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Mechanical obstetrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105091/effect-of-melatonin-on-the-peripheral-t-lymphocyte-cell-cycle-and-levels-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-patients-with-premature-ovarian-failure
#1
Yanmin Li, Hongli Liu, Jing Sun, Yipeng Tian, Changzhong Li
The objective of the present study was to observe the curative effect and mechanism of melatonin for suppression of premature ovarian failure (POF). From December 2014 to June 2015, 128 patients were consecutively diagnosed with POF in the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. The patients were randomly divided into the experimental and control groups. The experimental group received melatonin tablets (1-3 mg/day), while the control group received placebo tablets. The levels of six sex hormones, percentage of T lymphocytes in the G1/M phase, and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined at four different time-points (1 day before treatment, and at 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment) in both groups...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102332/dynamic-modeling-of-uteroplacental-blood-flow-in-iugr-indicates-vortices-and-elevated-pressure-in-the-intervillous-space-a-pilot-study
#2
Christian J Roth, Eva Haeussner, Tanja Ruebelmann, Franz V Koch, Christoph Schmitz, Hans-Georg Frank, Wolfgang A Wall
Ischemic placental disease is a concept that links intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and preeclampsia (PE) back to insufficient remodeling of uterine spiral arteries. The rheological consequences of insufficient remodeling of uterine spiral arteries were hypothesized to mediate the considerably later manifestation of obstetric disease. However, the micro-rheology in the intervillous space (IVS) cannot be examined clinically and rheological animal models of the human IVS do not exist. Thus, an in silico approach was implemented to provide in vivo inaccessible data...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099310/national-institutes-of-health-funding-to-departments-of-orthopaedic-surgery-at-u-s-medical-schools
#3
Jason Silvestre, Jaimo Ahn, L Scott Levin
BACKGROUND: The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the largest supporter of biomedical research in the U.S., yet its contribution to orthopaedic research is poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the portfolio of NIH funding to departments of orthopaedic surgery at U.S. medical schools. METHODS: The NIH RePORT (Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools) database was queried for NIH grants awarded to departments of orthopaedic surgery in 2014. Funding totals were determined for award mechanisms and NIH institutes...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099290/increased-perinatal-morbidity-and-mortality-among-asian-american-and-pacific-islander-women-in-the-united-states
#4
Maryam Siddiqui, Mohammed Minhaj, Ariel Mueller, Avery Tung, Barbara Scavone, Sarosh Rana, Sajid Shahul
BACKGROUND: Asian American/Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) are the fastest-growing racial group in the United States. Despite a higher socioeconomic status, AAPI women experience higher rates of maternal morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Using the National Inpatient Sample, we performed a retrospective cohort analysis of women who were hospitalized for delivery from 2002 to 2013. The primary outcome variable was inpatient mortality rate, and the presence of severe maternal morbidities was estimated using the Bateman Comorbidity Index, a validated tool for predicting obstetric morbidity...
January 17, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090643/the-use-of-instructional-design-guidelines-to-increase-effectiveness-of-postpartum-hemorrhage-simulation-training
#5
Brena C P de Melo, Ana R Falbo, Arno M M Muijtjens, Cees P M van der Vleuten, Jeroen J G van Merriënboer
OBJECTIVE: To compare learning outcomes of postpartum hemorrhage simulation training based on either instructional design guidelines or best practice. METHODS: A pretest-post-test non-equivalent groups study was conducted among obstetrics and gynecology residents in Recife, Brazil, from June 8 to August 30, 2013. The instructional design group included 13 teams, whereas the best practice group included seven teams. A standardized task checklist was used for scenario analysis and the proportion of correctly executed tasks compared (post-test minus pretest)...
December 16, 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090634/dietary-interventions-for-fetal-growth-restriction-therapeutic-potential-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-in-pregnancy
#6
Elizabeth Cottrell, Teresa Tropea, Laura Ormesher, Susan Greenwood, Mark Wareing, Edward Johnstone, Jenny Myers, Colin Sibley
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) affects around 5% of pregnancies and is associated with significant short- and long-term adverse outcomes. A number of factors can increase the risk of FGR, one of which is poor maternal diet. In terms of pathology, both clinically and in many experimental models of FGR, impaired uteroplacental vascular function is implicated, leading to a reduction in the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus. Whilst mechanisms underpinning impaired uteroplacental vascular function are not fully understood, interventions aimed at enhancing nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability remain a key area of interest in obstetric research...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079409/promoting-awareness-of-neonatal-menstruation
#7
Paola Bianchi, Giuseppe Benagiano, Ivo Brosens
Neonatal uterine bleeding (NUB) has been carefully studied in the past through case reports, small series, clinical cohort studies, pathology investigations of fetal and neonatal. Following a historical recount, this review summarizes biological mechanisms conditioning NUB, starting from the persistence till birth of an 'ontogenetic progesterone resistance' (OPR), causing decreased responsiveness of target tissues to bioavailable progesterone. Several pregnancy-related conditions, such as preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, prematurity, post-maturity and even Rhesus or ABO incompatibility, influence the occurrence of NUB...
January 12, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073296/the-microbiome-and-complement-activation
#8
Alexis B Dunn, Anne L Dunlop, Carol J Hogue, Andrew Miller, Elizabeth J Corwin
Preterm birth (PTB, <37 completed weeks' gestation) is one of the leading obstetrical problems in the United States, affecting approximately one of every nine births. Even more concerning are the persistent racial disparities in PTB, with particularly high rates among African Americans. There are several recognized pathophysiologic pathways to PTB, including infection and/or exaggerated systemic or local inflammation. Intrauterine infection is a causal factor linked to PTB thought to result most commonly from inflammatory processes triggered by microbial invasion of bacteria ascending from the vaginal microbiome...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060899/longitudinal-profiles-of-thyroid-hormone-parameters-in-pregnancy-and-associations-with-preterm-birth
#9
Lauren E Johns, Kelly K Ferguson, Thomas F McElrath, Bhramar Mukherjee, Ellen W Seely, John D Meeker
INTRODUCTION: Overt thyroid disease in pregnancy is associated with numerous maternal and neonatal complications including preterm birth. Less is known about the contribution of trimester-specific subclinical alterations in individual thyroid hormones, especially in late gestation, on the risk of preterm birth. Herein, we examined the associations between subclinical changes in maternal thyroid hormone concentrations (TSH, total T3, free and total T4), measured at multiple time points in pregnancy, and the odds of preterm birth in pregnant women without clinical thyroid disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056853/maternal-asian-ethnicity-and-obstetric-intrapartum-intervention-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#10
Maya Reddy, Euan M Wallace, Joanne C Mockler, Lynne Stewart, Michelle Knight, Ryan Hodges, Sasha Skinner, Miranda Davies-Tuck
BACKGROUND: Maternal ethnicity is a recognized risk factor for stillbirth, such that South Asian women have higher rates than their Caucasian counterparts. However, whether maternal ethnicity is a risk factor for intrapartum outcomes is less clear. The aim of this study is to explore associations between maternal country of birth, operative vaginal delivery and emergency cesarean section, and to identify possible mechanisms underlying any such associations. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of singleton term births among South Asian, South East/East Asian and Australian/New Zealand born women at an Australian tertiary hospital in 2009-2013...
January 5, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054230/tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-and-pregnancy-focus-on-biologics-an-updated-and-comprehensive-review
#11
REVIEW
Jaume Alijotas-Reig, Enrique Esteve-Valverde, Raquel Ferrer-Oliveras, Elisa Llurba, Josep Maria Gris
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a central regulator of inflammation, and TNF-α antagonists may be effective in treating inflammatory disorders in which TNF-α plays a major pathogenic role. TNF-α has also been associated with inflammatory mechanisms related to implantation, placentation, and pregnancy outcome. TNF-α is secreted by immune cells and works by binding to TNFR1 and TNFR2 cell receptors. TNF-α is also related to JAK/STAT pathways, which opens up hypothetical new targets for modifying. The accurate balance between Th1 cytokines, mainly TNF-α, Th17, and Th2, particularly IL-10 is essential to achieve good obstetric outcomes...
January 4, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028299/gene-expression-in-obstetric-antiphospholipid-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#12
M Muhammad Aliff, S Muhammad Shazwan, M M Nur Fariha, A R Hayati, A R Nur Syahrina, M Maizatul Azma, A H Nazefah, S Jameela, A A Asral Wirda
BACKGROUND: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a multisystem disease that may present as venous or arterial thrombosis and/or pregnancy complications with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Until today, heterogeneity of pathogenic mechanism fits well with various clinical manifestations. Moreover, previous studies have indicated that genes are differentially expressed between normal and in the disease state. Hence, this study systematically searched the literature on human gene expression that was differentially expressed in Obstetric APS...
December 2016: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025680/impact-of-surgery-on-quality-of-life-of-women-with-obstetrical-fistula-a-qualitative-study-in-burkina-faso
#13
Julie Désalliers, Marie-Eve Paré, Salam Kouraogo, Jacques Corcos
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Obstetric fistula, caused by traumatic delivery and patient lack of access to obstetric care, is an important public health concern in developing countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. This research focuses on the experience of women living with obstetric fistula in Burkina Faso as well as their reintegration into community after surgery. METHODS: This project was funded by the Mères du Monde en Santé (MMS) Foundation and conducted in collaboration with the Boromo Hospital...
December 26, 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019065/pregnancy-outcomes-in-women-with-mechanical-prosthetic-heart-valves-a-prospective-descriptive-population-based-study-using-the-united-kingdom-obstetric-surveillance-system-ukoss-data-collection-system
#14
S Vause, B Clarke, C L Tower, Crm Hay, M Knight
OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence of mechanical prosthetic heart valves (MPHV) in pregnancy in the UK; rates of maternal and fetal complications in this group of women, and whether these vary with the anticoagulation used during pregnancy. DESIGN: Prospective descriptive population-based study. SETTING: All consultant-led maternity units in the UK. POPULATION: All women with an MPHV who were pregnant between 1 February 2013 and 31 January 2015...
December 26, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013100/the-impact-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-on-obstetric-conditions-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Hannah M Sebitloane, Dhayendre Moodley
HIV is the leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in resource constrained countries. Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) initiated in pregnancy has now almost eliminated mother to child transmission of the virus, and is beginning to show the desired effect of reducing HIV related maternal mortality. By modulating host immunological responses HAART has the potential to alter infections during pregnancy, in addition to modifying clinical conditions such as preeclampsia. There is increasing evidence of the benefits of HAART given to pregnant women, however there is paucity of data that distinguishes HIV or HAART as the cause or exacerbation of pre-existing medical conditions or conditions specific to pregnancy...
December 9, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008325/lactobacilli-dominance-and-vaginal-ph-why-is-the-human-vaginal-microbiome-unique
#16
Elizabeth A Miller, DeAnna E Beasley, Robert R Dunn, Elizabeth A Archie
The human vaginal microbiome is dominated by bacteria from the genus Lactobacillus, which create an acidic environment thought to protect women against sexually transmitted pathogens and opportunistic infections. Strikingly, lactobacilli dominance appears to be unique to humans; while the relative abundance of lactobacilli in the human vagina is typically >70%, in other mammals lactobacilli rarely comprise more than 1% of vaginal microbiota. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain humans' unique vaginal microbiota, including humans' distinct reproductive physiology, high risk of STDs, and high risk of microbial complications linked to pregnancy and birth...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997480/health-care-provider-knowledge-and-attitudes-regarding-reporting-diseases-and-events-to-public-health-authorities-in-tennessee
#17
Mary-Margaret A Fill, Rendi Murphree, April C Pettit
CONTEXT: In the United States, state laws require health care providers to report specific diseases and events to public health authorities, a fundamental facet of disease surveillance. However, reporting by providers is often inconsistent, infrequent, and delayed. OBJECTIVE: To examine knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding provider disease reporting and to understand current barriers to provider disease reporting. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted via an anonymous, standardized electronic survey...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979486/platelet-rich-plasma-a-biomimetic-approach-to-enhancement-of-surgical-wound-healing
#18
Joseph S Fernandez-Moure, Jeffrey L Van Eps, Fernando J Cabrera, Zonia Barbosa, Guillermo Medrano Del Rosal, Bradley K Weiner, Warren A Ellsworth, Ennio Tasciotti
Platelets are small anucleate cytoplasmic cell bodies released by megakaryocytes in response to various physiologic triggers. Traditionally thought to be solely involved in the mechanisms of hemostasis, platelets have gained much attention due to their involvement wound healing, immunomodulation, and antiseptic properties. As the field of surgery continues to evolve so does the need for therapies to aid in treating the increasingly complex patients seen. With over 14 million obstetric, musculoskeletal, and urological and gastrointestinal surgeries performed annually, the healing of surgical wounds continues to be of upmost importance to the surgeon and patient...
January 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975360/-denial-of-pregnancy
#19
Peter Rott
With an incidence of 1:500, denial of pregnancy is a rather frequent incident in obstetrics. Strikingly, in our society, this issue is placed under a taboo. Reasons might be our moral values and socialization. Since pregnancy and motherhood have to be associated with joy, other sensations are often perceived as socially not accepted and thus denied. A similar phenomenon exists e. g. with postnatal depression.In all existing studies on denial of pregnancy, it was proven that there are no significant at-risk groups...
December 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936867/opportunities-for-probiotics-and-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-to-improve-metabolic-health-of-overweight-pregnant-women
#20
K Mokkala, H Röytiö, U Ekblad, K Laitinen
Overweight during pregnancy predisposes both the mother and foetus to health complications. Maternal complications include gestational diabetes, obstetric problems and type 2 diabetes later in life. Complications for the offspring are not only restricted to the foetal period or birth, such as prematurity and foetal macrosomia, but may also have long-term metabolic health implications through the mechanism of early nutrition programming. One of the key metabolic components characterising overweight in the non-pregnant state is low-grade inflammation manifested by elevated levels of circulatory pro-inflammatory cytokines...
December 12, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
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