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  Bone marrow necrosis

Robert Foerster, B C John Cho, Daniel K Fahim, Peter C Gerszten, John C Flickinger, Inga S Grills, Maha S Jawad, C Ronald Kersh, Daniel Létourneau, Frederick Mantel, Arjun Sahgal, John H Shin, Brian A Winey, Matthias Guckenberger
BACKGROUND: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of the spine provides superior tumor control, but vertebral compression fractures are increased and the pathophysiological process underneath is not well understood. Data on histopathological changes, particularly after salvage SBRT (sSBRT) following conventional irradiation, are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To investigate surgical specimens after sSBRT and primary SBRT (pSBRT) regarding histopathological changes. METHODS: We assessed 704 patients treated with spine SBRT 2006 to 2012...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Quan-Bo Zhang, Yu-Feng Qing, Cong-Cong Yin, Li Zhou, Xian-Shuang Liu, Qing-Sheng Mi, Jing-Guo Zhou
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) serve as important regulators of inflammatory and immune responses and are implicated in several immune disorders including gouty arthritis. The expression of miR-146a is upregulated in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with inter-critical gout when compared to normouricemic and hyperuricemic controls and those patients with acute gout flares. However, the role of miR-146a in the development of gout remains unknown. Here, we used miR-146a knockout (KO) mice to test miR-146a function in a monosodium urate (MSU)-induced gouty arthritis model...
March 15, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Kyung-Ah Cho, Minhwa Park, Yu-Hee Kim, Hea-Young Park Choo, Kyung Ho Lee
Mast cells are central regulators of allergic inflammation that function by releasing various proallergic inflammatory mediators, including histamine, eicosanoids and proinflammatory cytokines. Occasionally, bacterial infections may initiate or worsen allergic inflammation. A number of studies have indicated that activation of lipoxygenase in mast cells positive regulates allergic inflammatory responses by generating leukotrienes and proinflammatory cytokines. In the present study, the effects of benzoxazole derivatives on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines, production of histamine and surface expression of co‑stimulatory molecules on bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) were studied...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Andrea Amaroli, Dimitrios Agas, Fulvio Laus, Vincenzo Cuteri, Reem Hanna, Maria Giovanna Sabbieti, Stefano Benedicenti
The literature has supported the concept of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in bone regeneration as one of the most important applications in oro-maxillofacial reconstructions. However, the fate of the transplanted cells and their effects on the clinical outcome is still uncertain. Photobiomodulation (PBM) plays an important role in the acceleration of tissue regeneration and potential repair. The aim of this in vitro study is to evaluate the effectiveness of PBM with 808 nm diode laser therapy, using a flat-top hand-piece delivery system at a higher-fluence (64 J/cm2 ) irradiation (1 W, continuous-wave) on bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Rachel P Frawley, Matthew Smith, Mark F Cesta, Schantel Hayes-Bouknight, Chad Blystone, Grace E Kissling, Shawn Harris, Dori Germolec
Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are chemically and thermally stable, hydrophobic, lipophobic compounds used in stain repellants and water and oil surfactants, and associated with immunosuppression and peroxisome proliferator activity. Perfluoro-n-decanoic acid (PFDA, (CF3 (CF2 )8 COOH), a fluorinated straight chain fatty acid compound, is reported to induce thymic atrophy and reversible bone marrow hypocellularity in rodent models. The objective of this study was to assess potential immunotoxicity of PFDA, due to its structural similarity to other immunosuppressive PFASs...
December 2018: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Jing Xie, Demao Zhang, Yunfeng Lin, Quan Yuan, Xuedong Zhou
BACKGROUND: The meniscus plays an important role in knee joint diseases such as osteoarthritis (OA). Meniscal injuries can be accompanied by joint catabolic events initiated by inflammation, leading to articular cartilage destruction, but the cellular events responsible for intrinsic meniscal injury and the extracellular matrix changes necessary for meniscal degradation are not well known. PURPOSE: To explore the cellular and matrix-related changes of menisci based on a mouse OA model of anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT)...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Gang Luo, Fangfei Li, Xiaoming Li, Zheng-Guo Wang, Bo Zhang
Although tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF‑α) is known to serve a critical role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory osteolysis, the exact mechanisms underlying the effects of TNF‑α on osteoclast recruitment and differentiation remain unclear. To investigate the mechanisms by which TNF‑α influences osteoclast differentiation, mouse bone marrow‑derived macrophages (BMMs) were used as osteoclast precursors, and osteoclastogenesis was induced by macrophage colony‑stimulating factor and receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB ligand (RANKL) with or without TNF‑α for 4 days...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Qian Wen, Shimeng Zhang, Xialin Du, Ruining Wang, Yanfen Li, Honglin Liu, Shengfeng Hu, Chaoying Zhou, Xinying Zhou, Li Ma
Absence of effective therapeutic methods for avascular necrosis of femoral head (ANFH) is still perplexing the world's medical community. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) adoptive cell therapy combined with core decompression is a promising modality, which is highly dependent on the cellular activities of BMSCs. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a survival factor for BMSCs, yet the underlying mechanism is not fully elucidated. In this study, the effects of multiplicity of infections (MOIs) of recombinant adenovirus carrying HGF gene (rAd-HGF) on human BMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were systemically examined...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Farzaneh Chehelcheraghi, Abolfazl Abbaszadeh, Magid Tavafi
Background: Skin flap procedures are employed in plastic surgery, but failure can lead to necrosis of the flap. Studies have used bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) to improve flap viability. BM-MSCs and acellular amniotic membrane (AAM) have been introduced as alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of BM-MSCs and AAM on mast cells of random skin flaps (RSF) in rats. Methods: RSFs (80 × 30 mm) were created on 40 rats that were randomly assigned to one of four groups, including (I) AAM, (II) BM-MSCs, (III) BM-MSCs/AAM, and (IV) saline (control)...
March 6, 2018: Iranian Biomedical Journal
Michael Creane, Mary Mc Elroy, Aoife Duffy, Chaansha Shaik Dawood, Timothy O'Brien
Critical limb ischemia (CLI) represents the severest manifestation of peripheral arterial disease and is a major unmet medical need. This disease occurs when the arterial blood supply within the limb fails to meet the metabolic demands of the resting muscle or tissue, resulting in chronic ischemic rest pain and/or tissue necrosis. Human mesenchymal stromal cells, termed hMSCs, represent an exciting therapeutic modality for the treatment of this disease due to their immunomodulatory and tissue reparative functions...
January 1, 2018: Toxicologic Pathology
Yuanmin Li, Jingping Liu, Guangneng Liao, Jie Zhang, Younan Chen, Lan Li, Li Li, Fang Liu, Bo Chen, Gang Guo, Chengshi Wang, Lichuan Yang, Jingqiu Cheng, Yangrong Lu
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major complication of diabetes and represents the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) treatment has been demonstrated to be effective in DN models by reducing albuminuria and attenuating glomerular injury; however, limited in-depth understanding of the underlying mechanism and a lack of clinical trials hinders its clinical use. Additionally, most of these experimental studies were conducted on the advanced stage of nephropathy, which is difficult to reverse and consequently showed limited therapeutic efficacy...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Brian James Francica, Ali Ghasemzadeh, Anthony L Desbien, Debebe Theodros, Kelsey E Sivick, Gabrielle L Reiner, Laura Hix Glickman, Ariel E Marciscano, Andrew B Sharabi, Meredith L Leong, Sarah M McWhirter, Thomas W Dubensky, Drew M Pardoll, Charles G Drake
The cGAS-STING cytosolic DNA sensing pathway may play an integral role in the initiation of antitumor immune responses. Studies evaluating the immunogenicity of various cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) STING agonists administered by intratumoral (IT) injection showed potent induction of inflammation, tumor necrosis, and in some cases, durable tumor-specific adaptive immunity. However, the specific immune mechanisms underlying these responses remain incompletely defined. The majority of these studies have focused on the effect of CDNs on immune cells but have not conclusively interrogated the role of stromal cells in the acute rejection of the CDN-injected tumor...
February 22, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
Seung-Bin Lee, Ji-Sun Shin, Hee-Soo Han, Hwi-Ho Lee, Jong Cheol Park, Kyung-Tae Lee
Kaempferol 7-O-β-D-glucoside (KPG), a natural flavonol isolated from Cudrania tricuspidata, has been reported to exert anti-cancer effects; however, its anti-inflammatory effects have not yet been reported. In this study, we demonstrate the suppressive effect of KPG on the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages...
February 19, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Seong Jun Kim, Wan-Kyu Ko, Min-Jae Jo, Yoshie Arai, Hyemin Choi, Hemant Kumar, In-Bo Han, Seil Sohn
This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. We induced an inflammatory process in RAW 264.7 macrophages, BV2 microglial cells, and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The anti-inflammatory effects of TUDCA on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, BV2 microglial cells, and BMMs were analyzed using nitric oxide (NO) assays, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCR), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA)...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mei Chen, Jiawu Zhao, Imran H A Ali, Stephen Marry, Josy Augustine, Mohajeet Bhuckory, Aisling Lynch, Adrien Kissenpfennig, Heping Xu
The suppressor of cytokine signaling protein 3 (SOCS3) critically controls immune cell activation, although its role in macrophage polarization and function remains controversial. Using experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) as a model, we show that inflammation-mediated retinal degeneration is exaggerated and retinal angiogenesis is accelerated in mice with SOCS3 deficiency in myeloid cells (LysMCre/+ SOCS3fl/fl ). At the acute stage of EAU, the population of infiltrating neutrophils was increased and the population of macrophages decreased in LysMCre/+ SOCS3fl/fl mice compared with that in wild-type (WT) mice...
February 13, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Xiao-Bing Cui, Jun-Na Luan, Kun Dong, Sisi Chen, Yongyi Wang, Wendy T Watford, Shi-You Chen
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the role and underlying mechanisms of RGC-32 (response gene to complement 32 protein) in atherogenesis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: RGC-32 was mainly expressed in endothelial cells of atherosclerotic lesions in both ApoE -/- (apolipoprotein E deficient) mice and human patients. RGC-32 deficiency (Rgc32 -/- ) attenuated the high-fat diet-induced and spontaneously developed atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE -/- mice without affecting serum cholesterol concentration...
February 15, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Nanshan Song, Yinquan Fang, Xiyang Sun, Qingling Jiang, Chenghuan Song, Miaomiao Chen, Jianhua Ding, Ming Lu, Gang Hu
β2-aderenergic receptor (β2AR) agonist, Salmeterol exhibits anti-inflammatory activities. However, the inhibitory effects of Salmeterol on inflammasome activation are elusive and the underlying mechanisms need to be explored. In this study, we established inflammatory model in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from C57BL/6J mice and β-arrestin2 knockout (β-arrestin2 -/- ) mice in vitro. In vivo study by LPS intraperitoneally (i.p.) in C57BL/6J mice was carried out to ascertain its roles in systemic inflammation...
February 12, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Shichao Tong, Jimin Yin, Ji Liu
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is autologous and multifunctional. Platelet concentrate from blood contains highly concentrated platelets and various types of cells, including growth factors. PRP promotes the recovery of cell proliferation and differentiation. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a disease caused by femoral head damage or an insufficient blood supply, which leads to the death of bone cells and abnormal bone marrow composition. The subsequent repair of bone cells may result in changes to the structure of femoral head, femoral head collapse and joint dysfunction...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Lu Zhang, Ying Li, Chun-Yi Guan, Shi Tian, Xiao-Dan Lv, Jian-Hui Li, Xu Ma, Hong-Fei Xia
BACKGROUND: Repair deficiency after endometrial injury is an important reason for intra-uterine adhesions, amenorrhea, and infertility in females. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation is effective in repairing the damaged endometrium. However, the possibility of using umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) to treat endometrial injury is rarely reported. METHODS: Ethanol (95%) was injected into rat uterus to establish a model of endometrial injury...
February 13, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Kotaro Haruhara, Hiromichi Wakui, Kengo Azushima, Daisuke Kurotaki, Wataru Kawase, Kazushi Uneda, Sona Haku, Ryu Kobayashi, Kohji Ohki, Sho Kinguchi, Masato Ohsawa, Shintaro Minegishi, Tomoaki Ishigami, Miyuki Matsuda, Akio Yamashita, Hideaki Nakajima, Tomohiko Tamura, Nobuo Tsuboi, Takashi Yokoo, Kouichi Tamura
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The components of the renin-angiotensin system in leukocytes is involved in the pathophysiology of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including hypertension, atherosclerosis and chronic kidney disease. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R)-associated protein (ATRAP) is an AT1R-specific binding protein, and is able to inhibit the pathological activation of AT1R signaling in certain animal models of NCDs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and regulation of ATRAP in leukocytes...
January 12, 2018: Atherosclerosis
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