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Maternal collapse

D Mannaerts, E Faes, J Gielis, J Briedé, P Cos, E Van Craenenbroeck, W Gyselaers, J Cornette, M Spaanderman, Y Jacquemyn
AIMS: Oxidative stress is crucial in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) like the superoxide radical O2-, are produced by the ischemic placenta, causing systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. EPR uses microwave radiation and a high magnetic field and is the most direct and reliable method to detect free radicals. We explored the feasibility of determining O2- concentration in maternal serum and compared pre-eclamptic and uncomplicated pregnancies...
August 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Yoon Hong Choi, Helen Campbell, Gayatri Amirthalingam, Albert Jan van Hoek, Elizabeth Miller
BACKGROUND: In 2012 England and Wales experienced a resurgence of pertussis and an increase in infant deaths. This occurred 8 years after acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine replaced whole cell (wP) primary vaccine despite continued high coverage for the primary series and pre-school aP booster. We developed a mathematical model to describe pertussis transmission dynamics in England and Wales since the 1950s and used it to investigate the cause of the resurgence and the potential impact of additional vaccination strategies...
2016: BMC Medicine
Lori Feldman-Winter, Jay P Goldsmith
Skin-to-skin care (SSC) and rooming-in have become common practice in the newborn period for healthy newborns with the implementation of maternity care practices that support breastfeeding as delineated in the World Health Organization's "Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding." SSC and rooming-in are supported by evidence that indicates that the implementation of these practices increases overall and exclusive breastfeeding, safer and healthier transitions, and improved maternal-infant bonding. In some cases, however, the practice of SSC and rooming-in may pose safety concerns, particularly with regard to sleep...
September 2016: Pediatrics
Sara Bayes, Beverley Ewens
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this literature review was to understand how nurses view and experience caring for pregnant and postpartum women in non-maternity care settings. BACKGROUND: A degree of apprehension is perceived to exist among nurses in relation to caring for pregnant or postnatal women in non-maternity care settings. The nature of non-midwife nurses' concerns about caring for this group of women in these contexts, however, is not known. DESIGN: A six-step systematic approach was employed for this review...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Abdul Qader Tahir Ismail, Matt Cawsey, Andrew K Ewer
The concept of using pulse oximetry (PO) as a screening test to identify newborn babies with critical congenital heart defects (CCHD) before life-threatening collapse occurs has been debated for some time now. Several recent large studies have consistently shown that PO screening adds value to existing screening techniques with over 90% of CCHDs detected. It can also help identify newborn babies with low oxygen saturations due to infection, respiratory disease and non-critical CCHD. Many countries have now introduced PO screening as routine practice, and as screening gains more widespread acceptance in the UK, we have focused more on the practical aspects of screening in this article...
August 16, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
Sam Ononge, Elialilia Sarikiaeli Okello, Florence Mirembe
BACKGROUND: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) remains the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. The main strategy for preventing PPH is the use of uterotonic drugs given prophylactically by skilled health workers. However, in settings where many women still deliver at home without skilled attendants, uterotonics are often inaccessible. In such cases, women and their caregivers need to recognize PPH promptly so, as to seek expert care. For this reason, it is important to understand how women and their caregivers recognize PPH, as well as the actions they undertake to prevent and treat PPH in home births...
2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Annettee Nakimuli, Sarah Nakubulwa, Othman Kakaire, Michael Odongo Osinde, Scovia Nalugo Mbalinda, Nelson Kakande, Rose Chalo Nabirye, Dan Kabonge Kaye
BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The objective was to estimate the disease burden attributable to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in two referral hospitals in Uganda. METHODS: Through a prospective cohort study conducted in Jinja and Mulago hospitals in Uganda from March 1, 2013 and February 28, 2014, hypertension-related cases were analyzed. Maternal near miss cases were defined according to the WHO criteria...
2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Yuditiya Purwosunu, Widyastuti Sarkoen, Sabaratnam Arulkumaran, Jan Segnitz
BACKGROUND: Postpartum hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. Vacuum-induced uterine tamponade is a possible alternative approach to balloon tamponade systems for the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage resulting from atony. METHOD: In a prospective proof-of-concept investigation of 10 women with vaginal deliveries in a hospital setting who failed first-line therapies for postpartum hemorrhage, tamponade was used. Vacuum-induced uterine tamponade was created through a device inserted transvaginally into the uterine cavity...
July 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Kiranpreet Kaur, Mamta Bhardwaj, Prashant Kumar, Suresh Singhal, Tarandeep Singh, Sarla Hooda
Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion...
April 2016: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
M D Benson, A Padovano, G Bourjeily, Y Zhou
INTRODUCTION: The current approach to, cardiopulmonary resuscitation of pregnant women in the third trimester has been to adhere to the "four-minute rule": If pulses have not returned within 4min of the start of resuscitation, perform a cesarean birth so that birth occurs in the next minute. This investigation sought to re-examine the evidence for the four-minute rule. METHODS: A literature review focused on perimortem cesarean birth was performed using the same key words that were used in formulating the "four-minute rule...
April 2016: EBioMedicine
B Barry Touré, John Giraldes, Troy Smith, Elizabeth R Sprague, Yaping Wang, Simon Mathieu, Zhuoliang Chen, Yuji Mishina, Yun Feng, Yan Yan-Neale, Subarna Shakya, Dongshu Chen, Matthew Meyer, David Puleo, J Tres Brazell, Christopher Straub, David Sage, Kirk Wright, Yanqiu Yuan, Xin Chen, Jose Duca, Sean Kim, Li Tian, Eric Martin, Kristen Hurov, Wenlin Shao
MELK kinase has been implicated in playing an important role in tumorigenesis. Our previous studies suggested that MELK is involved in the regulation of cell cycle and its genetic depletion leads to growth inhibition in a subset of high MELK-expressing basal-like breast cancer cell lines. Herein we describe the discovery and optimization of novel MELK inhibitors 8a and 8b that recapitulate the cellular effects observed by short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA)-mediated MELK knockdown in cellular models. We also discovered a novel fluorine-induced hydrophobic collapse that locked the ligand in its bioactive conformation and led to a 20-fold gain in potency...
May 26, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Therese McGinn, Sara E Casey
BACKGROUND: Although sexual and reproductive health services have become more available in humanitarian settings over the last decade, safe abortion services are still rarely provided. The authors' observations suggest that four reasons are typically given for this gap: 'There's no need'; 'Abortion is too complicated to provide in crises'; 'Donors don't fund abortion services'; and 'Abortion is illegal'. DISCUSSION: However, each of these reasons is based on false premises...
2016: Conflict and Health
Luis D Pacheco, George Saade, Gary D V Hankins, Steven L Clark
OBJECTIVE: We sought to provide evidence-based guidelines regarding the diagnosis and management of amniotic fluid embolism. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature review was performed using MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. The search was restricted to English-language articles published from 1966 through March 2015. Priority was given to articles reporting original research, in particular randomized controlled trials, although review articles and commentaries were consulted...
August 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Annettee Nakimuli, Sarah Nakubulwa, Othman Kakaire, Michael O Osinde, Scovia N Mbalinda, Rose C Nabirye, Nelson Kakande, Dan K Kaye
BACKGROUND: Maternal near misses occur more often than maternal deaths and could enable more comprehensive analysis of risk factors, short-term outcomes and prognostic factors of complications during pregnancy and childbirth. The study determined the incidence, determinants and prognostic factors of severe maternal outcomes (near miss or maternal death) in two referral hospitals in Uganda. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted between March 1, 2013 and February 28, 2014, where cases of severe pregnancy and childbirth complications were included...
2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Matthias Rieger, Sofia Karina Trommlerová
Growth faltering describes a widespread phenomenon that height- and weight-for-age of children in developing countries collapse rapidly in the first two years of life. We study age-specific correlates of child nutrition using Demographic and Health Surveys from 56 developing countries to shed light on the potential drivers of growth faltering. Applying nonparametric techniques and exploiting within-mother variation, we find that maternal and household factors predict best the observed shifts and bends in child nutrition age curves...
February 2016: Demography
Jeremy Magalon, Martin Maiers, Joanne Kurtzberg, Cristina Navarrete, Pablo Rubinstein, Colin Brown, Catherine Schramm, Jérome Larghero, Sandrine Katsahian, Christian Chabannon, Christophe Picard, Alexander Platz, Alexander Schmidt, Gregory Katz
BACKGROUND: Cord blood is an important source of stem cells. However, nearly 90% of public cord blood banks have declared that they are struggling to maintain their financial sustainability and avoid bankruptcy. The objective of this study is to evaluate how characteristics of cord blood units influence their utilization, then use this information to model the economic viability and therapeutic value of different banking strategies. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of cord blood data registered between January 1st, 2009 and December 31st, 2011 in Bone Marrow Donor Worldwide...
2015: PloS One
Tiina Ojala, Pekka Valmari, Jaana Pihkala, Ecro Jokinen, Sture Andersson
Saturation screening of congenital heart defects in the newborn takes place in Finnish maternity hospitals. Saturation screening has been shown to be a cost-effective way to screen critical heart defects in the newborn. Screening aims to reveal the heart defect before potential circulatory collapse. Early diagnosis is important, as invasive therapeutic measures for congenital heart defects have been concentrated to one center. There are differences in the implementation of saturation screening. We therefore recommend unifying the screening system to conform with the recently published Nordic recommendation...
2015: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
Kathryn J Balinger, Melissa T Chu Lam, Heidi H Hon, Stanislaw P Stawicki, James N Anasti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the incidence, pathophysiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and management of amniotic fluid embolism (AFE). RECENT FINDINGS: AFE is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality despite an incidence of approximately 7 to 8 per 100,000 births. Recent reevaluation of AFE suggests that the presence of fetal tissue in maternal circulation alone is not sufficient to cause the clinical syndrome, but rather an individual's response to this fetal tissue...
December 2015: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Védís Helga Eiríksdóttir, Unnur Anna Valdimarsdóttir, Tinna Laufey Ásgeirsdóttir, Arna Hauksdóttir, Sigrún Helga Lund, Ragnheiður Ingibjörg Bjarnadóttir, Sven Cnattingius, Helga Zoëga
BACKGROUND: Data on the potential influence of macroeconomic recessions on maternal diseases during pregnancy are scarce. We aimed to assess potential change in prevalence of pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders (preeclampsia and gestational hypertension) during the first years of the major national economic recession in Iceland, which started abruptly in October 2008. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Women whose pregnancies resulted in live singleton births in Iceland in 2005-2012 constituted the study population (N = 35,211)...
2015: PloS One
Hiroshi Kobayashi
PROBLEM: Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare but severe emergency in obstetrics. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pathophysiology of AFE. METHODS: A search was conducted between 1966 and 2014 through the English-language literature (online MEDLINE PubMed database) using the keyword amniotic fluid embolism combined with anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid, complement activation, mast cells, fetal antigens, and idiosyncratic. RESULTS: Amniotic fluid embolism is a rare clinical entity but a severe obstetric emergency that can be lethal even in previously healthy women in labor or in the early postpartum period...
August 2015: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
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