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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637045/effects-of-injection-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-agonists-into-the-nucleus-accumbens-on-naloxone-induced-morphine-withdrawal
#1
Betilay Topkara, Hasan R Yananli, Eren Sakallı, Mehluge Caferova
AIMS: This study was to investigate the effects of local administration of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists into the nucleus accumbens (NAc) on naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal symptoms. METHODS: Bilateral guide cannulas were stereotaxically implanted in the shell or core regions of the NAc of Sprague-Dawley rats. After a recovery period, 3 morphine pellets, each consisting of 75 mg morphine base, were placed subcutaneously on the first and third days of the study with the rats under mild ether anaesthesia...
June 22, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636984/whether-low-dose-metronomic-oral-cyclophosphamide-improves-the-response-to-docetaxel-in-first-line-treatment-of-non-triple-negative-metastatic-breast-cancer
#2
Jian Zhang, Leiping Wang, Zhonghua Wang, Biyun Wang, Jun Cao, Fangfang Lv, Sheng Zhang, Zhimin Shao, Xichun Hu
Oral metronomic chemotherapy may target tumor cells indirectly via antiangiogenic activity, restoration of anticancer immune response, or induction of tumor dormancy. We initiated the single-center, randomized, open-label, phase II study to determine whether the addition of metronomic cyclophosphamide to docetaxel (T) (w/o trastuzumab) improves overall response rate (ORR) as first-line treatment among patients with non-triple-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Eligible patients with previously untreated non-triple-negative MBC were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 3-weekly cycles of Metro-TC (T 75mg/m2, d1 plus oral cyclophosphamide 50 mg daily) or T alone...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636204/aerobic-exercise-training-for-adults-with-fibromyalgia
#3
REVIEW
Julia Bidonde, Angela J Busch, Candice L Schachter, Tom J Overend, Soo Y Kim, Suelen M Góes, Catherine Boden, Heather Ja Foulds
BACKGROUND: Exercise training is commonly recommended for individuals with fibromyalgia. This review is one of a series of reviews about exercise training for people with fibromyalgia that will replace the "Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome" review first published in 2002. OBJECTIVES: • To evaluate the benefits and harms of aerobic exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia• To assess the following specific comparisons ० Aerobic versus control conditions (eg, treatment as usual, wait list control, physical activity as usual) ० Aerobic versus aerobic interventions (eg, running vs brisk walking) ० Aerobic versus non-exercise interventions (eg, medications, education) We did not assess specific comparisons involving aerobic exercise versus other exercise interventions (eg, resistance exercise, aquatic exercise, flexibility exercise, mixed exercise)...
June 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636152/dynamics-and-origin-of-cytokinins-involved-in-plant-manipulation-by-a-leaf-mining-insect
#4
Hui Zhang, Antoine Guiguet, Géraldine Dubreuil, Anna Kisiala, Peter Andreas, R J Neil Emery, Elisabeth Huguet, Mélanie Body, David Giron
Several herbivorous insects and plant-associated microorganisms control the phytohormonal balance, thus enabling them to successfully exploit the plant by inhibiting plant defences and withdrawing plant resources for their own benefit. The leaf-mining moth Phyllonorycter blancardella modifies the cytokinin (CK) profile of mined leaf-tissues, and the insect symbiotic bacteria Wolbachia is involved in the plant manipulation to the benefit of the insect host. To gain a deeper understanding into the possible origin and dynamics of CKs, we conducted an extensive characterization of CKs in larvae and in infected apple leaves...
June 21, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635664/adolescent-exposure-to-the-synthetic-cannabinoid-win-55212-2-modifies-cocaine-withdrawal-symptoms-in-adult-mice
#5
María A Aguilar, Juan Carlos Ledesma, Marta Rodríguez-Arias, Carles Penalva, Carmen Manzanedo, José Miñarro, M Carmen Arenas
Chronic cannabinoid consumption is an increasingly common behavior among teenagers and has been shown to cause long-lasting neurobehavioral alterations. Besides, it has been demonstrated that cocaine addiction in adulthood is highly correlated with cannabis abuse during adolescence. Cocaine consumption and subsequent abstinence from it can cause psychiatric symptoms, such as psychosis, cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depression. The aim of the present research was to study the consequences of adolescent exposure to cannabis on the psychiatric-like effects promoted by cocaine withdrawal in adult mice...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635560/sorafenib-in-japanese-patients-with-locally-advanced-or-metastatic-medullary-thyroid-carcinoma-and-anaplastic-thyroid-carcinoma
#6
Yasuhiro Ito, Naoyoshi Onoda, Ken-Ichi Ito, Iwao Sugitani, Shunji Takahashi, Iku Yamaguchi, Koki Kabu, Katsuya Tsukada
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic options for treating advanced or metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) are still limited in Japan even though vandetanib for MTC, and lenvatinib for MTC and ATC have been approved. Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of patients with radioactive iodine-refractory (RAI-R) differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). We conducted an uncontrolled, open-label, multicenter, single-arm, phase 2 clinical study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of sorafenib in Japanese patients with MTC and ATC...
June 21, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635187/the-viologen-cation-radical-pimer-a-case-of-dispersion-driven-bonding
#7
Margarita Geraskina, Andrew S Dutton, Mark Juetten, Samuel Wood, Arthur Winter
Pi bonds between organic radicals have generated recent excitement as an orthogonal interaction for designing self-assembling architectures in water. Here, we provide the first a systematic investigation of the effect of the viologen cation radical structure on the strength and nature of the pimer bond. A striking and unexpected feature of the this pi bond is that the bond strength is unchanged by substitution with electron-donating groups or withdrawing groups or with increased conjugation. Furthermore, the interaction is undiminished by sterically bulky N-alkyl groups...
June 20, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635179/changing-trends-in-opioid-use-among-u-s-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients
#8
Jeffrey R Curtis, Fenglong Xie, Christian Smith, Kenneth G Saag, Lang Chen, Timothy Beukelman, Melissa Mannion, Huifeng Yun, Stefan Kertesz
Introduction Opioid prescribing recently has come under intense scrutiny. However, longitudinal patterns of opioid prescription receipt in a population-based cohort of patients who have chronic pain, such as those with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), have not been well characterized. Methods We identified a cohort of RA patients based on 2006-2014 Medicare data and evaluated longitudinal time trends in regular opioid use (>=3 filled prescriptions in each 12 month interval). A separate analysis in 2014 assessed rheumatologist-specific variability in regular opioid prescription for RA patients...
June 21, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635140/noradrenergic-signaling-in-the-vta-modulates-cocaine-craving
#9
Wojciech Barnaba Solecki, Klaudia Szklarczyk, Kamil Pradel, Krystyna Kwiatkowska, Grzegorz Dobrzański, Ryszard Przewłocki
Exposure to drug-associated cues evokes drug-seeking behavior and is regarded as a major cause of relapse. Conditional stimulus upregulates noradrenaline (NA) system activity, but the drug-seeking behavior depends particularly on phasic dopamine signaling downstream from the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The VTA dopamine-ergic activity is regulated via the signaling of alpha1 -adrenergic and alpha2 -adrenergic receptors (α1 -ARs and α2 -ARs); thus, the impact of the conditional stimulus on drug-seeking behavior might involve NAergic signaling in the VTA...
June 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635134/locomotor-sensitization-is-expressed-by-ghrelin-and-d1-dopamine-receptor-agonist-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-in-amphetamine-pre-exposed-rat
#10
Ju Kyong Jang, Wha Young Kim, Bo Ram Cho, Jung Won Lee, Jeong-Hoon Kim
Ghrelin modulates mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways in the brain in addition to its role in feeding. We investigated what roles ghrelin in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) core may play in mediating locomotor activating effects of amphetamine (AMPH). First, when rats were administered with AMPH (1 mg/kg, i.p.) following a bilateral microinjection of ghrelin (0.1 or 0.5 μg/side) into the NAcc core, their locomotor activity was significantly enhanced, while these effects were blocked by co-microinjection of ghrelin receptor antagonist (0...
June 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634598/previously-unrecognized-behavioral-phenotype-in-gaucher-disease-type-3
#11
Magy Abdelwahab, Michael Potegal, Elsa G Shapiro, Igor Nestrasil
OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive description of abnormal behaviors in patients with Gaucher disease type 3 (GD3) and relate these behaviors to demographic, neurodevelopmental, and neurologic characteristics. METHODS: Thirty-four Egyptian patients with GD3 (mean age of 7.9 years) were enrolled in the study. They were selected based on parent report and/or physician observation of one or more abnormal behaviors documented in 2 settings and by 2 different individuals and/or by video recording...
June 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634406/enhancing-kcc2-function-counteracts-morphine-induced-hyperalgesia
#12
Francesco Ferrini, Louis-Etienne Lorenzo, Antoine G Godin, Miorie Le Quang, Yves De Koninck
Morphine-induced hyperalgesia (MIH) is a severe adverse effect accompanying repeated morphine treatment, causing a paradoxical decrease in nociceptive threshold. Previous reports associated MIH with a decreased expression of the Cl(-) extruder KCC2 in the superficial dorsal horn (SDH) of the spinal cord, weakening spinal GABAA/glycine-mediated postsynaptic inhibition. Here, we tested whether the administration of small molecules enhancing KCC2, CLP257 and its pro-drug CLP290, may counteract MIH. MIH was typically expressed within 6-8 days of morphine treatment...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633971/manganese-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-depicts-brain-activity-in-models-of-acute-and-chronic-pain-a-new-window-to-study-experimental-spontaneous-pain
#13
I M Devonshire, J J Burston, L Xu, A Lillywhite, M J Prior, D J G Watson, C M Greenspon, S J Iwabuchi, D P Auer, V Chapman
Application of functional imaging techniques to animal models is vital to understand pain mechanisms, but is often confounded by the need to limit movement artefacts with anaesthesia, and a focus on evoked responses rather than clinically relevant spontaneous pain and related hyperalgesia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to measure neural responses during on-going pain that underpins hyperalgesia in pre-clinical models of nociception...
June 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633545/late-recovery-of-awareness-in-prolonged-disorders-of-consciousness-a-cross-sectional-cohort-study
#14
Kudret Yelden, Sophie Duport, Leon M James, Agnieszka Kempny, Simon F Farmer, Alex P Leff, E Diane Playford
PURPOSE: To detect any improvement of awareness in prolonged disorders of consciousness in the long term. METHODS: A total of 34 patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (27 vegetative state and seven minimally conscious state; 16 males; aged 21-73) were included in the study. All patients were initially diagnosed with vegetative/minimally conscious state on admission to our specialist neurological rehabilitation unit. Re-assessment was performed 2-16 years later using Coma Recovery Scale-Revised...
June 21, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633477/loop-diuretics-for-chronic-heart-failure-a-foe-in-disguise-of-a-friend
#15
Chris J Kapelios, Konstantinos Malliaras, Elisabeth Kaldara, Stella Vakrou, John N Nanas
Loop diuretics are recommended for relieving symptoms and signs of congestion in patients with chronic heart failure and are administered to more than 80% of them. However, several of their effects have not systematically been studied. Numerous cohort and four interventional studies have addressed the effect of diuretics on renal function; apart from one prospective study, which showed that diuretics withdrawal is accompanied by increase in some markers of early-detected renal injury, all others converge to the conclusion that diuretics receipt, especially in high doses is associated with increased rates of renal dysfunction...
June 19, 2017: European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633324/mammographic-density-reduction-as-a-prognostic-marker-for-postmenopausal-breast-cancer-results-using-a-joint-longitudinal-survival-modelling-approach
#16
Therese M-L Andersson, Michael J Crowther, Kamila Czene, Per Hall, Keith Humphreys
Previous studies have linked reductions in mammographic density after a breast cancer diagnosis to an improved prognosis. These studies focused on short-term change, using a two-stage process, treating estimated change as a fixed covariate in a survival model. We propose the use of a joint longitudinal-survival model. This enables us to model long-term trends in density while accounting for drop-out as well as for measurement error. We study the change in mammographic density after a breast cancer diagnosis and its association with prognosis (measured by cause-specific mortality), overall and with respect to hormone replacement therapy and tamoxifen treatment...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633036/recent-advances-in-understanding-multiple-myeloma
#17
REVIEW
Parameswaran Hari
There have been major recent advancements in the understanding and management of multiple myeloma which in turn has led to unprecedented survival outcomes for patients. Diagnostic and response criteria have been recently revised. Our understanding of clonal progression, evolution, and clonal tides will inform therapeutic choices and appropriate treatment for patients. Response rates to initial induction with modern triplet therapies containing proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulators have made this approach the global standard for initial treatment...
June 13, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632961/increased-neural-response-to-social-rejection-in-major-depression
#18
Poornima Kumar, Gordon D Waiter, Magda Dubois, Maarten Milders, Ian Reid, J Douglas Steele
BACKGROUND: Being a part of community is critical for survival and individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) have a greater sensitivity to interpersonal stress that makes them vulnerable to future episodes. Social rejection is a critical risk factor for depression and it is said to increase interpersonal stress and thereby impairing social functioning. It is therefore critical to understand the neural correlates of social rejection in MDD. METHODS: To this end, we scanned 15 medicated MDD and 17 healthy individuals during a modified cyberball passing game, where participants were exposed to increasing levels of social exclusion...
June 20, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632910/withdrawn-hypnosis-for-children-undergoing-dental-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Sharifa Al-Harasi, Paul F Ashley, David R Moles, Susan Parekh, Val Walters
BACKGROUND: Managing children is a challenge that many dentists face. Many non-pharmacological techniques have been developed to manage anxiety and behavioural problems in children, such us: 'tell, show & do', positive reinforcement, modelling and hypnosis. The use of hypnosis is generally an overlooked area, hence the need for this review. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review attempted to answer the question: What is the effectiveness of hypnosis (with or without sedation) for behaviour management of children who are receiving dental care in order to allow successful completion of treatment?Null hypothesis: Hypnosis has no effect on the outcome of dental treatment of children...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632810/hydralazine-associated-cutaneous-casculitis-presenting-with-aerodigestive-tract-involvement
#20
Laura E Levin, Cynthia Magro, James Horowitz, Joanna Harp
Hydralazine-induced small vessel vasculitis is a rare entity with a limited number of cases reported in the dermatologic literature. A characteristic pattern of acral pseudoembolic vesiculopustules with necrosis and ulceration has been suggested along with involvement of the aerodigestive tract, indicating mucosal involvement is an important feature of this disease. We report the case of a patient with hydralazine-induced vasculitis who exemplified this characteristic presentation associated with severe involvement of the aerodigestive tract and gastrointestinal tract bleeding...
May 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
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