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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055280/optical-limiting-properties-of-3-5-dipyrenylvinylenebodipy-dyes-at-532nm
#1
Gugu Kubheka, Kayode Sanusi, John Mack, Tebello Nyokong
The optical limiting (OL) properties of 3,5-dipyrenylvinyleneBODIPY dyes that contain both electron withdrawing and donating moieties have been investigated by using the z-scan technique at 532nm in the nanosecond pulse range. The extension of the π-conjugation at the 3,5-positions with pyrenylvinylene groups results in a ca. 200nm red shift of the main BODIPY spectral band to ca. 700nm, so there is relatively weak absorbance at 532nm under ambient light conditions. Reverse saturable absorbance (RSA) profiles are observed in response to incident pulsed laser light that is consistent with a two photon absorption-assisted excited state absorption (ESA) mechanism in CH2Cl2 solution and when the dyes are embedded in poly(bisphenol carbonate A) (PBC) polymer thin films...
October 10, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054397/tolerance-in-clinical-liver-transplantation
#2
REVIEW
Josh Levitsky, Sandy Feng
While advances in immunosuppressive therapy have lowered the rate of acute rejection following liver transplantation, the consequence has been an increase in morbidity and mortality related to the lifelong need for maintenance immunosuppression. These complications include an increased risk of malignancy, infection, metabolic disorders, and chronic kidney disease, as well as high health care costs associated with these therapies and the required drug monitoring. Given these issues, most clinicians attempt trial and error dose minimization with variable success rates, and there has been significant interest in full drug withdrawal in select patients through research protocols...
October 17, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054285/paraventricular-thalamus-gateway-to-feeding-appetitive-motivation-and-drug-addiction
#3
E Zayra Millan, ZhiYi Ong, Gavan P McNally
This chapter reviews the anatomical and functional evidence demonstrating the contribution of the paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) to appetitive motivation, food intake control, and drug-seeking behaviors. We first consider the anatomical properties of the PVT to highlight its relevance in the control of appetitive motivation, feeding, and drug seeking. This is followed by a review of the available literature on PVT neurocircuitry, PVT involvement in food intake control, animal models of drug self-administration, withdrawal, and relapse...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054257/theoretical-prediction-of-pullout-strengths-for-dental-and-orthopaedic-screws-with-conical-profile-and-buttress-threads
#4
Kao-Shang Shih, Sheng-Mou Hou, Shang-Chih Lin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The pullout strength of a screw is an indicator of how secure bone fragments are being held in place. Such bone-purchasing ability is sensitive to bone quality, thread design, and the pilot hole, and is often evaluated by experimental and numerical methods. Historically, there are some mathematical formulae to simulate the screw withdrawal from the synthetic bone. There are great variations in screw specifications. However, extensive investigation of the correlation between experimental and analytical results has not been reported in literature...
December 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053866/impact-of-litter-salmonella-status-during-feed-withdrawal-on-salmonella-recovery-from-the-broiler-crop-and-ceca
#5
R J Buhr, D V Bourassa, A Hinton, B D Fairchild, C W Ritz
Research was conducted to evaluate the impact of litter Salmonella status during feed withdrawal on Salmonella recovery from the crop and ceca following feed withdrawal. In 4 experiments, pens of broilers in separate rooms were challenged with marker strains of either Salmonella Montevideo or Salmonella Heidelberg. Three d post challenge, a 12-hour feed withdrawal was initiated, and one pen of broilers was switched between rooms for each Salmonella serotype. In experiments 3 and 4, non-challenged broilers also were added to the Salmonella challenge pens...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053865/beta-burst-dynamics-in-parkinson-s-disease-off-and-on-dopaminergic-medication
#6
Gerd Tinkhauser, Alek Pogosyan, Huiling Tan, Damian M Herz, Andrea A Kühn, Peter Brown
Exaggerated basal ganglia beta activity (13-35 Hz) is commonly found in patients with Parkinson's disease and can be suppressed by dopaminergic medication, with the degree of suppression being correlated with the improvement in motor symptoms. Importantly, beta activity is not continuously elevated, but fluctuates to give beta bursts. The percentage number of longer beta bursts in a given interval is positively correlated with clinical impairment in Parkinson's disease patients. Here we determine whether the characteristics of beta bursts are dependent on dopaminergic state...
October 10, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053731/determination-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE%C2%BA-opioid-receptors-in-forebrain-cortex-of-rats-exposed-to-morphine-for-10-days-comparison-with-animals-after-20-days-of-morphine-withdrawal
#7
Hana Ujcikova, Martina Hlouskova, Kristina Cechova, Katerina Stolarova, Lenka Roubalova, Petr Svoboda
BACKGROUND: Chronic exposure of mammalian organism to morphine results in adaption to persistent high opioid tone through homeostatic adjustments. Our previous results indicated that in the frontal brain cortex (FBC) of rats exposed to morphine for 10 days, such a compensatory adjustment was detected as large up-regulation of adenylylcyclases I (8-fold) and II (2.5-fold). The other isoforms of AC (III-IX) were unchanged. Importantly, the increase of ACI and ACII was reversible as it disappeared after 20 days of morphine withdrawal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053578/treatment-with-synthetic-glucocorticoids-and-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#8
REVIEW
Rosa Maria Paragliola, Giampaolo Papi, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Salvatore Maria Corsello
Chronic glucocorticoid (GC) treatment represents a widely-prescribed therapy for several diseases in consideration of both anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity but, if used at high doses for prolonged periods, it can determine the systemic effects characteristic of Cushing's syndrome. In addition to signs and symptoms of hypercortisolism, patients on chronic GC therapy are at risk to develop tertiary adrenal insufficiency after the reduction or the withdrawal of corticosteroids or during acute stress...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053123/-indices-of-the-antioxidant-system-and-dopamine-in-blood-plasma-in-the-dynamics-of-microwave-resonance-therapy-in-patients-with-alcoholism
#9
V D Prokopieva, E G Yarygina, N M Krotenko, A S Boiko, N A Bokhan, S A Ivanova
AIM: To study effects of microwave resonance therapy (MWRT) on the level of dopamine and some indices of the antioxidant system of blood plasma in patients with alcohol dependence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dopamine, reduced glutathione, activities of catalase and superoxidismutase (SOD) were measured in blood plasma of alcoholic patients (50 men) before and after therapy. Plasma of 25 physically and mentally healthy men matched for age was used as control. RESULTS: In alcoholic patients in withdrawal state, the significant increase in dopamine (p=0...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052691/discontinuing-inappropriate-medication-use-in-nursing-home-residents-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Hans Wouters, Jessica Scheper, Hedi Koning, Chris Brouwer, Jos W Twisk, Helene van der Meer, Froukje Boersma, Sytse U Zuidema, Katja Taxis
Background: Inappropriate prescribing is a well-known clinical problem in nursing home residents, but few interventions have focused on reducing inappropriate medication use. Objective: To examine successful discontinuation of inappropriate medication use and to improve prescribing in nursing home residents. Design: Pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial, with clustering by elder care physicians and their wards. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01876095)...
October 10, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052617/adhd-smoking-withdrawal-and-inhibitory-control-results-of-a-neuroimaging-study-with-methylphenidate-challenge
#11
Maggie M Sweitzer, Scott H Kollins, Rachel V Kozink, Matt Hallyburton, Joseph English, Merideth A Addicott, Jason A Oliver, F Joseph McClernon
Smoking withdrawal negatively impacts inhibitory control, and these effects are greater for smokers with pre-existing attention problems, such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study preliminarily evaluated changes in inhibitory control-related behavior and brain activation during smoking withdrawal among smokers with ADHD. Moreover, we investigated the role of catecholamine transmission in these changes by examining effects of 40 mg methylphenidate (MPH) administration. Adult daily smokers with (n=17) and without (n=20) ADHD completed fMRI scanning under each of three conditions: (a) smoking as usual+placebo; (b) 24 hr smoking abstinence+placebo and (c) 24 hr smoking abstinence+MPH...
October 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052269/control-of-biotin-biosynthesis-in-mycobacteria-by-a-pyruvate-carboxylase-dependent-metabolic-signal
#12
Nathaniel Lazar, Allison Fay, Madhumitha Nandakumar, Kerry E Boyle, Joao Xavier, Kyu Rhee, Michael S Glickman
Biotin is an essential cofactor utilized by all domains of life, but only synthesized by bacteria, fungi and plants, making biotin biosynthesis a target for antimicrobial development. To understand biotin biosynthesis in mycobacteria, we executed a genetic screen in Mycobacterium smegmatis for biotin auxotrophs and identified pyruvate carboxylase (Pyc) as required for biotin biosynthesis. The biotin auxotrophy of the pyc::tn strain is due to failure to transcriptionally induce late stage biotin biosynthetic genes in low biotin conditions...
October 20, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051997/effect-of-repeated-abstinence-on-chronic-ethanol-self-administration-in-the-rhesus-monkey
#13
Daicia C Allen, Steven W Gonzales, Kathleen A Grant
RATIONALE: Abstinence-based approaches to treating alcohol use disorder (AUD) are highly prevalent, but abstinence from chronic drinking may exacerbate subsequent levels of alcohol intake in relapse. OBJECTIVE: Use a non-human primate model that encompasses a range of chronic voluntary ethanol drinking to isolate biological responses to repeated cycles of imposed abstinence as a function of baseline voluntary alcohol drinking levels. METHODS: Over a 26-month protocol, young adult male rhesus macaques were first induced to drink alcohol and then given continuous access to 4% (w/v) ethanol (n = 8) or water (n = 4) for approximately 14 months, followed by three 28- to 35-day abstinence phases, with 3 months of ethanol access in between...
October 19, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051981/preoperative-optimization-of-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-undergoing-gastrointestinal-surgery-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Marie Strøm Zangenberg, Nir Horesh, Uri Kopylov, Alaa El-Hussuna
PURPOSE: Surgical management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a challenging task. The aim of preoperative optimization (PO) is to decrease the risk of complications and reduce the length of postoperative stay. The aim of this study was to review and grade the available evidence, attain clear recommendations, and point out potential future research. METHODS: Studies were identified from electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library) and scanning reference lists in relevant papers...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051431/haematological-biochemical-and-antioxidant-changes-in-wistar-rats-exposed-to-dichlorvos-based-insecticide-formulation-used-in-southeast-nigeria
#15
Kingsley C Kanu, Solomon N Ijioma, Odudu Atiata
The indiscriminate use of pesticide is a treat to non-target organisms. This study evaluates the haematological and biochemical changes induced by inhalation of local Nigerian dichlorvos insecticide on rats. The rats were randomly assigned to a control group which received only food and water and a test group which, in addition to food and water, was exposed to the pesticide for a period of 4 h daily for 28 days, after which exposure was discontinued for seven days. Five animals were sacrificed from each group on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35, and blood was collected by cardiac puncture for haematological, biochemical and antioxidant analysis...
November 29, 2016: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050493/serum-bdnf-is-positively-associated-with-negative-symptoms-in-older-adults-with-schizophrenia
#16
Sasha S Binford, Erin M Hubbard, Elena Flowers, Bruce L Miller, Heather Leutwyler
OBJECTIVES: Older adults with chronic schizophrenia are at greater risk for functional disability and poorer health outcomes than those without serious mental illness. These individuals comprise 1-2% of the elderly population in the United States and are projected to number approximately 15 million by 2030. The symptoms of schizophrenia can be disabling for individuals, significantly reducing quality of life. Often, the negative symptoms (NS) are the most resistant to treatment and are considered a marker of illness severity, though they are challenging to measure objectively...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049985/insight-into-the-structure-function-relationships-of-deep-eutectic-solvents-during-rice-straw-pretreatment
#17
Xue-Dan Hou, Ao-Lin Li, Kai-Peng Lin, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Zhi-Yin Kuang, Shi-Lin Cao
Rice straw pretreatment mediated by choline chloride (ChCl) or lactic acid (Lac) sequences deep eutectic solvents (DESs) was investigated in this work. Hydrogen bond acceptors (HBAs) and hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) proved to be both important for DESs pretreatment efficiency. DESs containing lots of hydroxyl or amino groups with a high intermolecular hydrogen-bond (H-bond) strength exhibited weak biomass deconstruction abilities. The presence of strong electron-withdrawing groups in DESs was benefit for xylan removal, thus furnishing higher cellulose digestibility...
October 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049921/estrus-resynchronization-in-ewes-with-unknown-pregnancy-status
#18
Vladinis O Miranda, Fernando C Oliveira, Jenniffer H Dias, Sergio F Vargas Júnior, Karina L Goularte, Manoel F Sá Filho, Ocilon G de Sá Filho, Hernan Baldassarre, Arnaldo D Vieira, Thomaz Lucia, Bernardo G Gasperin
Although fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols are available for sheep, estrus resynchronization has not been previously reported. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of estrus resynchronization with exogenous progestogen on endogenous progesterone levels and to compare pregnancy rates after two consecutive estrus synchronizations in ewes. In Experiment 1, ewes (n = 20) received an intravaginal device (IVD) containing 60 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) for 10 days...
October 10, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049339/reliability-of-transcardiopulmonary-thermodilution-cardiac-output-measurement-in-experimental-aortic-valve-insufficiency
#19
Martin Petzoldt, Constantin J Trepte, Jan Ridder, Stefan Maisch, Philipp Klapsing, Jan F Kersten, Hans Peter Richter, Jens C Kubitz, Daniel A Reuter, Matthias S Goepfert
BACKGROUND: Monitoring cardiac output (CO) is important to optimize hemodynamic function in critically ill patients. The prevalence of aortic valve insufficiency (AI) is rising in the aging population. However, reliability of CO monitoring techniques in AI is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of AI on accuracy, precision, and trending ability of transcardiopulmonary thermodilution-derived COTCPTD in comparison with pulmonary artery catheter thermodilution COPAC...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049120/a-contemporary-medicolegal-analysis-of-outpatient-medication-management-in-chronic-pain
#20
Christopher R Abrecht, Ethan Y Brovman, Penny Greenberg, Ellen Song, James P Rathmell, Richard D Urman
BACKGROUND: Opioids are frequently used in chronic pain management but are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in some patient populations. An important avenue for identifying complications-including serious or rare complications-is the study of closed malpractice claims. The present study is intended to complement the existing closed claims literature by drawing on claims from a more recent timeframe through a partnership with a large malpractice carrier, the Controlled Risk Insurance Company (CRICO)...
November 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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