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ionizing radiation exposure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903235/erythropoietin-enhances-the-cytotoxic-effect-of-hydrogen-peroxide-on-colon-cancer-cells
#1
Tankiewicz-Kwedlo Anna, Hermanowicz Justyna Magdalena, Surażynski Arkadiusz, Kwedlo Wojciech, Rożkiewicz Dariusz, Pawlak Krystyna, Domaniewski Tomasz, Pawlak Dariusz
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients treated with alkylating agents and radiotherapy are exposed to high level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tissues. ROS can involve superoxide free radicals, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide. It is well documented that increased exposure to oxygen through a high metabolic rate could lead to a shortened life span. Ionizing radiation, use of drugs and the development of cancer can lead to cancer-induced anemia. Recombinant human erythropoietin (Epo) supplementation is one of the methods for treating anemia...
November 15, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902455/inaccurate-official-assessment-of-radiofrequency-safety-by-the-advisory-group-on-non-ionising-radiation
#2
Sarah J Starkey
The Advisory Group on Non-ionising Radiation (AGNIR) 2012 report forms the basis of official advice on the safety of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields in the United Kingdom and has been relied upon by health protection agencies around the world. This review describes incorrect and misleading statements from within the report, omissions and conflict of interest, which make it unsuitable for health risk assessment. The executive summary and overall conclusions did not accurately reflect the scientific evidence available...
December 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899034/ionizing-radiation-sensitivity-of-the-ocular-lens-and-its-dose-rate-dependence
#3
Nobuyuki Hamada
PURPOSE: In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection reduced the threshold for the lens effects of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. On one hand, the revised threshold of 0.5 Gy is much lower than previously recommended thresholds, but mechanisms behind high radiosensitivity remain incompletely understood. On the other hand, such threshold is independent of dose rate, in contrast to previously recommended separate thresholds each for single and fractionated/protracted exposures...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898688/numerical-exposure-assessment-method-for-low-frequency-range-and-application-to-wireless-power-transfer
#4
SangWook Park, Minhyuk Kim
In this paper, a numerical exposure assessment method is presented for a quasi-static analysis by the use of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm. The proposed method is composed of scattered field FDTD method and quasi-static approximation for analyzing of the low frequency band electromagnetic problems. The proposed method provides an effective tool to compute induced electric fields in an anatomically realistic human voxel model exposed to an arbitrary non-uniform field source in the low frequency ranges...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898411/radioprotective-effects-of-heat-killed-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-cultured-cells-and-radiosensitive-tissues
#5
Yuanyuan Chen, Yang Xu, Jicong Du, Jiaming Guo, Xiao Lei, Jianguo Cui, Cong Liu, Ying Cheng, Bailong Li, Fu Gao, Jintao Ju, Jianming Cai, Yanyong Yang
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) often causes severe damage to radiosensitive tissues, which limits the use of radiotherapy in cancer patients. Novel safe and effective radioprotectant is urgently required. It has been reported toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays a critical role in radioresistance. In this study, we demonstrated the protective effects of Heat-Killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (HKMT), a potent TLR2 agonist, against IR. METHODS: Cell survival and apoptosis were determined by CCK-8 assay and Annexin V assay, respectively...
November 30, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886989/u-s-department-of-defense-multiple-parameter-biodosimetry-network
#6
William F Blakely, Alexander Romanyukha, Selena M Hayes, Ricardo A Reyes, H Michael Stewart, Matthew H Hoefer, Anthony Williams, Thad Sharp, L Andrew Huff
The U.S. Department of Defense (USDOD) service members are at risk of exposure to ionizing radiation due to radiation accidents, terrorist attacks and national defense activities. The use of biodosimetry is a standard of care for the triage and treatment of radiation injuries. Resources and procedures need to be established to implement a multiple-parameter biodosimetry system coupled with expert medial guidance to provide an integrated radiation diagnostic system to meet USDOD requirements. Current USDOD biodosimetry capabilities were identified and recommendations to fill the identified gaps are provided...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885097/results-of-relid-study-2014-buenos-aires-argentina-retrospective-evaluation-of-lens-injuries-and-dose
#7
C Papp, M Romano-Miller, A Descalzo, S Michelin, A Molinari, A Rossini, C Plotkin, G Bodino, G Esperanza, M Di Giorgio, R Touzet
High levels of scatter radiation in catheterization laboratories may lead to posterior subcapsular opacities in the lens of the staff. The international Retrospective Evaluation of Lens Injuries and Dose (RELID) was performed in Argentina for the first time in 2010 in the context of the congress of the Latin American Society of Interventional Cardiology (SOLACI) and recently, in 2014, was carried out for the second time (SOLACI-CACI 2014). The 2014 study included 115 participants: interventional cardiologists, technicians and nurses...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885087/long-term-electromagnetic-field-measurement-and-assessment-for-a-shopping-mall
#8
Begum Korunur Engiz, Cetin Kurnaz
As a result of the dense deployment of wireless devices and base stations, measuring and evaluating the electromagnetic (EM) exposure levels they emit have become important to human health especially if they exceed the limits defined in the standards. Base stations, Wi-Fi equipment and other electronic devices are used heavily, especially in densely crowded places like shopping centers. In this study, electric field strength (E) measurements were conducted at one of the largest shopping malls in Turkey. Broadband E measurements were performed using PMM 8053 EM field strength meter for 24 h a day for the duration of one week while frequency selective measurements were carried out with SRM-3006 EM field strength meter...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885085/immunological-monitoring-of-the-personnel-at-radiation-hazardous-facilities
#9
S M Kiselev, M E Sokolnikov, L V Lyss, N I Ilyina
The study of possible mechanisms resulting in changes in the immune system after exposure to ionizing radiation is an area that has not been thoroughly evaluated during recent years. This article presents an overview of immunological monitoring studies of personnel from the radiation-hazardous factories that took place over the past 20 years in Russia. The methodology of these studies is based on: (1) the preclinical evaluation of immune status of workers whose occupation involves potential exposure to ionizing radiation; (2) selecting at risk groups according to the nature of immune deficiency manifestation; and (3) studying the changes of immune status of employees with regard to the potential effects of radiation exposure...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885077/highlights-of-the-russian-health-studies-program-and-updated-research-findings
#10
Barrett N Fountos
Recognized for conducting cutting-edge science in the field of radiation health effects research, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Russian Health Studies Program has continued to generate excitement and enthusiasm throughout its 23-year mission to assess worker and public health risks from radiation exposure resulting from nuclear weapons production activities in the former Soviet Union. The three goals of the Program are to: (1) clarify the relationship between health effects and chronic, low-to-medium dose radiation exposure; (2) estimate the cancer risks from exposure to gamma, neutron, and alpha radiation; and (3) provide information to the national and international organizations that determine radiation protection standards and practices...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884938/the-russian-human-radiobiological-tissue-repository-a-unique-resource-for-studies-of-plutonium-exposed-workers
#11
Christopher Loffredo, David Goerlitz, Svetlana Sokolova, Leonidas Leondaridis, Mariya Zakharova, Valentina Revina, Evgeniya Kirillova
The Russian Radiobiological Human Tissue Repository (RHTR) at the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute in Ozyorsk, Russia, was established to collect and store biospecimens supporting research on health consequences of chronic, low-dose radiation exposures. The purpose of this paper is to describe the RHTR resources and the availability of high-quality biological specimens. RHTR has enrolled two groups of subjects from 1951 to the present time: exposed workers at the Mayak Production Association facilities and residents of Ozyorsk who were never occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation (controls)...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878549/fluoroscopic-freehand-and-electromagnetic-guided-targeting-system-for-distal-locking-screws-of-humeral-intramedullary-nail
#12
P Persiani, M Gurzi, O Moreschini, G Di Giacomo, C Villani
PURPOSE: The current techniques used to lock distal screws for the nailing of long bone fractures expose the surgeons, radiologists and patients to a hearty dose of ionizing radiation. The Sureshot™ Distal Targeting System is a new technique that, with the same results, allows for shorter surgery times and, consequently, less exposure to radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed on 59 patients (34 males and 25 females) with a simple humerus fracture diagnosis, type 1...
November 22, 2016: Musculoskeletal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878170/absolute-cross-sections-for-dna-strand-breaks-and-crosslinks-induced-by-low-energy-electrons
#13
Wenzhuang Chen, Shiliang Chen, Yanfang Dong, Pierre Cloutier, Yi Zheng, Léon Sanche
Absolute cross sections (CSs) for the interaction of low energy electrons with condensed macromolecules are essential parameters to accurately model ionizing radiation induced reactions. To determine CSs for various conformational DNA damage induced by 2-20 eV electrons, we investigated the influence of the attenuation length (AL) and penetration factor (f) using a mathematical model. Solid films of supercoiled plasmid DNA with thicknesses of 10, 15 and 20 nm were irradiated with 4.6, 5.6, 9.6 and 14.6 eV electrons...
November 23, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873104/analysis-of-specific-absorption-rate-and-internal-electric-field-in-human-biological-tissues-surrounding-an-air-core-coil-type-transcutaneous-energy-transmission-transformer
#14
Kenji Shiba, Nur Elina Binti Zulkifli, Yuji Ishioka
In this study, we analyzed the internal electric field E and specific absorption rate (SAR) of human biological tissues surrounding an air-core coil transcutaneous energy transmission transformer. Using an electromagnetic simulator, we created a model of human biological tissues consisting of a dry skin, wet skin, fat, muscle, and cortical bone. A primary coil was placed on the surface of the skin, and a secondary coil was located subcutaneously inside the body. The E and SAR values for the model representing a 34-year-old male subject were analyzed using electrical frequencies of 0...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869555/the-influence-of-the-ctip-polymorphism-q418p-on-homologous-recombination-and-predisposition-to-radiation-induced-tumorigenesis-mainly-raml-in-mice
#15
Agata Patel, Jennifer Anderson, Daniela Kraft, Rosemary Finnon, Paul Finnon, Cheryl L Scudamore, Grainne Manning, Robert Bulman, Natalie Brown, Simon Bouffler, Peter O'Neill, Christophe Badie
Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the incidence of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which has been diagnosed in Japanese atomic bombing survivors, as well as patients treated with radiotherapy. The genetic basis for susceptibility to radiation-induced AML is not well characterized. We previously identified a candidate murine gene for susceptibility to radiation-induced AML (rAML): C-terminal binding protein (CTBP)-interacting protein (CTIP)/retinoblastoma binding protein 8 (RBBP8). This gene is essential for embryonic development, double-strand break (DSB) resection in homologous recombination (HR) and tumor suppression...
November 21, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865670/radiation-damage-to-neuronal-cells-simulating-the-energy-deposition-and-water-radiolysis-in-a-small-neural-network
#16
Oleg V Belov, Munkhbaatar Batmunkh, Sébastien Incerti, Oidov Lkhagva
Radiation damage to the central nervous system (CNS) has been an on-going challenge for the last decades primarily due to the issues of brain radiotherapy and radiation protection for astronauts during space travel. Although recent findings revealed a number of molecular mechanisms associated with radiation-induced impairments in behaviour and cognition, some uncertainties exist in the initial neuronal cell injury leading to the further development of CNS malfunction. The present study is focused on the investigation of early biological damage induced by ionizing radiations in a sample neural network by means of modelling physico-chemical processes occurring in the medium after exposure...
November 16, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863581/radiation-fear-and-common-sense-adaptations-in-patient-care
#17
REVIEW
Robert C Beauchamp
Lack of understanding about the basic nature of radiation exposure and contamination may lead to unreasonable fear in nursing staff. A brief review of a well-known case shows that in general, both the public and health care providers are radiophobic. Studies have shown that the level of fear correlates inversely with an understanding of radiation. This article explores underlying principles of ionizing radiation and their application in patient management. Reality based, scientifically accurate information along with practical suggestions can free health care providers from unreasonable fear of victims of a radiation accident...
December 2016: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856357/clinical-effectiveness-in-the-diagnosis-and-acute-management-of-pediatric-nephrolithiasis
#18
REVIEW
Jason P Van Batavia, Gregory E Tasian
The incidence of pediatric nephrolithiasis has risen over the past few decades leading to a growing public health burden. Children and adolescents represent a unique patient population secondary to their higher risks from radiation exposure as compared to adults, high risk of recurrence, and longer follow up time given their longer life expectancies. Ultrasound imaging is the first-line modality for diagnosing suspected nephrolithiasis in children. Although data is limited, the best evidence based medicine supports the use of alpha-blockers as first-line MET in children, especially when stones are small and in a more distal ureteral location...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852501/longitudinal-pilot-analysis-of-radiation-exposure-during-the-course-of-growing-rod-treatment-for-early-onset-scoliosis
#19
Gregory M Mundis, Jeff B Pawelek, Edward K Nomoto, Michael W Hennessy, Burt Yaszay, Behrooz A Akbarnia
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective consecutive case series. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the amount of ionizing radiation (IR) exposure in growing rod (GR) surgery for early-onset scoliosis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: There is substantial evidence of the health hazards attributed to IR exposure. However, no studies have estimated the amount of IR exposure in GR surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A consecutive single-center series of GR patients were retrospectively reviewed...
January 2016: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846608/the-dna-sensing-aim2-inflammasome-controls-radiation-induced-cell-death-and-tissue-injury
#20
Bo Hu, Chengcheng Jin, Hua-Bing Li, Jiyu Tong, Xinshou Ouyang, Naniye Malli Cetinbas, Shu Zhu, Till Strowig, Fred C Lam, Chen Zhao, Jorge Henao-Mejia, Omer Yilmaz, Katherine A Fitzgerald, Stephanie C Eisenbarth, Eran Elinav, Richard A Flavell
Acute exposure to ionizing radiation induces massive cell death and severe damage to tissues containing actively proliferating cells, including bone marrow and the gastrointestinal tract. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this pathology remain controversial. Here, we show that mice deficient in the double-stranded DNA sensor AIM2 are protected from both subtotal body irradiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome and total body irradiation-induced hematopoietic failure. AIM2 mediates the caspase-1-dependent death of intestinal epithelial cells and bone marrow cells in response to double-strand DNA breaks caused by ionizing radiation and chemotherapeutic agents...
November 11, 2016: Science
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