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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929212/pharmacological-therapies-for-management-of-opium-withdrawal
#1
REVIEW
Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Jaleh Gholami, Laura Amato, Leila Hoseinie, Reza Yousefi-Nooraie, Masoumeh Amin-Esmaeili
BACKGROUND: Pharmacologic therapies for management of heroin withdrawal have been studied and reviewed widely. Opium dependence is generally associated with less severe dependence and milder withdrawal symptoms than heroin. The evidence on withdrawal management of heroin might therefore not be exactly applicable for opium. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of various pharmacologic therapies for the management of the acute phase of opium withdrawal...
June 21, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929201/sonidegib-a-novel-inhibitor-of-suicidal-erythrocyte-death
#2
Abdulla Al Mamun Bhuyan, Itishri Sahu, Hang Cao, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The Hedgehog pathway disrupting drug sonidegib is used in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. Side effects of sonidegib include anemia, which could result either from impaired erythropoiesis or from loss of erythrocytes e.g. due to suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the cell surface and by cell shrinkage. Eryptosis is stimulated by cell stress, including energy depletion, hyperosmotic shock, oxidative stress and excessive increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i)...
June 19, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928886/chronic-sleep-restriction-increases-pain-sensitivity-over-time-in-a-periaqueductal-gray-and-nucleus-accumbens-dependent-manner
#3
Natalia Fantin Sardi, Mayla Ketlyn Lazzarim, Vinicius Augusto Guilhen, Renata Scuzziatto Marcílio, Priscila Shizue Natume, Thainá Caldeiras Watanabe, Marcelo de Meira Santos Lima, Glaucia Tobaldini, Luana Fischer
Painful conditions and sleep disturbances are major public health problems worldwide and one directly affects the other. Sleep loss increases pain prevalence and severity; while pain disturbs sleep. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we asked whether chronic sleep restriction for 6 h daily progressively increases pain sensitivity and if this increase is reversed after two days of free sleep. Also, whether the pronociceptive effect of chronic sleep restriction depends on the periaqueductal grey and on the nucleus accumbens, two key regions involved in the modulation of pain and sleep-wake cycle...
June 18, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928594/speech-on-speech-masking-and-psychotic-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#4
Chao Wu, Chuanyue Wang, Liang Li
People with schizophrenia have impairments of target-speech recognition (TSR) in noisy environments with multiple people talking. This study investigated whether the TSR impairment in schizophrenia is associated with their impaired auditory working memory or certain psychotic symptoms. Thirty participants with schizophrenia (mean age = 35.2 ± 12.7 years) and 30 demographics-matched healthy controls (mean age = 32.9 ± 10.9 years) were tested for their TSR against a two-talker-speech masker...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928514/direct-withdrawal-of-a-knife-in-the-lumbar-spinal-canal-in-a-patient-without-neurological-deficit-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Francisco Ismael Villarreal-García, Pedro Martin Reyes-Fernández, Oscar Armando Martínez-Gutiérrez, Víctor Manuel Peña-Martínez, Rodolfo Morales-Ávalos
Introduction: Stab-wound injuries to the spinal cord are rare and currently, do not have a well-established management in the literature despite its strong association with neurological injury. Case presentation: We report a case of a patient with a stab-wound injury with a knife in the lumbar region, who underwent direct removal in the operating room without surgical exploration. Upon admission, the patient had no neurological deficit. The X-rays and CT scan before removal showed the involvement of >50% of the intramedullary canal at L2...
2018: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928263/prolactin-producing-pituitary-carcinoma-hypopituitarism-and-graves-disease-report-of-a-challenging-case-and-literature-review
#6
Rita Bettencourt-Silva, Josué Pereira, Sandra Belo, Daniela Magalhães, Joana Queirós, Davide Carvalho
Introduction: The diagnosis of pituitary carcinoma is very rare, requires the evidence of metastatic disease, and has a poor overall survival. Malignant prolactinoma frequently requires dopamine agonist therapy, pituitary surgery, radiotherapy, and even chemotherapy. Case description: A 19-year-old female presented with galactorrhea, primary amenorrhea, and left hemianopsia. Complementary study detected hyperprolactinemia and a pituitary macroadenoma with cavernous sinus invasion and suprasellar growth...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928230/can-electronic-health-records-databases-complement-spontaneous-reporting-system-databases-a-historical-reconstruction-of-the-association-of-rofecoxib-and-acute-myocardial-infarction
#7
Vaishali K Patadia, Martijn J Schuemie, Preciosa M Coloma, Ron Herings, Johan van der Lei, Miriam Sturkenboom, Gianluca Trifirò
Background: Several initiatives have assessed if mining electronic health records (EHRs) may accelerate the process of drug safety signal detection. In Europe, Exploring and Understanding Adverse Drug Reactions (EU-ADR) Project Focused on utilizing clinical data from EHRs of over 30 million patients from several European countries. Rofecoxib is a prescription COX-2 selective Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAID) approved in 1999. In September 2004, the manufacturer withdrew rofecoxib from the market because of safety concerns...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927798/influence-of-serotonin-transporter-slc6a4-genotype-on-the-effect-of-psychosocial-stress-on-cognitive-performance-an-exploratory-pilot-study
#8
David Q Beversdorf, Allen L Carpenter, Jessica K Alexander, Neil T Jenkins, Michael R Tilley, Catherine A White, Ashleigh J Hillier, Ryan M Smith, Howard H Gu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Previous research has shown an effect of various psychosocial stressors on unconstrained cognitive flexibility, such as searching through a large set of potential solutions in the lexical-semantic network during verbal problem-solving. Functional magnetic resonance imaging has shown that the presence of the short (S) allele (lacking a 43-base pair repeat) of the promoter region of the gene (SLC6A4) encoding the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) protein is associated with a greater amygdalar response to emotional stimuli and a greater response to stressors...
June 2018: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927306/it-hurts-me-too-examining-the-relationship-between-male-gender-harassment-and-observers-well-being-attitudes-and-behaviors
#9
Angela M Dionisi, Julian Barling
The goal of this study was to examine the costs associated with witnessing the sexual harassment of a male colleague. More specifically, we investigate (a) whether observed male gender harassment is related to psychological and physical health, and negative and positive job-related behaviors and attitudes, and (b) the mediating roles of discrete negative emotions (anger, fear) and identity-based evaluations (collective self-esteem). We explore these questions in a sample of men and women employed in "blue collar" professions...
July 2018: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927289/the-impact-of-marital-withdrawal-and-secure-base-script-knowledge-on-mothers-and-fathers-parenting
#10
Jill M Trumbell, Leah C Hibel, Evelyn Mercado, Germán Posada
The current study examines associations between marital conflict and negative parenting behaviors among fathers and mothers, and the extent to which internal working models (IWMs) of attachment relationships may serve as sources of risk or resilience during family interactions. The sample consisted of 115 families (mothers, fathers, and their 6-month-old infants) who participated in a controlled experiment. Couples were randomly assigned to engage in either a conflict or positive marital discussion, followed by parent-infant freeplay sessions and assessment of parental IWMs of attachment (i...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927283/perceived-regard-expressive-suppression-during-conflict-and-conflict-resolution
#11
Rebecca A Thomson, Nickola C Overall, Linda D Cameron, Rachel S T Low
The way emotions are expressed during relationship conflict should play an important role in facilitating conflict resolution, but the risk of rejection that conflict poses may promote expressive suppression, which could impede conflict resolution. In the current research, the authors applied a risk regulation perspective to understand when expressive suppression will occur during conflict. They predicted that (a) perceiving lower regard from the partner during conflict would predict greater expressive suppression, and (b) greater expressive suppression would undermine conflict resolution...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927280/investigating-the-dimensional-diagnosis-of-icd-11-nicotine-dependence
#12
João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia, Silvia S Martins, Carla L Storr, Maria C Viana, Laura H Andrade, Arthur G Andrade
We investigated the dimensionality and possible measurement bias of ICD-11 Nicotine Dependence (ND) criteria in a sample of smokers from a middle-income country. Data are from the São Paulo Megacity Project (part of World Mental Health Surveys) collected between 2005 and 2007 (n = 5,037). The current analyses were restricted to the 1,388 participants who smoked at least once a week for 2 months in their lifetime. Item response theory (IRT) was used to investigate the severity and discrimination properties of 8 selected criteria...
June 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927263/the-moderating-role-of-peer-norms-in-the-associations-of-social-withdrawal-and-aggression-with-peer-victimization
#13
Fanny-Alexandra Guimond, Mara Brendgen, Stephanie Correia, Lyse Turgeon, Frank Vitaro
This study examined the moderating role of classroom injunctive norms salience regarding social withdrawal and regarding aggression in the longitudinal association between these behaviors and peer victimization. A total of 1,769 fourth through sixth graders (895 girls, M = 10.25 years, SD = 1.03) from 23 schools (67 classrooms) completed a peer nomination inventory in the fall (T1) and spring (T2) of the same academic year. Participants circled the name of each student who fit the description provided for social withdrawal, aggression, and peer victimization at T1 and T2...
June 21, 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926525/development-and-validation-of-the-25-item-hikikomori-questionnaire-hq-25
#14
Alan R Teo, Jason I Chen, Hiroaki Kubo, Ryoko Katsuki, Mina Sato-Kasai, Norihiro Shimokawa, Kohei Hayakawa, Wakako Umene-Nakano, James E Aikens, Shigenobu Kanba, Takahiro A Kato
AIM: Hikikomori, a form of severe social withdrawal, is an emerging issue in mental health, for which validated measurement tools are lacking. The object was to develop a self-report scale of hikikomori, and assess its psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy. METHODS: A sample of 399 participants from clinical and community settings completed measures. Psychometric properties were assessed with factor analysis; diagnostic accuracy was compared against a semi-structured diagnostic interview...
June 21, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926064/-roles-of-cx3cr1-in-mediation-of-post-incision-induced-mechanical-pain-hypersensitivity-effects-of-acupuncture-combined-anesthesia
#15
Chao Li, Wei Mao, Yun-Ke Huang, Zhi-Qi Zhao, Ning Lyu
Post-incision pain often occurs after surgery and is emergent to be treated in clinic. It hinders the rehabilitation of patients and easily leads to various types of postoperative complications. Acupuncture-combined anesthesia (ACA) is the combination of traditional acupuncture and modern anesthesia, which means acupuncture is applied at acupoints with general anesthesia. It was testified that ACA strengthened the analgesic effect and reduced the occurrence of postoperative pain, but its mechanism was not clear...
June 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925547/outcome-after-seizure-recurrence-on-antiepileptic-drug-withdrawal-following-temporal-lobectomy
#16
Chaturbhuj Rathore, Malcolm K Jeyaraj, Gopal K Dash, Pandurang Wattamwar, Neeraj Baheti, Sankara P Sarma, Kurupath Radhakrishnan
OBJECTIVE: To study the long-term outcome following seizure recurrence on antiepileptic drug (AED) withdrawal after anterior temporal lobectomy for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. METHODS: We retrospectively studied the AED profile of patients who had a minimum of 5 years of postoperative follow-up after anterior temporal lobectomy for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Only those patients with hippocampal sclerosis or normal MRI were included. AED withdrawal was initiated at 3 months in patients on ≥2 drugs and at 1 year for patients on a single drug...
June 20, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925305/genetic-and-maternal-predictors-of-cognitive-and-behavioral-trajectories-in-females-with-fragile-x-syndrome
#17
Laura Del Hoyo Soriano, Angela John Thurman, Danielle Jenine Harvey, W Ted Brown, Leonard Abbeduto
BACKGROUND: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a mutation in the FMR1 gene on the X chromosome, leading to decreased levels of FMR1 protein (FMRP), which causes the array of neuropsychological impairments that define FXS. Because FXS is an X-linked condition, fewer females display FXS and females with FXS are more mildly affected than males, on average. However, there is a considerable variability in terms of severity of affectedness among females with FXS. The current study was designed to investigate potential genetic (FMRP level and ratio of affected to total chromosomes) and environmental factors (maternal psychological distress and closeness in the mother-child relationship) influencing the cognitive (fluid and crystallized intelligence) and behavioral (anxiety and withdrawal) phenotype of females with FXS...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925291/the-safety-and-utility-of-phenobarbital-use-for-the-treatment-of-severe-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-in-the-medical-intensive-care-unit
#18
Margarita Oks, Krystal L Cleven, Lauren Healy, Mabel Wei, Mangala Narasimhan, Paul H Mayo, Nina Kohn, Seth Koenig
BACKGROUND: Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a common reason for admission to a medical intensive care unit (MICU) and requires significant hospital resource utilization. Benzodiazepines are first-line therapy for AWS in many intensive care units. We propose the use of symptom-triggered phenobarbital for the treatment of AWS as a safe alternative to benzodiazepines. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study of a 4-year period, 2011 to 2015, of all patients with AWS admitted to the MICU of 1 tertiary care hospital and treated with phenobarbital...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925086/participant-perspectives-of-a-6-month-telephone-based-lifestyle-coaching-program
#19
Bronwyn McGill, Blythe J O'Hara, Philayrath Phongsavan
Objectives and importance of study: Low program completion rates can undermine the public health impact of even the most effective program. Participant experiences with lifestyle programs are not well reported, but are important for program improvement and retention. The purpose of this study was to understand participant perceptions of the Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service (GHS), a 6-month telephone-based health coaching program to promote lifestyle change. We were particularly interested in participants' initial expectations, their actual experience and, for those who did not complete the program, what influenced their withdrawal...
June 14, 2018: Public Health Research & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924507/relapse-after-antipsychotic-discontinuation-in-schizophrenia-as-a-withdrawal-phenomenon-vs-illness-recurrence-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-study
#20
Robin Emsley, Isaac Nuamah, Srihari Gopal, David Hough, W Wolfgang Fleischhacker
BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that relapse rates after antipsychotic discontinuation may be artificially inflated and that some of these symptom recurrences may be due to rebound or withdrawal phenomena rather than due to illness recurrence. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of data from a relapse-prevention study (conducted from March 2005 to February 2007) of paliperidone palmitate once-monthly (PP1M) versus placebo was conducted to compare the nature of operationally defined relapse events in schizophrenia patients (diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria) experiencing relapses after randomization to placebo (n = 97) with those in patients receiving maintenance PP1M treatment (n = 36)...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
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