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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691913/thiazoloisoindigo-a-building-block-that-merges-the-merits-of-thienoisoindigo-and-diazaisoindigo-for-conjugated-polymers
#1
Xiaobo Wan, Chenchen Li, Xiao Wang, Un Hio-Ieng, Jiawei Peng, Zhenggang Lan, Mian Cai, Jian Pei, Jieyu Wang
Thiazoloisoindigo, a novel structural variation of isoindigo, is for the first time utilized to synthesize conjugated polymers. Polymer based on thiazoloisoindigo merges the advantages of the one based on thienoisoindigo and diazaisoindigo: It not only exhibits a greatly red shifted UV-vis absorption to the near-infrared region due to its strong tendency to form quinoidal structures, similar to that based on thienoisoindigo, but also shows excellent ambipolar mobility (hole 3.93 and electron 1.07 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively) in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), superior than that based on diazaisoindigo, showing the strong electron-withdrawing capability of thiazoloisoindigo...
April 24, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691835/rufinamide-add-on-therapy-for-refractory-epilepsy
#2
REVIEW
Mariangela Panebianco, Hemanshu Prabhakar, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a central nervous system disorder (neurological disorder). Epileptic seizures are the result of excessive and abnormal cortical nerve cell electrical activity in the brain. Despite the development of more than 10 new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) since the early 2000s, approximately a third of people with epilepsy remain resistant to pharmacotherapy, often requiring treatment with a combination of AEDs. In this review, we summarised the current evidence regarding rufinamide, a novel anticonvulsant medication, which, as a triazole derivative, is structurally unrelated to any other currently used anticonvulsant medication, when used as an add-on treatment for refractory epilepsy...
April 25, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691546/darzens-reaction-of-thioisatins-and-sulfonium-salts-approach-to-the-synthesis-of-thiochromenone-derivatives-with-anticancer-potency
#3
Jinhui Shen, Yang Yang, Xiaoli Hou, Wenlei Zeng, Aimin Yu, Xiaowei Zhao, Xiangtai Meng
A new Darzens reaction of thioisatins and sulfonium salts has, for the first time, been reported. This reaction allows efficient access to thiochromenone derivatives in good to excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. The substrate scope includes both electron-withdrawing and electron-donating groups on both the thioisatins and sulfonium salts. Moreover, some of the synthesized thiochromenone derivatives have been found to show potent anticancer activities against six different cancer cell lines using the methylthiazoltetrazolium (MTT) assay...
April 25, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690955/analgesic-efficacy-and-safety-of-buprenorphine-in-chinchillas-chinchilla-lanigera
#4
Lana Fox, Christoph Mans
Buprenorphine is routinely used in chinchillas at reported doses of 0.01 to 0.1 mg/kg IM or SC. However, these dose recommendations are based on anecdotal reports or extrapolation from studies in other species. Therefore, the purpose of thisstudy was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and safety of subcutaneously administered buprenorphine in chinchillas. Using arandomized, blind, controlled, complete crossover design, we evaluated buprenorphine at a single dose of 0.05, 0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg SC (experiment A) and 0...
April 24, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690724/-the-effect-of-berberine-on-ameliorating-chronic-inflammatory-pain-and-depression
#5
F Xu, J Yang, B Meng, J W Zheng, Q Liao, J P Chen, X W Chen
Objective: To explore the effect of berberine on chronic inflammatory pain and the comorbid depression and the associated mechanisms. Methods: Forty healthy male ICR mice (2 months, 25-30 g) were used in the present study. The chronic inflammatory pain was induced by intraplantar injection of complete freund's adjuvant (CFA) to the hind paws. All animals were divided into 4 groups ( n =10 for each group) according to random number table: the saline group (group A), the chronic pain group (group B), the saline+ berberine group (group C) and the chronic pain+ berberine group (group D)...
April 10, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690558/abuse-of-prescription-drugs-in-the-context-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-nps-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Fabrizio Schifano, Stefania Chiappini, John M Corkery, Amira Guirguis
Recently, a range of prescription and over-the-counter drugs have been reportedly used as Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS), due to their potential for abuse resulting from their high dosage/idiosyncratic methods of self-administration. This paper provides a systematic review of the topic, focusing on a range of medications which have emerged as being used recreationally, either on their own or in combination with NPS. Among gabapentinoids, pregabalin may present with higher addictive liability levels than gabapentin, with pregabalin being mostly identified in the context of opioid, polydrug intake...
April 22, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689601/asymmetric-reductive-carbocyclization-using-engineered-ene-reductases
#7
Rolf Breinbauer, Kathrin Heckenbichler, Anna Katharina Schweiger, Lea Alexandra Brandner, Alexandra Binter, Marina Toplak, Peter Macheroux, Karl Gruber
Ene reductases from the Old Yellow Enzyme (OYE) family reduce the carbon-carbon double bond in alpha,beta-unsaturated compounds bearing an electron withdrawing group, e.g. a carbonyl group. This asymmetric reduction has been exploited for biocatalysis. Going beyond its canonical function, we could show that members of this enzyme family can also catalyze the formation of C-C bonds. alpha,beta-Unsaturated aldehydes and ketones containing an additional electrophilic group undergo a reductive cyclization. Mechanistically, the two-electron reduced enzyme cofactor FMN delivers a hydride generating an enolate intermediate, which reacts with the internal electrophile...
April 24, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689485/the-effect-of-high-dose-dronabinol-oral-thc-maintenance-on-cannabis-self-administration
#8
Nicolas J Schlienz, Dustin C Lee, Maxine L Stitzer, Ryan Vandrey
BACKGROUND: There is a clear need for advancing the treatment of cannabis use disorders. Prior research has demonstrated that dronabinol (oral THC) can dose-dependently suppress cannabis withdrawal and reduce the acute effects of smoked cannabis. The present study was conducted to evaluate whether high-dose dronabinol could reduce cannabis self-administration among daily users. METHODS: Non-treatment seeking daily cannabis users (N = 13) completed a residential within-subjects crossover study and were administered placebo, low-dose dronabinol (120 mg/day; 40 mg tid), or high-dose dronabinol (180-240 mg/day; 60-80 mg tid) for 12 consecutive days (order counterbalanced)...
April 17, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689295/behavioral-and-biochemical-effects-of-ethanol-withdrawal-in-zebrafish
#9
Suianny Nayara da Silva Chaves, Gabriel Felício Rocha, Bruna Patrícia Dutra Costa, Witallo Etevaldo Araújo de Oliveira, Monica Gomes Lima, Diógenes Henrique de Siqueira Silva, Caio Maximino
Chronic alcohol use induces adaptations and toxicity that can induce symptoms of anxiety, autonomic hyperarousal, and epileptic seizures when alcohol is removed (withdrawal syndrome). Zebrafish has recently gained wide attention as a behavioral model to study the neurobehavioral effects of acute and chronic alcohol use, including withdrawal. The literature, however, is very contradictory on findings regarding withdrawal effects, with some studies reporting increased anxiety, while others report no effect. A meta-analytic approach was taken to find the sources of this heterogeneity, and ethanol concentration during exposure and exposure duration were found to be the main sources of variation...
April 21, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689164/charge-transfer-and-%C3%AF-to-%C3%AF-transitions-in-the-visible-spectra-of-sulfheme-met-isomeric-structures
#10
Hėctor D Arbelo-López, Angel D Rodriguez-Mackenzie, Elddie M Roman-Morales, Troy Wymore, Juan López-Garriga
Since the 1863 discovery of a new green hemoglobin derivative called "sulfhemoglobin", the nature of the characteristic 618 nm absorption band has been the subject of several hypotheses. The experimental spectra are a function of the observation time and interplay between two major sulfheme isomer concentrations (a three- and five-membered ring adduct); the latter being the dominant isomer at longer times. Thus, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) was used to calculate the sulfheme excited states and visualize the highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs) and lowest unoccupied MOs (LUMOs) of both isomers in order to interpret the transitions between them...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688926/difficult-removal-of-a-nasogastric-tube-because-of-knot-formation-around-a-nasotracheal-tube-a-case-report
#11
Sayumi Abe, Yoshimune Osaka, Yoshihisa Morita
Knotting of a nasogastric (NG) tube around a left nasotracheal tube occurred in the pharynx during its blind insertion via the right nares. Unusual resistance was encountered during its advancement and attempted withdrawal. The nasotracheal tube moved in tandem with the NG tube. The NG tube was cut and the lower portion removed via the mouth and the upper portion removed via the right nares.
April 23, 2018: A&A practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688783/effect-of-age-on-the-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-flunixin-meglumine-following-intravenous-and-transdermal-administration-to-holstein-calves
#12
Michael D Kleinhenz, Nicholas K Van Engen, Patrick J Gorden, Joe S Smith, Butch KuKanich, Suzanne M Rajewski, Philip Walsh, Steven Perkins, Johann F Coetzee
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of age on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of flunixin meglumine following IV and transdermal administration to calves. ANIMALS 8 healthy weaned Holstein bull calves. PROCEDURES At 2 months of age, all calves received an injectable solution of flunixin (2.2 mg/kg, IV); then, after a 10-day washout period, calves received a topical formulation of flunixin (3.33 mg/kg, transdermally). Blood samples were collected at predetermined times before and for 48 and 72 hours, respectively, after IV and transdermal administration...
May 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688754/aripiprazole-for-irritability-in-asian-children-and-adolescents-with-autistic-disorder-a-12-week-multinational-multicenter-prospective-open-label-study
#13
Hyo-Won Kim, Eun-Jin Park, Ji-Hoon Kim, Vitharon Boon-Yasidhi, Jariya Tarugsa, Alexis Reyes, Stella Manalo, Yoo-Sook Joung
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effectiveness and tolerability of aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability in Asian children and adolescents (6-17 years) with autistic disorder in a 12-week, multinational, multicenter, open-label study. METHODS: Sixty-seven subjects (10.0 ± 3.1 years old, 52 boys) were enrolled and treated with flexibly dosed aripiprazole for 12 weeks (mean dose, 5.1 ± 2.5 mg; range 2-15 mg). RESULTS: Aripiprazole significantly reduced the mean caregiver-rated scores for the Irritability, Lethargy/Social Withdrawal, Stereotypy, Hyperactivity, and Inappropriate Speech subscales of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist from baseline to week 12 (p < 0...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688689/strong-lewis-base-ga4b2o9-ga-o-connectivity-enhanced-basicity-and-its-applications-in-the-strecker-reaction-and-catalytic-conversion-of-n-propanol
#14
Shixiang Hu, Weilu Wang, Mufei Yue, Guangjia Wang, Wenliang Gao, Rihong Cong, Tao Yang
Heterogeneous solid base catalysis is valuable and promising in chemical industry, however is insufficiently developed compared to solid acid catalysis, due to the lack of satisfied solid base catalysts. To gain the strong basicity, the previous strategy was to basify oxides with alkaline metals to create surficial vacancies or defects, which suffers from the instability under catalytic conditions. Mono-component basic oxides like MgO are literally stable but deficient in electron-withdrawing ability. Here we prove a special connectivity of atoms could enhance the Lewis basicity of oxygen in mono-component solids exemplified by Ga4B2O9...
April 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688573/antidepressants-for-the-treatment-of-people-with-co-occurring-depression-and-alcohol-dependence
#15
REVIEW
Roberta Agabio, Emanuela Trogu, Pier Paolo Pani
BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence is a major public health problem characterized by recidivism, and medical and psychosocial complications. The co-occurrence of major depression in people entering treatment for alcohol dependence is common, and represents a risk factor for morbidity and mortality, which negatively influences treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and risks of antidepressants for the treatment of people with co-occurring depression and alcohol dependence...
April 24, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688184/-psychotropic-drugs-in-pregnancy
#16
Zsuzsa Valasinyovszki, Alexander Kancsev
According to the statistics, there is an increased number of pregnant women taking psychotropic medication. For each clinical decision, or change in therapy that affect women of reproductive age, one has to consider the available information on the reproductive safety of psychiatric drugs. Due to ethical considerations, there are no randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, hence no unequivocal evidence addressing this topic. When used during pregnancy, there might be potential adverse effects of psychotropic drugs in regards to the following: teratogenicity, pregnancy outcome, obstetrical complications, neonatal toxicity and withdrawal syndrome, breastfeeding, and the offspring's long-term intellectual, behavioral, emotional development...
2018: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687895/affective-disturbances-during-withdrawal-from-chronic-intermittent-ethanol-inhalation-in-c57bl-6j-and-dba-2j-male-mice
#17
Harpreet Sidhu, Max Kreifeldt, Candice Contet
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are characterized by a complex behavioral symptomatology, which includes the loss of control over alcohol consumption and the emergence of a negative affective state when alcohol is not consumed. Some of these symptoms can be recapitulated in rodent models, for instance following chronic intermittent exposure to ethanol vapor inhalation (CIE). However, the detection of negative affect in mice withdrawn from CIE has proven challenging and variable between strains...
April 24, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687878/anthracycline-and-trastuzumab-induced-cardiotoxicity-in-breast-cancer
#18
M A Nicolazzi, A Carnicelli, M Fuorlo, A Scaldaferri, R Masetti, R Landolfi, A M R Favuzzi
OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. In the last twenty years early diagnosis, neoadjuvant and adjuvant systemic treatment that targeted to specific molecular targets have significantly reduced the mortality from breast cancer. However, the increase in survival has allowed to observe the cardiotoxic effects of anticancer therapy and increased mortality from cardiovascular causes, resulting in a large literature where experts try to identify the correct management of this critical problem...
April 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687342/predictors-of-preoperative-program-non-completion-in-adolescents-referred-for-bariatric-surgery
#19
Cassie Brode, Megan Ratcliff, Jennifer Reiter-Purtill, Sanita Hunsaker, Michael Helmrath, Meg Zeller
BACKGROUND: Factors contributing to adolescents' non-completion of bariatric surgery, defined as self-withdrawal during the preoperative phase of care, independent of program or insurance denial, are largely unknown. Recent adolescent and adult bariatric surgery literature indicate that psychological factors and treatment withdrawal play a role; however, for adolescents, additional age-salient (family/caregiver) variables might also influence progression to surgery. OBJECTIVES: The present study examined demographic, psychological, and family/caregiver variables as predictors of whether adolescents completed surgery ("completers") or withdrew from treatment ("non-completers")...
April 23, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687219/attempting-to-stop-antipsychotic-medication-success-supports-and-efforts-to-cope
#20
Miriam Larsen-Barr, Fred Seymour, John Read, Kerry Gibson
PURPOSE: To explore supports and coping strategies used during attempts to discontinue antipsychotic medication and test for associations with success. METHOD: 144 people who were taking or had taken antipsychotics completed The Experiences of Antipsychotic Medication Survey. Among them, 105 people had made at least one discontinuation attempt and answered a series of questions about their most recent attempt to stop. Content analysis and Chi-square tests of independence were used to categorise the data and explore associations...
April 23, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
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