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ionizing radiation exposure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789334/x-ray-exposure-in-cardiac-electrophysiology-a-retrospective-analysis-in-8150-patients-over-7-years-of-activity-in-a-modern-large-volume-laboratory
#1
Michela Casella, Antonio Dello Russo, Eleonora Russo, Valentina Catto, Francesca Pizzamiglio, Martina Zucchetti, Benedetta Majocchi, Stefania Riva, Giulia Vettor, Maria Antonietta Dessanai, Gaetano Fassini, Massimo Moltrasio, Fabrizio Tundo, Carlo Vignati, Sergio Conti, Alice Bonomi, Corrado Carbucicchio, Luigi Di Biase, Andrea Natale, Claudio Tondo
BACKGROUND: Only a few studies have systematically evaluated fluoroscopy data of electrophysiological and device implantation procedures. Aims of this study were to quantify ionizing radiation exposure for electrophysiological/device implantation procedures in a large series of patients and to analyze the x-ray exposure trend over years and radiation exposure in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation considering different technical aspects. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a retrospective analysis of all electrophysiological/device implantation procedures performed during the past 7 years in a modern, large-volume laboratory...
May 22, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787555/implementation-of-a-ct-scan-practice-guideline-for-pediatric-trauma-patients-reduces-unnecessary-scans-without-impacting-outcomes
#2
Patrick R McGrew, Paul J Chestovich, Jay D Fisher, Deborah A Kuhls, Douglas R Fraser, Purvi P Patel, Chad W Katona, Syed Saquib, John J Fildes
INTRODUCTION: Computed Tomography (CT) scans are useful in the evaluation of trauma patients, but are costly and pose risks from ionizing radiation in children. Recent literature has demonstrated the utility of CT scan guidelines in the management of pediatric trauma. This study objective is to review our treatment of pediatric blunt trauma patients and evaluate CT utilization before and after CT-guideline implementation. METHODS: Our Pediatric Level 2 Trauma Center (TC) implemented a CT scan practice guideline for pediatric trauma patients in March 2014...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787441/exome-sequencing-discloses-ionizing-radiation-induced-dna-variants-in-the-genome-of-human-gingiva-fibroblasts
#3
Neetika Nath, Jennifer Esche, Jessica Müller, Lars R Jensen, Matthias Port, Mario Stanke, Lars Kaderali, Harry Scherthan, Andreas W Kuss
Ionizing radiation can induce genomic lesions such as DNA double-strand breaks whose incomplete or faulty repair can result in mutations, which in turn can influence cellular functions and alter the fate of affected cells and organ systems. Ionizing-radiation-induced sequence alterations/mutations occur in a stochastic manner, which contributes to an increased cancer risk in irradiated individuals. Ionizing radiation exposure, and particularly acute doses at high dose rates (as often observed in radiation accidents), induce alterations in the genome that in part will reflect specific characteristics of the DNA damage response and the repair mechanisms involved...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787435/nhej-contributes-to-the-fast-repair-of-radiation-induced-dna-double-strand-breaks-at-late-prophase-i-telomeres
#4
Emad A Ahmed, Michael Rosemann, Harry Scherthan
Exposure of cells to ionizing radiation induces DNA double-strand breaks. To repair double-strand breaks correctly, cells must distinguish between the ends of chromosomes (telomeres) and DNA double-strand breaks within chromosomes. Double-strand breaks in telomeric DNA may lead to telomere shortening and mutagenesis. Eukaryotic cells repair double-strand breaks primarily by two mechanisms: error-free homologous recombination and error-prone nonhomologous end joining, of which homologous recombination is used in early meiotic prophase I to create recombined haploid gametes by two meiotic cell divisions lacking an intervening S-phase...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787434/influence-of-confounding-factors-on-radiation-dose-estimation-using-in-vivo-validated-transcriptional-biomarkers
#5
Lourdes Cruz-Garcia, Grainne O'Brien, Ellen Donovan, Lone Gothard, Sue Boyle, Antoine Laval, Isabelle Testard, Lucyna Ponge, Grzegorz Woźniak, Leszek Miszczyk, Serge M Candéias, Elizabeth Ainsbury, Piotr Widlak, Navita Somaiah, Christophe Badie
For triage purposes following a nuclear accident, blood-based gene expression biomarkers can provide rapid dose estimates for a large number of individuals. Ionizing-radiation-responsive genes are regulated through the DNA damage-response pathway, which includes activation of multiple transcription factors. Modulators of this pathway could potentially affect the response of these biomarkers and consequently compromise accurate dose estimation calculations. In the present study, four potential confounding factors were selected: cancer condition, sex, simulated bacterial infection (lipopolysaccharide), and curcumin, an anti-inflammatory/antioxidant agent...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787433/investigation-of-spatial-organization-of-chromosome-territories-in-chromosome-exchange-aberrations-after-ionizing-radiation-exposure
#6
Adayabalam S Balajee, Jacob T Sanders, Rosela Golloshi, Igor Shuryak, Rachel Patton McCord, Nicholas Dainiak
Higher-order organization of the human genome is well established with chromosomes occupying distinct domains or territories in the interphase nucleus. Spatial organization of chromosome territories in the interphase nucleus occurs in a cell-type-specific manner. Since both stable and unstable aberrations induced by ionizing radiation involve the exchange of material between two or more chromosomes, this study investigated the role of spatial organization of chromosome domains in ionizing-radiation-induced chromosome translocation events...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787427/impact-of-ionizing-radiation-on-electrophysiological-behavior-of-human-induced-ipsc-derived-cardiomyocytes-on-multielectrode-arrays
#7
Benjamin V Becker, Thomas Seeger, Thomas Beiert, Markus Antwerpen, Andreas Palnek, Matthias Port, Reinhard Ullmann
Cardiac arrhythmia presumably induced through cardiac fibrosis is a recurrent long-term consequence of exposure to ionizing radiation. However, there is also evidence that cardiac arrhythmia can occur in patients shortly after irradiation. In this study, the authors employed multielectrode arrays to investigate the short-term effects of x-ray radiation on the electrophysiological behavior of cardiomyocytes derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells. These cardiomyocytes with spontaneous pacemaker activity were cultured on single-well multielectrode arrays...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781983/effective-analysis-of-human-exposure-conditions-with-body-worn-dosimeters-in-the-2-4-ghz-band
#8
Silvia de Miguel-Bilbao, Juan Blas, Victoria Ramos
A well-defined experimental procedure is put forward to evaluate maximum exposure conditions in a worst-case scenario whilst avoiding the uncertainties caused by the use of personal exposimeters (PEMs) as measuring devices: the body shadow effect (BSE), the limited sensitivity range, and the non-identification of the radiation source. An upper bound for exposure levels to EMF in several indoor enclosures has been measured and simulated. The frequency used for the study is 2.4 GHz, as it is the most commonly used band in indoor communications...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778412/assessing-cancer-risk-factors-faced-by-an-ancestral-puebloan-population-in-the-north-american-southwest
#9
Catrina Banks Whitley, Jeffrey L Boyer
Ancestral Puebloan people in the North American Southwest suffered high rates of disease, poor health, and early age-at-death. Four individuals with skeletal expressions of cancer were found in a pre-Columbian population in the Taos Valley - Reports of malignant neoplasms in the archaeological record are uncommon and their presence in four of 82 individuals is a high occurrence. This study continues Whitley and Boyer's (2012) research testing whether concentrations of ionizing radiation were sufficiently high to induce cancer and related health issues...
August 23, 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775402/a-note-on-poisson-goodness-of-fit-tests-for-ionizing-radiation-induced-chromosomal-aberration-samples
#10
Manuel Higueras, J E González, Marina Di Giorgio, J F Barquinero
PURPOSE: To present Poisson exact goodness-of-fit tests as alternatives and complements to the asymptotic u-test, which is the most widely used in cytogenetic biodosimetry, to decide whether a sample of chromosomal aberrations in blood cells comes from an homogeneous or inhomogeneous exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three Poisson exact goodness-of-fit test from the literature are introduced and implemented in the R environment. A Shiny R Studio application, named GOF Poisson, has been updated for the purpose of giving support to this work...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774869/genetic-epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-brain-tumors
#11
Xuejun Li, Hang Cao, Yanhong Liu
This report summarized current knowledge and findings relevant to environmental and genetic risk factors in brain tumors, with a particular focus on glioma. To date, the established risk factors for brain tumors are family history and ionizing radiation exposure; whereas there is an inverse association between tumors and other factors such as history of allergies, atopic conditions, chickenpox, and varicella zoster virus infection. To identify inherited genetic variants impacting susceptibility of brain tumors, large scale familial linkage-scan pedigree analysis, population-based candidate genes, and genome-wide association study were performed...
April 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774413/alterations-in-histone-acetylation-following-exposure-to-60-co-%C3%AE-rays-and-their-relationship-with-chromosome-damage-in-human-lymphoblastoid-cells
#12
Xue-Lei Tian, Xue Lu, Jiang-Bin Feng, Tian-Jing Cai, Shuang Li, Mei Tian, Qing-Jie Liu
Chromosome damage is related to DNA damage and erroneous repair. It can cause cell dysfunction and ultimately induce carcinogenesis. Histone acetylation is crucial for regulating chromatin structure and DNA damage repair. Ionizing radiation (IR) can alter histone acetylation. However, variations in histone acetylation in response to IR exposure and the relationship between histone acetylation and IR-induced chromosome damage remains unclear. Hence, this study investigated the variation in the total acetylation levels of H3 and H4 in human lymphocytes exposed to 0-2 Gy 60 Co γ-rays...
May 17, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774312/breast-cancer-prevention-current-approaches-and-future-directions
#13
REVIEW
Edward R Sauter
The topic of breast cancer prevention is very broad. All aspects of the topic, therefore, cannot be adequately covered in a single review. The objective of this review is to discuss strategies in current use to prevent breast cancer, as well as potential approaches that could be used in the future. This review does not discuss early detection strategies for breast cancer, including breast cancer screening. The breast is the most common site among women worldwide of noncutaneous cancer. Many clinical and genetic factors have been found to increase a woman's risk of developing the disease...
April 2018: European journal of breast health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772874/spatial-electromagnetic-field-intensity-modelling-of-global-system-for-mobile-communication-base-stations-in-the-istanbul-technical-university-ayazaga-campus-area
#14
Kubra Boz, Hayri Hakan Denli
The rapid development of the global system for mobile communication services and the consequent increased electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure to the human body have generated debate on the potential danger with respect to human health. The many research studies focused on this subject have, however, not provided any certain evidence about harmful consequences due to mobile communication systems. On the other hand, there are still views suggesting such exposure might affect the human body in different ways...
May 7, 2018: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769516/staying-safe-from-radiation-exposure-in-cath-lab-a-review
#15
K Pasha, H R Khan, A A Sumon
A successful cardiac catheterization Laboratory radiation safety program must manage patient and staff safety by reducing exposure to ionizing radiation to a level that is as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). The first step in radiation safety is to avoid unnecessary use of ionizing radiation by justification of exposure, one of the basic principles of radiation protection. All individuals involved in fluoroscopic imaging procedures should familiarize themselves to the measures to protect themselves from exposure to unsafe doses of ionizing radiation...
April 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763379/hypothyroidism-after-radiation-therapy-for-childhood-cancer-a-report-from-the-childhood-cancer-survivor-study
#16
Peter D Inskip, Lene H S Veiga, Alina V Brenner, Alice J Sigurdson, Evgenia Ostroumova, Eric J Chow, Marilyn Stovall, Susan A Smith, Rita E Weathers, Wendy Leisenring, Leslie L Robison, Gregory T Armstrong, Charles A Sklar, Jay H Lubin
While thyroid cancer risks from exposure to ionizing radiation early in life are well characterized quantitatively, the association of radiation with nonmalignant, functional thyroid disorders has been less studied. Here, we report on a risk analysis study of hypothyroidism with radiation dose to the thyroid gland and the hypothalamic-pituitary axis among survivors of childhood cancer. Utilizing data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, a cohort of 14,364 five-year survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed at 26 hospitals in the U...
May 15, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760710/ionizing-radiation-induces-morphological-changes-and-immunological-modulation-of-jurkat-cells
#17
Patrick Voos, Sebastian Fuck, Fabian Weipert, Laura Babel, Dominique Tandl, Tobias Meckel, Stephanie Hehlgans, Claudia Fournier, Anna Moroni, Franz Rödel, Gerhard Thiel
Impairment or stimulation of the immune system by ionizing radiation (IR) impacts on immune surveillance of tumor cells and non-malignant cells and can either foster therapy response or side effects/toxicities of radiation therapy. For a better understanding of the mechanisms by which IR modulates T-cell activation and alters functional properties of these immune cells, we exposed human immortalized Jurkat cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) to X-ray doses between 0.1 and 5 Gy. This resulted in cellular responses, which are typically observed also in naïve T-lymphocytes in response of T-cell receptor immune stimulation or mitogens...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752868/comparison-between-reflectance-confocal-microscopy-and-two-photon-microscopy-in-early-detection-of-cutaneous-radiation-injury-in-a-mouse-model-in-vivo
#18
Won Hyuk Jang, Soonjae Kwon, Sehwan Shim, Won-Suk Jang, Jae Kyung Myung, Sejung Yang, Sunhoo Park, Ki Hean Kim
Cutaneous radiation injury (CRI) is a skin injury caused by high dose exposure of ionizing radiation (IR). For proper treatment, early detection of CRI before clinical symptoms is important. Optical microscopic techniques such as reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and two-photon microscopy (TPM) have been tested as the early diagnosis method by detecting cellular changes. In this study, RCM and TPM were compared in the detection of cellular changes caused by CRI in an in-vivo mouse model. CRI was induced on the mouse hindlimb skin with various IR doses and the injured skin regions were imaged longitudinally by both modalities until the onset of clinical symptoms...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750874/hematological-findings-in-non-treated-and-gamma-irradiated-mice-deficient-for-mic-1-gdf15
#19
M Hofer, Z Hoferová, J Remšík, M Nováková, J Procházková, R Fedr, J Kohoutek, L Dušek, A Hampl, K Souček
Several members of the TGF-beta family are known to effectively regulate the fate of hematopoietic progenitor cells in a complex and context-dependent manner. Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15) is a divergent member of the TGF-beta family. This stress-induced cytokine has been proposed to possess immunomodulatory functions and its high expression is often associated with progression of a variety of pathological conditions. GDF15 is also induced by chemotherapy and irradiation. Very few fundamental studies have been published regarding the effect of GDF15 in hematopoiesis...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746214/a-two-component-assay-for-hypoxia-incorporating-long-term-nitroreduction-and-short-term-dna-damage-allows-differentiation-of-the-three-hypoxia-sub-types
#20
Cameron J Koch
Hypoxia in tumors has many well-characterized effects that are known to prevent optimal cancer treatment. Despite the existence of a large number of assays that have supported hypoxia as an important diagnostic, there is no routine clinical assay in use, and anti-hypoxia therapies have often not included parallel hypoxia measurements. Even with a functioning hypoxia assay, it is difficult to match the oxygen dependence of treatment resistance to that of the assay, and this mismatch can vary substantially from assay to assay and even from tumor to tumor [e...
May 10, 2018: Radiation Research
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