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ionizing radiation exposure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441437/quantitative-modeling-of-responses-to-chronic-ionizing-radiation-exposure-using-targeted-and-non-targeted-effects
#1
Igor Shuryak
The biological effects of chronic ionizing radiation exposure can be difficult to study, but important to understand in order to protect the health of occupationally-exposed persons and victims of radiological accidents or malicious events. They include targeted effects (TE) caused by ionizations within/close to nuclear DNA, and non-targeted effects (NTE) caused by damage to other cell structures and/or activation of stress-signaling pathways in distant cells. Data on radiation damage in animal populations exposed over multiple generations to wide ranges of dose rates after the Chernobyl nuclear-power-plant accident are very useful for enhancing our understanding of these processes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440987/-tumors-of-the-central-nervous-system
#2
Marco Antonio Alegría-Loyola, Javier Andrés Galnares-Olalde, Moisés Mercado
Central nervous system (CNS) tumors constitute a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that share a considerable morbidity and mortality rate. Recent advances in the underlying oncogenic mechanisms of these tumors have led to new classification systems, which, in turn, allow for a better diagnostic approach and therapeutic planning. Most of these neoplasms occur sporadically and several risk factors have been found to be associated with their development, such as exposure to ionizing radiation or electromagnetic fields and the concomitant presence of conditions like diabetes, hypertension and Parkinson's disease...
May 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440431/gdf-15-gene-expression-alterations-in-human-lymphoblastoid-cells-and-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-following-exposure-to-ionizing-radiation
#3
Shuang Li, Qing-Zhao Zhang, De-Qin Zhang, Jiang-Bin Feng, Qun Luo, Xue Lu, Xin-Ru Wang, Kun-Peng Li, De-Qing Chen, Xiao-Feng Mu, Ling Gao, Qing-Jie Liu
The identification of rapid, sensitive and high‑throughput biomarkers is imperative in order to identify individuals harmed by radiation accidents, and accurately evaluate the absorbed doses of radiation. DNA microarrays have previously been used to evaluate the alterations in growth/differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) gene expression in AHH‑1 human lymphoblastoid cells, following exposure to γ‑rays. The present study aimed to characterize the relationship between the dose of ionizing radiation and the produced effects in GDF‑15 gene expression in AHH‑1 cells and human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs)...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440122/effects-of-low-dose-ionizing-radiation-on-dna-damage-caused-pathways-by-reverse-phase-protein-array-and-bayesian-networks
#4
Dong-Chul Kim, Mingon Kang, Ashis Biswas, Chin-Rang Yang, Xiaoyu Wang, Jean X Gao
Ionizing radiation (IR) causing damages to Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) constitutes a broad range of base damage and double strand break, and thereby, it induces the operation of relevant signaling pathways such as DNA repair, cell cycle control, and cell apoptosis. The goal of this paper is to study how the exposure to low dose radiation affects the human body by observing the signaling pathway associated with Ataxia Telangiectasia mutated (ATM) using Reverse-Phase Protein Array (RPPA) and isogenic human Ataxia Telangiectasia (A-T) cells under different amounts and durations of IR exposure...
April 2017: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437250/ionizing-radiation-reduces-adam10-expression-in-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-undergoing-stress-induced-senescence
#5
Lucinda S McRobb, Matthew J McKay, Jennifer R Gamble, Michael Grace, Vaughan Moutrie, Estevam D Santos, Vivienne S Lee, Zhenjun Zhao, Mark P Molloy, Marcus A Stoodley
Cellular senescence is associated with aging and is considered a potential contributor to age-associated neurodegenerative disease. Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of developing premature neurovascular degeneration and dementia but also induces premature senescence. As cells of the cerebrovascular endothelium are particularly susceptible to radiation and play an important role in brain homeostasis, we investigated radiation-induced senescence in brain microvascular endothelial cells (EC). Using biotinylation to label surface proteins, streptavidin enrichment and proteomic analysis, we analyzed the surface proteome of stress-induced senescent EC in culture...
April 17, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437188/further-characterization-of-the-mitigation-of-radiation-lethality-by-protective-wounding
#6
Joseph R Dynlacht, Joy Garrett, Rebecca Joel, Katharina Lane, Marc S Mendonca, Christie M Orschell
There continues to be a major effort in the United States to develop mitigators for the treatment of mass casualties that received high-intensity acute ionizing radiation exposures from the detonation of an improvised nuclear device during a radiological terrorist attack. The ideal countermeasure should be effective when administered after exposure, and over a wide range of absorbed doses. We have previously shown that the administration of a subcutaneous incision of a defined length, if administered within minutes after irradiation, protected young adult female C57BL/6 mice against radiation-induced lethality, and increased survival after total-body exposure to an LD50/30 X-ray dose from 50% to over 90%...
April 24, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437010/technical-note-comparison-of-peripheral-patient-dose-from-mr-guided-60-co-therapy-and-6mv-linear-accelerator-igrt
#7
Pascal Hauri, Roger A Hälg, Uwe Schneider
PURPOSE: The use of X-ray imaging in radiation therapy can give a substantial dose to the patient. A Cobalt machine combined with an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was recently introduced to clinical work. One positive aspect of using non-ionizing imaging devices is the reduction of the patient exposure. The purpose of this study was to quantify the difference in out-of-field dose to the patient between the image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) treatment applied with a linear accelerator with cone beam CT (CBCT) equipment and a Cobalt machine combined with an MRI...
April 24, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434027/can-ultrasound-be-used-as-the-primary-imaging-in-children-with-suspected-crohn-disease
#8
Timothy L Tsai, Megan B Marine, Matthew R Wanner, Matthew L Cooper, Steven J Steiner, Fangqian Ouyang, S Gregory Jennings, Boaz Karmazyn
BACKGROUND: There is growing literature on the use of ultrasound (US) for evaluation of Crohn disease in adults, but few studies have been conducted on children. Several studies demonstrated high accuracy of US in the diagnosis of Crohn disease. Using US as the primary screening imaging modality for Crohn disease can reduce health care costs, the need for sedation and ionizing radiation exposure. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study is to determine if US can be used for screening evaluation of pediatric Crohn disease...
April 22, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428474/evaluation-of-absorbed-dose-for-cbct-in-image-guided-radiation-therapy-comparison-of-each-devices-and-facilities
#9
Yumiko Kitazato, Noriyuki Kuga, Katsutoshi Shirieda, Masahiro Enzaki, Yuji Nakaguchi, Yoshinobu Shimohigashi, Toshihisa Kawasaki, Masahiko Toyoda, Daisuke Kawahara, Fujio Araki, Shinji Kawamura
Recently, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is used worldwide, highly accurate verification of the location using image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) has become critical. However, the use of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to ascertain the location each time raises concerns about its influence on radiotherapy dosage and increased radiation exposure. The purpose of this study was to measure the absorbed dose using nine kilovoltage (kV) devices and two megavoltage (MV) devices (total 11 devices) at eight facilities, compare the absorbed dose among the devices, and assess the characteristics of the respective devices to ensure optimal clinical operation...
2017: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424822/rapid-non-contrast-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-post-appendectomy-intra-abdominal-abscess-in-children
#10
Megan H Lee, Eric P Eutsler, Elizabeth F Sheybani, Geetika Khanna
BACKGROUND: Acute appendicitis, especially if perforated at presentation, is often complicated by postoperative abscess formation. The detection of a postoperative abscess relies primarily on imaging. This has traditionally been done with contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to accurately detect intra-abdominal abscesses, especially with the use of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate our single-center experience with a rapid non-contrast MRI protocol evaluating post-appendectomy abscesses in children with persistent postsurgical symptoms...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419712/comparison-of-safety-and-efficacy-of-image-guided-enema-reduction-techniques-for-paediatric-intussusception-a-review-of-the-literature
#11
Renny Chew, Michael Ditchfield, Eldho Paul, Stacy K Goergen
INTRODUCTION: There is variable international practice regarding the technique used for image-guided enema reduction in paediatric intussusception. A recent meta-analysis found pneumatic reduction to be more effective than hydrostatic techniques. Clinical practice variation may impact on perforation rates, ionizing radiation exposure and requirement for surgery. The aim of this study was to review the literature regarding the efficacy and safety of fluoroscopically guided pneumatic reduction (FGPR) compared to ultrasound (US) guided intussusception reduction (USGIR) techniques for paediatric intussusception treatment...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418814/ionizing-radiation-exposure-during-pregnancy-effects-on-postnatal-development-and-life
#12
Shayenthiran Sreetharan, Christopher Thome, Sujeenthar Tharmalingam, Devon E Jones, Adomas V Kulesza, Neelam Khaper, Simon J Lees, Joanna Y Wilson, Douglas R Boreham, T C Tai
Reliable human data on the effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation are largely based on high-dose exposures. Exposure to low doses may produce effects that are not easily observable at birth, and may persist over the course of the offspring's postnatal life. This is important when considering fetal programing, a phenomenon characterized by changes in offspring phenotype due to a stress experienced in utero. In this review, we briefly summarize the known effects of both high- and low-dose exposure to ionizing radiation during pregnancy in humans...
April 18, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418813/radiation-induced-deletions-in-mouse-spermatogonia-are-usually-large-over-200-kb-and-contain-little-sequence-similarity-at-the-junctions
#13
Mieko Kodaira, Jun-Ichi Asakawa, Nori Nakamura
Ionizing radiation can induce mutations, and the majority of radiation-induced mutations in mammalian cells are deletions. The most critical types of radiation-induced DNA damage are DNA double-strand breaks, and these breaks are repaired by either the homologous recombination (HR) pathway or the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. The HR pathway is not as mutagenic as the NHEJ pathway, and it is expected that radiation-induced deletions would usually have little sequence similarity around the deletion junction points...
April 18, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413651/high-radiofrequency-radiation-at-stockholm-old-town-an-exposimeter-study-including-the-royal-castle-supreme-court-three-major-squares-and-the-swedish-parliament
#14
Lennart Hardell, Michael Carlberg, Tarmo Koppel, Lena Hedendahl
Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation was classified as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at WHO in 2011. The exposure pattern is changing due to the rapid development of technology. Outdoor RF radiation level was measured during five tours in Stockholm Old Town in April, 2016 using the EME Spy 200 exposimeter with 20 predefined frequencies. The results were based on 10,437 samples in total. The mean level of the total RF radiation was 4,293 µW/m(2) (0...
April 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411225/genome-wide-search-for-ionizing-radiation-responsive-elements-in-deinococcus-radiodurans-reveals-regulatory-role-of-the-dna-gyrase-subunit-a-5-utr-in-the-radiation-and-desiccation-response-rdr
#15
Jordan K Villa, Paul Amador, Justin Janovsky, Arijit Bhuyan, Roland Saldanha, Thomas J Lamkin, Lydia M Contreras
Tight regulation of gene expression is important for Deinococcus radiodurans survival, a model bacterium of extreme stress resistance. Few studies have examined the use of regulatory RNAs as a possible contributing mechanism to ionizing radiation (IR) resistance, despite their proffered efficient and dynamic gene expression regulation under IR stress. This work presents a transcriptome-based approach for identification of stress-responsive regulatory 5' UTR elements in D. radiodurans R1 that can be broadly applied to other bacteria...
April 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408134/norm-contaminated-area-identification-using-radionuclides-activity-concentration-pattern-in-a-soil-profile
#16
Bogusław Michalik
According to the requirements set by European BSS the exposure of humans and biota to ionizing radiation originating from natural radionuclides but under anthropogenically changed conditions should be managed within the same regulatory framework as other practices. Such situation creates the strong needs to have a reliable method to distinguish whether the particular case of natural radioactivity occurrence has resulted from human activity or it is pure natural phenomenon. In case of current activity of particular NORM industry there are no doubts however, in case of a legacy site, such question becomes crucial...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406698/hematological-profile-of-untreated-or-ionizing-radiation-exposed-cyclooxygenase-2-deficient-mice
#17
M Hofer, Z Hoferová, L Dušek, K Souček, A Gruzdev
We investigated hematopoiesis in untreated and ionizing radiation-exposed cyclooxygenase-2-deficient (COX-2 KO) mice. We performed a complex hematological analysis of 16 parameters in untreated COX-2 KO male mice or COX-2 KO male mice irradiated with the dose of 4 Gy of gamma-rays and their wildtype littermates. At baseline, hematopoiesis was increased in COX-2-deficient mice, but attenuated by irradation in COX-2-deficient mice compared to wildtype. To conclude, the anti-inflammatory action of the COX-2 genetic disruption plays a positive role in hematopoiesis under basal conditions but is detrimental following radiation exposure...
April 12, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401142/comprehensive-survey-of-household-radon-gas-levels-and-risk-factors-in-southern-alberta
#18
Fintan K T Stanley, Siavash Zarezadeh, Colin D Dumais, Karin Dumais, Renata MacQueen, Fiona Clement, Aaron A Goodarzi
BACKGROUND: The inhalation of naturally occurring radon (222Rn) gas from indoor air exposes lung tissue to α-particle bombardment, a highly mutagenic form of ionizing radiation that damages DNA and increases the lifetime risk of lung cancer. We analyzed household radon concentrations and risk factors in southern Alberta, including Calgary, the third-largest Canadian metropolis. METHODS: A total of 2382 residential homes (2018 in Calgary and 364 in surrounding townships) from an area encompassing 82% of the southern Alberta population were tested for radon, per Health Canada guidelines, for at least 90 days (median 103 d) between 2013 and 2016...
January 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391175/children-medical-radiation-and-the-environment-an-important-dialogue
#19
Donald P Frush, Maria Del Rosario Perez
There are unique considerations in the medical care of children, which includes the use of medical imaging. Medical imaging is frequently necessary and is essential in diagnosis and management of children with illness and injury. Much of medical imaging requires ionizing radiation. While virtually all diagnostic imaging radiation is considered low-dose level, there is still a broad misperception about what modalities use ionizing radiation and how much radiation risk exists in the medical environment. A discussion of radiation exposure is especially relevant in children due to their increased vulnerability, including to radiation-induced cancer...
April 6, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389764/efficacy-of-radpad-protective-drape-during-coronary-angiography
#20
B Kherad, T Jerichow, F Blaschke, M Noutsias, B Pieske, C Tschöpe, F Krackhardt
BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation is an integral part of percutaneous coronary angiographies. Chronic exposure to low-dose radiation confers a risk for skin damage, eye lens opacities or cataracts, and malignant diseases to staff in the catheter laboratory. The RADPAD is a sterile surgical drape that reduces the effect of scatter radiation on the operator. We sought to assess the efficacy of RADPAD shields in reducing radiation dose experienced by operators during routine diagnostic coronary angiography...
April 7, 2017: Herz
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