized that a drug combination aimed at correcting the consequences of receptor trafficking would reduce SE severity and its long-term consequences...
September 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500721/refractory-status-epilepticus-in-children-intention-to-treat-with-continuous-infusions-of-midazolam-and-pentobarbital
#8
Robert C Tasker, Howard P Goodkin, Iván Sánchez Fernández, Kevin E Chapman, Nicholas S Abend, Ravindra Arya, James N Brenton, Jessica L Carpenter, William D Gaillard, Tracy A Glauser, Joshua Goldstein, Ashley R Helseth, Michele C Jackson, Kush Kapur, Mohamad A Mikati, Katrina Peariso, Mark S Wainwright, Angus A Wilfong, Korwyn Williams, Tobias Loddenkemper
OBJECTIVE: To describe pediatric patients with convulsive refractory status epilepticus in whom there is intention to use an IV anesthetic for seizure control. DESIGN: Two-year prospective observational study evaluating patients (age range, 1 mo to 21 yr) with refractory status epilepticus not responding to two antiepileptic drug classes and treated with continuous infusion of anesthetic agent. SETTING: Nine pediatric hospitals in the United States...
October 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456262/acute-toxicity-associated-with-use-of-5f-derivations-of-synthetic-cannabinoid-receptor-agonists-with-analytical-confirmation
#9
Rachelle Abouchedid, James H Ho, Simon Hudson, Alison Dines, John R H Archer, David M Wood, Paul I Dargan
INTRODUCTION: Synthetic Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists (SCRAs) are the largest group of new psychoactive substances reported to the European Warning System and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime to date. The heterogeneous nature and speed of diversification of these compounds make it challenging to accurately characterise and predict harms of these compounds in pre-clinical studies, ahead of their appearance. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 19-year-old female who purchased three products from a headshop: two new psychoactive substances (sachets of "cannabis tea" and "mushroom tea") as well as two LSD blotters...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412207/intranasal-midazolam-for-seizure-cessation-in-the-community-setting
#10
Michal Zelcer, Ran D Goldman
QUESTION: There are times when parents arrive to my clinic after their child has had a seizure and a second seizure takes place in the clinic. While waiting for transport to the hospital, are there ways to stop the seizures without the need to obtain intravenous access in the clinic? ANSWER: Intravenous diazepam has been a first-line therapy to stop seizures in children for many years. Other routes of drug administration such as intramuscular, rectal, and buccal are available but have several limitations...
July 2016: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27390680/supra-recommendation-treatment-of-super-refractory-status-epilepticus
#11
Devashish Dhiren Vyas, Gopal Krishna Dash
A 28-year old female was admitted with recurrent seizures following 2 days of febrile illness, after which she developed status epilepticus. Midazolam and later thiopentone infusions were started after failure of regular intravenous antiepileptics. Burst suppression was achieved at doses of 3 mg/kg/hr for midazolam and 6 mg/kg/hr of thiopentone. Adjunctive medications included methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin and acyclovir. Imaging and biochemical parameters were normal. She required 3 cycles of midazolam and 2 cycles of thiopentone for complete cessation of seizures...
June 2016: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342435/chirally-pure-prodrugs-and-their-converting-enzymes-lead-to-high-supersaturation-and-rapid-transcellular-permeation-of-benzodiazepines
#12
Mamta Kapoor, Narsihmulu Cheryala, Davin Rautiola, Gunda I Georg, James C Cloyd, Ronald A Siegel
Water-soluble prodrugs can be rapidly converted by enzymes to hydrophobic drugs, whose aqueous thermodynamic solubilities are low, but are maintained in aqueous solution at supersaturated concentrations due to slow precipitation kinetics. Recently, we investigated avizafone (AVF) in combination with Aspergillus oryzae protease as a prodrug/enzyme system intended to produce supersaturated diazepam (DZP). Several fold enhancement of permeation of supersaturated DZP across Madin-Darby canine kidney II-wild type (MDCKII-wt) monolayers was observed, compared to saturated DZP solutions...
August 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329284/evaluation-of-acetylcholine-seizure-activity-and-neuropathology-following-high-dose-nerve-agent-exposure-and-delayed-neuroprotective-treatment-drugs-in-freely-moving-rats
#13
Cindy Acon-Chen, Jeffrey A Koenig, Garrett R Smith, Amber R Truitt, Thaddeus P Thomas, Tsung-Ming Shih
Organophosphorus nerve agents such as soman (GD) inhibit acetylcholinesterase, producing an excess of acetylcholine (ACh), which results in respiratory distress, convulsions and status epilepticus that leads to neuropathology. Several drugs (topiramate, clobazam, pregnanolone, allopregnanolone, UBP 302, cyclopentyladenosine [CPA], ketamine, midazolam and scopolamine) have been identified as potential neuroprotectants that may terminate seizures and reduce brain damage. To systematically evaluate their efficacy, this study employed in vivo striatal microdialysis and liquid chromatography to respectively collect and analyze extracellular ACh in freely moving rats treated with these drugs 20 min after seizure onset induced by a high dose of GD...
June 2016: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27302854/self-administration-of-progesterone-and-synthetic-neuroactive-steroids-by-male-rhesus-monkeys
#14
Zhiqiang Meng, James K Rowlett
BACKGROUND: Progesterone-derived neuroactive steroids have shown promise clinically (e.g., anti-seizure medications) but, as with other GABAA receptor modulators (e.g., benzodiazepines), may have the potential for abuse. METHODS: We evaluated the reinforcing effects of progesterone, a steroid precursor of endogenous neuroactive steroids, with and without pretreatments with the neuroactive steroid synthesis inhibitor, finasteride, in rhesus monkeys trained under a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule of i...
August 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293328/clinical-profile-and-treatment-outcome-of-febrile-infection-related-epilepsy-syndrome-in-south-indian-children
#15
Sandeep B Patil, Arun Grace Roy, Kollencheri Puthenveettil Vinayan
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical features and outcome of febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES), a catastrophic epileptic encephalopathy, in a cohort of South Indian children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of a cohort of children with previously normal development who presented with status epilepticus or encephalopathy with recurrent seizures following a nonspecific febrile illness during the period between January 2007 and January 2012...
April 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27205311/pnd37-the-cost-effectiveness-of-buccolam%C3%A2-licensed-oromucosal-midazolam-for-the-treatment-of-acute-epileptic-seizures-in-the-uk-a-hybrid-model-solution
#16
D Lee, A Batty, D Gladwell, N J Brereton, E Tate
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2012: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27205310/pnd35-buccolam%C3%A2-licensed-oromucosal-midazolam-versus-rectal-diazepam-for-acute-epileptic-seizures-italian-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#17
D Gladwell, M Aneli, A Batty, D Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2012: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27205290/pnd15-cost-effectiveness-of-buccolam%C3%A2-licensed-oromucosal-midazolam-compared-to-benzodiazepines-for-the-treatment-of-acute-prolonged-epileptic-seizures-in-germany
#18
D Lee, D Gladwell, A Batty, N J Brereton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2012: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27041847/management-of-a-high-risk-epileptic-patient-under-conscious-sedation-a-multidisciplinary-approach
#19
Burnice Nalina Kumari Chellathurai, Ramakrishnan Thiagarajan, SelvaKumar Jayakumaran, Pradeep Devadoss, Elavazhagan
Epilepsy, characterized by the risk of recurrent seizures, is a chronic disease that afflicts about 5% of the world's population. The main dental problems associated with epileptic patients include gingival hyperplasia, minor oral injuries, tooth trauma, and prosthodontic problems, which require the dental treatment. Stress and fear are the most common triggering factors for the epilepsy in dental chair. Therefore, a more appropriate method of treating such epileptic patients may be warranted. Conscious sedation is a technique of providing good anesthesia and analgesia to patients, the main advantage of which is the patient's rapid return to presentation levels...
January 2016: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27021145/a-comparison-of-midazolam-lorazepam-and-diazepam-for-the-treatment-of-status-epilepticus-in-children-a-network-meta-analysis
#20
Zi-Yu Zhao, Hong-Ying Wang, Bin Wen, Zhi-Bo Yang, Kang Feng, Jing-Chun Fan
Midazolam, lorazepam, and diazepam were recommended as emergent initial therapy for status epilepticus. However, there are no current studies to confirm the best agent for pediatric status epilepticus. We compared the efficacy of midazolam, lorazepam, and diazepam in treating pediatric status epilepticus using a network meta-analysis method. In total, 16 randomized controlled trials containing 1821 patients were included. Nonintravenous midazolam, intravenous lorazepam, and intravenous diazepam were more successful in achieving seizure cessation when compared with nonintravenous diazepam (odds ratio = 2...
August 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
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