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ionizing radiation exposure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346025/guidance-on-radiation-dose-limits-for-the-lens-of-the-eye-overview-of-the-recommendations-in-ncrp-commentary-no-26
#1
Lawrence T Dauer, Elizabeth A Ainsbury, Joseph Dynlacht, David Hoel, Barbara E K Klein, Don Mayer, Christina R Prescott, Raymond H Thornton, Eliseo Vano, Gayle E Woloschak, Cynthia M Flannery, Lee E Goldstein, Nobuyuki Hamada, Phung K Tran, Michael P Grissom, Eleanor A Blakely
PURPOSE: This review summarizes the conclusions and recommendations of the new NCRP Commentary No. 26 guidance on radiation dose limits for the lens of the eye. The NCRP also addressed radiation protection principles with respect to the lens of the eye, discussed the current understanding of eye biology and lens effects, reviewed and evaluated epidemiology, and assessed exposed populations with the potential for significant radiation exposures to the lens while suggesting monitoring and protection practices...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345453/tumor-suppressor-mir-29c-regulates-radioresistance-in-lung-cancer-cells
#2
Elena Arechaga-Ocampo, Cesar Lopez-Camarillo, Nicolas Villegas-Sepulveda, Claudia H Gonzalez-De la Rosa, Isidro X Perez-Añorve, Reynalda Roldan-Perez, Ali Flores-Perez, Omar Peña-Curiel, Oscar Angeles-Zaragoza, Rosalva Rangel Corona, Juan A Gonzalez-Barrios, Raul Bonilla-Moreno, Oscar Del Moral-Hernandez, Luis A Herrera, Alejandro Garcia-Carranca
Radiotherapy is an important treatment option for non-small cell lung carcinoma patients. Despite the appropriate use of radiotherapy, radioresistance is a biological behavior of cancer cells that limits the efficacy of this treatment. Deregulation of microRNAs contributes to the molecular mechanism underlying resistance to radiotherapy in cancer cells. Although the functional roles of microRNAs have been well described in lung cancer, their functional roles in radioresistance are largely unclear. In this study, we established a non-small cell lung carcinoma Calu-1 radioresistant cell line by continuous exposure to therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation as a model to investigate radioresistance-associated microRNAs...
March 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343630/de-novo-truncating-mutations-in-the-last-and-penultimate-exons-of-ppm1d-cause-an-intellectual-disability-syndrome
#3
Sandra Jansen, Sinje Geuer, Rolph Pfundt, Rachel Brough, Priyanka Ghongane, Johanna C Herkert, Elysa J Marco, Marjolein H Willemsen, Tjitske Kleefstra, Mark Hannibal, Joseph T Shieh, Sally Ann Lynch, Frances Flinter, David R FitzPatrick, Alice Gardham, Birgitta Bernhard, Nicola Ragge, Ruth Newbury-Ecob, Raphael Bernier, Malin Kvarnung, E A Helena Magnusson, Marja W Wessels, Marjon A van Slegtenhorst, Kristin G Monaghan, Petra de Vries, Joris A Veltman, Christopher J Lord, Lisenka E L M Vissers, Bert B A de Vries
Intellectual disability (ID) is a highly heterogeneous disorder involving at least 600 genes, yet a genetic diagnosis remains elusive in ∼35%-40% of individuals with moderate to severe ID. Recent meta-analyses statistically analyzing de novo mutations in >7,000 individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders highlighted mutations in PPM1D as a possible cause of ID. PPM1D is a type 2C phosphatase that functions as a negative regulator of cellular stress-response pathways by mediating a feedback loop of p38-p53 signaling, thereby contributing to growth inhibition and suppression of stress-induced apoptosis...
March 18, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342453/ionizing-radiation-biomarkers-in-epidemiological-studies-an-update
#4
REVIEW
Janet Hall, Penny A Jeggo, Catharine West, Maria Gomolka, Roel Quintens, Christophe Badie, Olivier Laurent, An Aerts, Nataša Anastasov, Omid Azimzadeh, Tamara Azizova, Sarah Baatout, Bjorn Baselet, Mohammed A Benotmane, Eric Blanchardon, Yann Guéguen, Siamak Haghdoost, Mats Harms-Ringhdahl, Julia Hess, Michaela Kreuzer, Dominique Laurier, Ellina Macaeva, Grainne Manning, Eileen Pernot, Jean-Luc Ravanat, Laure Sabatier, Karine Tack, Soile Tapio, Horst Zitzelsberger, Elisabeth Cardis
Recent epidemiology studies highlighted the detrimental health effects of exposure to low dose and low dose rate ionizing radiation (IR): nuclear industry workers studies have shown increased leukaemia and solid tumour risks following cumulative doses of <100mSv and dose rates of <10mGy per year; paediatric patients studies have reported increased leukaemia and brain tumours risks after doses of 30-60mGy from computed tomography scans. Questions arise, however, about the impact of even lower doses and dose rates where classical epidemiological studies have limited power but where subsets within the large cohorts are expected to have an increased risk...
January 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342115/ssh-versus-tse-sequence-protocol-in-rapid-mr-examination-of-pediatric-patients-with-programmable-drainage-system
#5
Eva Brichtová, J Šenkyřík
PURPOSE: A low radiation burden is essential during diagnostic procedures in pediatric patients due to their high tissue sensitivity. Using MR examination instead of the routinely used CT reduces the radiation exposure and the risk of adverse stochastic effects. Our retrospective study evaluated the possibility of using ultrafast single-shot (SSh) sequences and turbo spin echo (TSE) sequences in rapid MR brain imaging in pediatric patients with hydrocephalus and a programmable ventriculoperitoneal drainage system...
March 24, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341390/pulmonary-mr-angiography-and-perfusion-imaging-a-review-of-methods-and-applications
#6
REVIEW
Christopher S Johns, Andrew J Swift, Paul J C Hughes, Yoshiharu Ohno, Mark Schiebler, Jim M Wild
The pulmonary vasculature and its role in perfusion and gas exchange is an important consideration in many conditions of the lung and heart. Currently the mainstay of imaging of the vasculature and perfusion of the lungs lies with CT and nuclear medicine perfusion scans, both of which require ionizing radiation exposure. Improvements in MRI techniques have increased the use of MRI in pulmonary vascular imaging. Here we review MRI methods for imaging the pulmonary vasculature and pulmonary perfusion, both using contrast enhanced and non-contrast enhanced methodology...
January 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340407/transmission-of-persistent-ionizing-radiation-induced-foci-through-cell-division-in-human-primary-cells
#7
Aurelie Vaurijoux, Pascale Voisin, Amelie Freneau, Joan Francesc Barquinero, Gaetan Gruel
Unrepaired DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionizing radiation are associated with lethal effects and genomic instability. After the initial breaks and chromatin destabilization, a set of post-translational modifications of histones occurs, including phosphorylation of serine 139 of histone H2AX (γH2AX), which leads to the formation of ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF). DSB repair results in the disappearance of most IRIF within hours after exposure, although some remain 24h after irradiation...
March 10, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338865/assessment-of-public-exposure-form-wlans-in-the-west-bank-palestine
#8
Adnan Lahham, Afifeh Sharabati, Hussein ALMasri
A total of 271 measurements were conducted at 69 different sites including homes, hospitals, educational institutions and other public places to assess the exposure to radiofrequency emission from wireless local area networks (WLANs). Measurements were conducted at different distances from 40 to 10 m from the access points (APs) in real life conditions using Narda SRM-3000 selective radiation meter. Three measurements modes were considered at 1 m distance from the AP which are transmit mode, idle mode, and from the client card (laptop computer)...
March 3, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338797/an-estimation-of-the-exposure-of-the-population-of-israel-to-natural-sources-of-ionizing-radiation
#9
L Epstein, J Koch, T Riemer, G Haquin, I Orion
The radiation dose to the population of Israel due to exposure to natural sources of ionizing radiation was assessed. The main contributor to the dose is radon that accounts for 60% of the exposure to natural sources. The dose due to radon inhalation was assessed by combining the results of a radon survey in single-family houses with the results of a survey in apartments in multi-storey buildings. The average annual dose due to radon inhalation was found to be 1.2 mSv. The dose rate due to exposure to cosmic radiation was assessed using a code that calculates the dose rate at different heights above sea level, taking into account the solar cycle...
February 18, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338457/transplant-renal-vein-thrombosis
#10
Khaled El Zorkany, Julie-Michelle Bridson, Ajay Sharma, Ahmed Halawa
Transplant renal vein thrombosis usually occurs early after surgery with a reported prevalence of 0.1% to 4.2%. It is a devastating event that ultimately leads to graft loss in almost all cases. There are many predisposing factors related to donor, recipient, surgery, and immunosuppression, with mechanical factors being considered the most common causes of transplant renal vein thrombosis. The clinical manifestations of acute renal vein thrombosis are nonspecific and are not dissimilar to the features of urine leak, urinary obstruction, or severe acute rejection...
April 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330762/effect-of-whole-brain-irradiation-on-the-specific-brain-regions-in-a-rat-model-metabolic-and-histopathological-changes
#11
Soňa Bálentová, Petra Hnilicová, Dagmar Kalenská, Peter Murín, Eva Hajtmanová, Ján Lehotský, Marian Adamkov
Effect of ionizing radiation on the brain affects neuronal, glial, and endothelial cell population and lead to significant morphological, metabolic, and functional deficits. In the present study we investigated a dose- and time-dependent correlation between radiation-induced metabolic and histopathological changes. Adult male Wistar rats received a total dose of 35Gy delivered in 7 fractions (dose 5Gy per fraction) once per week in the same weekday during 7 consecutive weeks. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS), histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to determine whether radiation-induced alteration of the brain metabolites correlates with appropriate histopathological changes of neurogenesis and glial cell response in 2 neurogenic regions: the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and the subventricular zone-olfactory bulb axis (SVZ-OB axis)...
March 19, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325434/radiation-exposure-and-the-orthopedic-surgeon-s-hand-measurement-of-the-equivalent-dose-over-13%C3%A2-months
#12
F Loisel, G Menu, E Boyer, I Pluvy, L Obert
Exposure to ionizing radiation in the operating room is governed by practical prevention and protection measures on the international, national and local levels. We evaluated the equivalent dose to the hand of an orthopedic surgeon over 13 months. An orthopedic surgeon wore a ring dosimeter on the ring finger of his right hand for all surgical procedures requiring intraoperative fluoroscopy between March 2014 and April 2015. Monthly doses were evaluated by the IRSN over the study period. The number and type of procedures were compiled as well as the type of fluoroscopy unit used...
April 2017: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324120/-biological-mechanisms-of-radiation-effects
#13
S Gruber, W Dörr
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ionizing radiation for diagnostic purposes is inevitable in modern medicine. The therapeutic application of irradiation is highly effective against cancer; however, this implies exposure of normal tissue structures to significant doses of radiation. Diagnostic or therapeutic exposure to ionizing radiation can result in tissue changes and tumor induction in the long term. Knowledge of the biological mechanisms underlying these effects is essential for individualization of the application...
March 21, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321175/evidence-that-lifelong-low-dose-rates-of-ionizing-radiation-increase-lifespan-in-long-and-short-lived-dogs
#14
Jerry M Cuttler, Ludwig E Feinendegen, Yehoshua Socol
After the 1956 radiation scare to stop weapons testing, studies focused on cancer induction by low-level radiation. Concern has shifted to protecting "radiation-sensitive individuals." Since longevity is a measure of health impact, this analysis reexamined data to compare the effect of dose rate on the lifespans of short-lived (5% and 10% mortality) dogs and on the lifespans of dogs at 50% mortality. The data came from 2 large-scale studies. One exposed 10 groups to different γ dose rates; the other exposed 8 groups to different lung burdens of plutonium...
January 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319462/late-effects-of-exposure-to-ionizing-radiation-and-age-on-human-thymus-morphology-and-function
#15
Reiko Ito, Laura P Hale, Susan M Geyer, Jie Li, Andrew Sornborger, Junko Kajimura, Yoichiro Kusunoki, Kengo Yoshida, Marcel R M van den Brink, Seishi Kyoizumi, Nancy R Manley, Kei Nakachi, Gregory D Sempowski
The thymus is essential for proper development and maintenance of a T-cell repertoire that can respond to newly encountered antigens, but its function can be adversely affected by internal factors such as pregnancy and normal aging or by external stimuli such as stress, infection, chemotherapy and ionizing radiation. We have utilized a unique archive of thymus tissues, obtained from 165 individuals, exposed to the 1945 atomic bomb blast in Hiroshima, to study the long-term effects of receiving up to ∼3 Gy dose of ionizing radiation on human thymus function...
March 20, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316601/the-interplay-between-radioresistant-caco-2-cells-and-the-immune-system-increases-epithelial-layer-permeability-and-alters-signaling-protein-spectrum
#16
Jacopo Morini, Gabriele Babini, Sofia Barbieri, Giorgio Baiocco, Andrea Ottolenghi
Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent type of cancer, with a higher incidence in the developed countries. Colorectal cancer is usually managed with both surgeries, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Radiotherapy has the well-known advantage of targeting the tumor, minimizing normal tissue exposure. Nevertheless, during radiation treatment, exposure of healthy tissues is of great concern, in particular because of the effects on the intestinal barrier functions and on cells belonging to the immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314222/radiation-induced-decrease-of-cd8-dendritic-cells-contributes-to-th1-th2-shift
#17
Hu Liu, Bailong Li, Xiaojing Jia, Yan Ma, Yifeng Gu, Pei Zhang, Qun Wei, Jianming Cai, Jianguo Cui, Fu Gao, Yanyong Yang
Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) often reduce the helper T (Th) 1 like function, resulting in a Th1/Th2 imbalance, which could affect the efficacy of cancer radiotherapy. As the most potent antigen presenting cells, dendritic cells (DC) can be divided into several subsets with specialized function. However, there is no literature covering the changes of DC subsets and their roles in immune regulation in response to IR. In the present study, we were aimed to investigate the changes of DC subsets after IR and its relationship with Th1/Th2 immunity...
March 14, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303708/the-assessment-of-the-ionizing-radiation-dose-received-by-patients-during-some-diagnostic-x-ray-examinations-carried-out-on-the-basis-of-the-working-procedures-in-the-health-care-entities
#18
Marcin Bekas, Elżbieta Waśniewska, Adam Wardziński, Kamil Wieprzowski
Background: X-ray examination is a popular and universally used injury and disease diagnostic method. A distinctive X ray examination feature is that it can be done quickly which is extremely important in case of the need for rapid diagnosis of patients in life threatening condition. Another advantage of the X-ray examinations is also relatively low cost of carry. However, X-ray examination involve adverse health effects. During the examination the patient is subjected to ionizing radiation that might have impact on his health...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301209/comparison-of-low-and-standard-dose-ct-for-the-diagnosis-of-acute-appendicitis-a-meta-analysis
#19
Seong Jong Yun, Chang-Woo Ryu, Na Young Choi, Hyun Cheol Kim, Ji Young Oh, Dal Mo Yang
OBJECTIVE: A meta-analysis was performed to compare low-dose CT and standard-dose CT in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis with an emphasis on diagnostic value. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search for articles published through June 2016 was performed to identify studies that compared low-dose CT with standard-dose CT for the evaluation of patients suspected of having acute appendicitis. Summary estimates of sensitivity and specificity with 95% CIs were calculated using a bivariate random-effects model...
March 16, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299960/molecular-dissection-of-the-response-of-the-rice-systemic-acquired-resistance-deficient-1-sard1-gene-to-different-types-of-ionizing-radiation
#20
In Jung Jung, Jung Eun Hwang, Sung Min Han, Dong Sub Kim, Joon-Woo Ahn, Hong-Il Choi, Soon-Jae Kwon, Si-Yong Kang, Jin-Baek Kim
PURPOSE: Exposure to ionizing radiation induces plant defenses by regulating the expression of response genes. The systemic acquired resistance deficient 1 (SARD1) is a key gene in plant defense response. In this study, the function of Oryza sativa SARD1 (OsSARD1) was investigated after exposure of seeds/plants to ionizing radiation, jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rice seeds exposed to two types of ionizing radiations (gamma ray [GR] and ion beam [IB]) were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) to identify the genes that are altered in response to ionizing radiation...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
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