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acute leukaemia

Katharina Wimmer, Thorsten Rosenbaum, Ludwine Messiaen
Constitutional mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency (CMMRD) is a rare childhood cancer susceptibility syndrome resulting from biallelic germline loss-of-function mutations in one of the MMR genes. Individuals with CMMRD have a high risk to develop a broad spectrum of malignancies and frequently display features reminiscent of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Evaluation of the clinical findings of genetically proven CMMRD patients shows that not only multiple café-au-lait macules but any of the diagnostic features of NF1 may be present in a CMMRD patient...
October 25, 2016: Clinical Genetics
Murali Kesavan, Hun Chuah, S Aqif Mukhtar, Ashier Leigh Parsons, Kerryn Stoner, Anastazia Keegan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Pathology
Henrik Hasle, Gertjan J L Kaspers
Over the last four decades the survival of paediatric patients with acute myeloid leukaemia has gradually increased to 70% in high-income countries. The therapy is very intensive and associated with many acute and long-term side effects. The early death rate has been reduced to 1-4%. The acute toxicity is a limiting factor for improving survival in low-income countries. Transplant is associated with more endocrinological late effects while cardiotoxicity is more common after relapse. Reducing the physical costs of therapy without jeopardizing survival may be accomplished by optimal supportive care, less cardiotoxic anthracyclines, less consolidation courses and strict indications for stem cell transplantation...
October 21, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Liron Frishman-Levy, Shai Izraeli
Central nervous system acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (CNS-ALL) is a major clinical problem. CNS-directed 'prophylactic' chemo- or radio - therapy is associated with significant early and long-term toxicity. Moreover, greater than a third of the relapses occur in the CNS. To design specific, more effective and less toxic therapy and for personalized precise adjustment of prophylactic therapy there is a need for better understanding of the biology of this disease. Specifically, the precise neurotropic mechanisms of ALL are currently unclear, as is the pathogenesis of CNS relapse...
October 21, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Fiona C Brown, Paolo Cifani, Esther Drill, Jie He, Eric Still, Shan Zhong, Sohail Balasubramanian, Dean Pavlick, Bahar Yilmazel, Kristina M Knapp, Todd A Alonzo, Soheil Meshinchi, Richard M Stone, Steven M Kornblau, Guido Marcucci, Alan S Gamis, John C Byrd, Mithat Gonen, Ross L Levine, Alex Kentsis
Cure rates of children and adults with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) remain unsatisfactory partly due to chemotherapy resistance. We investigated the genetic basis of AML in 107 primary cases by sequencing 670 genes mutated in haematological malignancies. SETBP1, ASXL1 and RELN mutations were significantly associated with primary chemoresistance. We identified genomic alterations not previously described in AML, together with distinct genes that were significantly overexpressed in therapy-resistant AML. Defined gene mutations were sufficient to explain primary induction failure in only a minority of cases...
October 21, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Jeffrey A Magee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Sonia Carturan, Jessica Petiti, Valentina Rosso, Chiara Calabrese, Elisabetta Signorino, Giada Bot-Sartor, Paolo Nicoli, Daniela Gallo, Enrico Bracco, Alessandro Morotti, Cristina Panuzzo, Enrico Gottardi, Francesco Frassoni, Giuseppe Saglio, Daniela Cilloni
Meningioma 1 (MN1) gene overexpression has been reported in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients and identified as a negative prognostic factor. In order to characterize patients presenting gene overexpression and to verify if MN1 transcript could be a useful marker for minimal residual disease detection, MN1 was quantified in 136 AML patients with different cytogenetic risk and in 50 normal controls. In 20 patients bearing a fusion gene transcript suitable for minimal residual disease quantitative assessment and in 8 patients with NPM1 mutation, we performed a simultaneous analysis of MN1 and the fusion-gene transcript or NPM1 mutation during follow-up...
September 27, 2016: Oncotarget
Irina A Tikhonova, Martin W Hoyle, Tristan M Snowsill, Chris Cooper, Joanna L Varley-Campbell, Claudius E Rudin, Ruben E Mujica Mota
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of azacitidine (Celgene) to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of this drug for the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia with more than 30 % bone marrow blasts in adults who are not eligible for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, as part of the NICE's Single Technology Appraisal process. The Peninsula Technology Assessment Group was commissioned to act as the Evidence Review Group (ERG). The ERG produced a critical review of the evidence contained within the company's submission to NICE...
October 17, 2016: PharmacoEconomics
Luiz Claudio Santos Thuler, Maria S Pombo-de-Oliveira
The WHO classification that defines subtypes of acute myeloid leukaemias (AMLs) is relatively unexplored at the population-based level. This study aimed to examine the frequency of acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL or AML-M3) in Brazil. Data were extracted from 239 cancer centres (2001-2012) and categorized according to the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (CID-O 3.0) and WHO classification (n = 9116). CID-O3 code 9866 identified 614 APL patients. AML not otherwise specified (NOS) was frequent, and the APL group represented the main subtype specified...
October 18, 2016: Annals of Hematology
Edwin D Hawkins, Delfim Duarte, Olufolake Akinduro, Reema A Khorshed, Diana Passaro, Malgorzata Nowicka, Lenny Straszkowski, Mark K Scott, Steve Rothery, Nicola Ruivo, Katie Foster, Michaela Waibel, Ricky W Johnstone, Simon J Harrison, David A Westerman, Hang Quach, John Gribben, Mark D Robinson, Louise E Purton, Dominique Bonnet, Cristina Lo Celso
It is widely accepted that complex interactions between cancer cells and their surrounding microenvironment contribute to disease development, chemo-resistance and disease relapse. In light of this observed interdependency, novel therapeutic interventions that target specific cancer stroma cell lineages and their interactions are being sought. Here we studied a mouse model of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) and used intravital microscopy to monitor the progression of disease within the bone marrow at both the tissue-wide and single-cell level over time, from bone marrow seeding to development/selection of chemo-resistance...
October 17, 2016: Nature
Gerd Horneff, Ariane Klein, Prasad T Oommen, Anton Hospach, Ivan Foeldvari, Isa Feddersen, Kirsten Minden
OBJECTIVES: While tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α-inhibitor treatment improved outcome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) management markedly, concerns have been raised about an association of TNF-α-inhibitor treatment and an increased risk for malignancies especially lymphoma. METHODS: Cases of suspected malignancies documented in the German Biker Registry are reviewed in detail. RESULTS: Until Dec 31, 2015, 3695 JIA patients were prospectively followed with a total of more than 13,198 observation years...
September 8, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Anita Chopra, Sushant Soni, Haraprasad Pati, Dev Kumar, Rahul Diwedi, Deepak Verma, Garima Vishwakama, Sameer Bakhshi, Suman Kumar, Ajay Gogia, Rajive Kumar
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Mutation of nucleophosmin (NPM1) gene in the absence of FLT3-ITD (FMS related tyrosine kinase 3 - internal tandem duplications) mutation carries a good prognosis in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). NPM1, a multifunctional nucleolar phosphoprotein that shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm, gets trapped in the cytoplasm when mutated. Immunohistochemical (IHC) demonstration of its aberrant cytoplasmic location (NPMc+) has been suggested as a simple substitute for the standard screening molecular method...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Annapurna Saksena, Parul Gautam, Parth Desai, Naresh Gupta, A P Dubey, Tejinder Singh
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Flow cytometry is an important tool to diagnose acute leukaemia. Attempts are being made to find the minimal number of antibodies for correctly diagnosing acute leukaemia subtypes. The present study was designed to evaluate the analysis of side scatter (SSC) versus CD45 flow dot plot to distinguish acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), with minimal immunological markers. METHODS: One hundred consecutive cases of acute leukaemia were evaluated for blast cluster on SSC versus CD45 plots...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Surender Kumar Sharawat, Vinod Raina, Lalit Kumar, Atul Sharma, Radhika Bakhshi, Sreenivas Vishnubhatla, Ritu Gupta, Sameer Bakhshi
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Mutations in fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) receptor have significant role in assessing outcome in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Data for FLT3 surface expression in relation to FLT3 internal tandem duplication (ITD) status and outcome are not available from India. The objective of the current study was to investigate adult patients with AML for FLT3 expression and FLT3 ITD mutation, and their association with long-term outcome. METHODS: Total 51 consecutive de novo AML patients aged 18-60 yr were enrolled in the study...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Nikolai A Podoltsev, Maximilian Stahl, Amer M Zeidan, Steven D Gore
More than half of the patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) are older than 60years. The treatment outcomes in this group remain poor with a median overall survival of <1year. Selecting initial treatment for these patients involves an assessment of 'fitness' for induction chemotherapy. This is done based on patient and disease-related characteristics which help to estimate treatment-related mortality and chance of complete remission with induction chemotherapy. If the risk of treatment-related mortality is high and/or the likelihood of a patient achieving a complete remission is low, lower-intensity treatment (low-dose cytarabine, decitabine and azacitidine) should be discussed...
October 8, 2016: Blood Reviews
Alba Juan Juan, Noemi Caballero de García, Helena Masnou Ridaura, Marga Sala Llinas, M Rosa Morillas, Ramon Planas Vila
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
Marianne Jarfelt, Niels H Andersen, Henrik Hasle
Since cardiotoxicity is a life threatening late effect, a reduction of cardiotoxicity in the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is essential. This review is a compilation of the current knowledge about cardiotoxicity after AML treatment and of how future directions in treatment may affect its incidence. A total of six studies concerning AML and cardiotoxicity were identified. The incidence of late subclinical cardiotoxicity varied between 1·3 and 15·3%, and late clinical cardiotoxicity varied between 1·3 and 9·3%...
October 14, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Amanda W Singer, Suzan L Carmichael, Steve Selvin, Cecilia Fu, Gladys Block, Catherine Metayer
Previous studies on maternal nutrition and childhood leukaemia risk have focused on the role of specific nutrients such as folate and have not considered broader measures of diet quality, which may better capture intake of diverse nutrients known to impact fetal development. We examined the relationship between maternal diet quality before pregnancy, as summarised by a diet quality index, and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in a case-control study in California...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Joanna E Drozd-Sokołowska, Krzysztof Mądry, Anna Waszczuk-Gajda, Tomasz Żóltak, Anna Sikorska, Andrzej Mital, Jarosław Wajs, Grażyna Semeńczuk, Anna Szmigielska-Kapłon, Magdalena Szczepańska, Ewa Wasilewska, Paweł Szwedyk, Jadwiga Hołojda, Marzena Wątek, Beata Stella-Hołowiecka, Maria Soroka-Wojtaszko, Wojciech Homenda, Mirosław Polak, Renata Guzicka-Kazimierska, Agnieszka Porowska, Wiesław Wiktor-Jędrzejczak, Jadwiga Dwilewicz-Trojaczek
OBJECTIVES: The epidemiology of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) differs among countries. Here we present the first epidemiological indices determined for Poland. METHODS: 21 haematological centres participated in the study. Patients diagnosed with MDS and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) with 20-29% blasts were enrolled. Data collection was conducted for strictly predefined period. RESULTS: The overall crude incidence rate for all MDS subtypes was 1...
October 4, 2016: European Journal of Haematology
Aleksandra Butrym, Justyna Rybka, Dagmara Baczyńska, Rafał Poręba, Grzegorz Mazur, Kazimierz Kuliczkowski
MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in cell differentiation and survival. Abnormal expression of miRs has been demonstrated in numerous types of cancer, including acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). The aim of the present study was to evaluate miR-181 expression at diagnosis and following the completion of chemotherapy in AML patients, with regard to clinical response and outcome, particularly in patients treated with azacitidine. miR-181 expression was analysed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 95 bone marrow specimens from newly diagnosed AML patients and in 20 healthy subjects for comparison...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
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