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Mechanical obstetrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818301/in-vitro-fertilization-and-adverse-obstetric-and-perinatal-outcomes
#1
Chantae S Sullivan-Pyke, Suneeta Senapati, Monica A Mainigi, Kurt T Barnhart
Most IVF-conceived children are healthy, but IVF has also been associated with adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes as well as congenital anomalies. There is also literature suggesting an association between IVF and neurodevelopmental disorders as well as potentially long-term metabolic outcomes. The main driver for adverse outcomes is the higher risk of multiple gestations in IVF, but as the field moves toward single embryo transfer, the rate of multiple gestations is decreasing. Studies have shown that singleton IVF pregnancies still have a higher incidence of adverse outcomes compared to unassisted singleton pregnancies...
August 14, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811893/knowledge-of-obstetric-danger-signs-and-associated-factors-among-pregnant-women-attending-antenatal-care-at-health-facilities-of-yirgacheffe-town-gedeo-zone-southern-ethiopia
#2
Desalegn Tsegaw Hibstu, Yadeshi Demisse Siyoum
BACKGROUND: Obstetric danger signs are not the literal obstetric complications, merely symptoms that are well named by non-clinical personnel. The identification of these danger signs and its relation with complications during pregnancy would increase the capacity of women, their partners and families to seek for timely health care, following the appropriate steps to insure a safe birth and post-partum. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of obstetric danger signs and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Yirgacheffe town, Gedeo zone, Southern Ethiopia...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793315/home-is-best-why-women-in-rural-zimbabwe-deliver-in-the-community
#3
Munyaradzi Kenneth Dodzo, Marvellous Mhloyi
Maternal mortality in Zimbabwe has unprecedentedly risen over the last two and half decades although a decline has been noted recently. Many reasons have been advanced for the rising trend, including deliveries without skilled care, in places without appropriate or adequate facilities to handle complications. The recent decline has been attributed to health systems strengthening through a multi-donor pooled funding mechanism. On the other hand, the proportion of community deliveries has also been growing steadily over the years and in this study we investigate why...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759172/assessment-of-oxidative-stress-markers-in-cord-blood-of-newborns-to-patients-with-oxytocin-induced-labor
#4
Talip Karaçor, Sibel Sak, Serdar Başaranoğlu, Nurullah Peker, Elif Ağaçayak, Muhammet Erdal Sak, Abdulkadir Turgut, Mehmet Sıddık Evsen, Osman Evliyaoğlu, Talip Gül
AIM: We aimed to measure the extent of oxidative stress experienced during labor by the neonates of pregnant women undergoing induced or spontaneous birth and to compare the effects of induced labor on fetal well-being. METHODS: Sixty-four healthy pregnant women referring to the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Dicle University Medical Faculty between October 2010 and May 2011 were included in this comparative study. Pregnant women undergoing induced labor by oxytocin were group 1 and those without labor induction were group 2...
May 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749853/the-icu-is-becoming-a-main-battlefield-for-severe-maternal-rescue-in-china-an-8-year-single-center-clinical-experience
#5
Liu Yuqi, Guoliang Tan, Shang Chengming, Sun Xuri
OBJECTIVES: To review the characteristics of and to identify the reasons for severe maternal admissions to the ICU. DESIGN: This was an analytical, observational, open, and retrospective study. SETTING: In our ICU. PATIENTS: A total of 487 severe maternal cases were reviewed during the 8-year study period of January 2009 to December 2016. INTERVENTION: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 487 severe maternal cases (12...
July 26, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747409/spot-urine-protein-measurements-in-normotensive-pregnancies-pregnancies-with-isolated-proteinuria-and-preeclampsia
#6
Andrea Kattah, Natasa Milic, Wendy M White, Vesna D Garovic
We performed a prospective, longitudinal study of pregnant women presenting to their first obstetrics visits to characterize the changes in spot urine protein-to-creatinine (UPCR) and albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UACR) in normotensive pregnancies, as well as identify clinical characteristics associated with isolated proteinuria and preeclampsia. We measured spot urinary albumin, protein, and creatinine at the first prenatal visit, end of the second trimester, and at delivery. In normotensive pregnancy (n=142), we found that from the beginning of pregnancy to delivery, UACR increased by a median (interquartile range (IQR)) of 14...
July 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742216/the-fetuses-at-risk-approach-survival-analysis-from-a-fetal-perspective
#7
K S Joseph, Michael S Kramer
Several phenomena in contemporary perinatology create challenges for analyzing pregnancy outcomes. These include recent increases in iatrogenic delivery at late preterm and early term gestation which are incongruent with the belief that stillbirth and neonatal death risk decrease exponentially with advancing gestational age. Perinatal epidemiologists have also puzzled over the paradox of intersecting birth weight- and gestational age-specific perinatal mortality curves for decades. For example, neonatal mortality rates among preterm infants of women who smoke are substantially lower than neonatal mortality rates among preterm infants of non-smoking women, whereas the reverse pattern occurs at term gestation...
July 25, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734732/perinatal-and-neonatal-use-of-sedation-and-analgesia
#8
REVIEW
Christopher McPherson, Terrie Inder
Optimal obstetric and neonatal care requires the provision of adequate analgesia for painful procedures. However, anesthetic and analgesic agents have the potential to adversely impact the developing fetal/neonatal brain. In this setting, clinicians must assess the risks and benefits of pharmacologic anesthesia and analgesia for specific indications in this population. General anesthesia is required for non-obstetric surgery and cesarean section in the absence of neuraxial anesthesia for the health of the mother and fetus...
July 19, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722561/the-quality-of-free-antenatal-and-delivery-services-in-northern-sierra-leone
#9
Manso M Koroma, Samuel S Kamara, Evelyn A Bangura, Mohamed A Kamara, Virgil Lokossou, Namoudou Keita
BACKGROUND: The number of maternal deaths in sub-Saharan Africa continues to be overwhelmingly high. In West Africa, Sierra Leone leads the list, with the highest maternal mortality ratio. In 2010, financial barriers were removed as an incentive for more women to use available antenatal, delivery and postnatal services. Few published studies have examined the quality of free antenatal services and access to emergency obstetric care in Sierra Leone. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 in all 97 peripheral health facilities and three hospitals in Bombali District, Northern Region...
July 12, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715784/elemental-content-of-the-placenta-a-comparison-between-two-high-risk-obstetrical-populations-adult-women-carrying-multiples-and-adolescents-carrying-singletons
#10
Paolo de Angelis, Richard K Miller, Thomas H Darrah, Philip J Katzman, Eva K Pressman, Tera R Kent, Kimberly O O'Brien
BACKGROUND: The placenta is responsible for the exchange of nutrients and for preventing harmful compounds from entering the fetal circulation. With increasing industrialization, exposures to commercial and toxic metals become a concern for both pregnant women and those planning a pregnancy. The understanding of transport mechanisms and pharmacokinetics for most inorganic elements is incomplete and limited to normal term deliveries. OBJECTIVES: To obtain novel data on 46 inorganic elements in placentae from two high-risk obstetric populations, women carrying multiples and adolescents carrying singletons, evaluating differences, if present, and identifying predictors of placental content...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715339/development-of-a-low-cost-medical-ultrasound-scanner-using-a-monostatic-synthetic-aperture
#11
Thomas L A van den Heuvel, David J Graham, Kristopher J Smith, Chris L de Korte, Jeffrey A Neasham
OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we present the design of low-cost medical ultrasound scanners aimed at the detection of maternal mortality risk factors in developing countries. METHOD: Modern ultrasound scanners typically employ a high element count transducer array with multichannel transmit and receive electronics. To minimize hardware costs, we employ a single piezoelectric element, mechanically swept across the target scene, and a highly cost-engineered single channel acquisition circuit...
August 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709767/obstetrical-brachial-plexus-palsy
#12
Patricia O'Berry, Mackenzie Brown, Leslie Phillips, Sarah Helen Evans
Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy is a disorder of the peripheral nervous system and occurs in as many as 0.4% of infants born. It is associated with shoulder dystocia, use of mechanical extraction, and macrosomia; it occurs more frequently in infants born by vaginal delivery. The unilateral injury to the brachial plexus complex occurs during the delivery phase as lateral traction is applied to the head to permit shoulder clearance. The infant typically presents in the delivery room with decreased active movements of the affected arm and asymmetrical primitive reflex responses...
July 11, 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706445/histone-demethylase-kdm2b-upregulates-histone-methyltransferase-ezh2-expression-and-contributes-to-the-progression-of-ovarian-cancer-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#13
Yan Kuang, Fangfang Lu, Jianfeng Guo, Hong Xu, Qi Wang, Chaohuan Xu, Longjia Zeng, Suyi Yi
Aberrant histone methylation contributes to the progression and development of many tumors. Histone methylation is a dynamic process regulated by both histone demethylase and histone methyltransferase, which ultimately alters the levels of gene transcription. However, the relationship between histone demethylase and histone methyltransferase, as well as their regulatory mechanisms in ovarian cancer development, is still unclear. Lysine-specific demethylase 2B (KDM2B) is a key demethylase of H3K36me3 and H3K4me3 that regulates gene expression and plays a role in tumorigenesis via epigenetic mechanisms...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697100/venous-thromboembolism-prophylaxis-during-antepartum-admissions-and-postpartum-readmissions
#14
Anne H Mardy, Zainab Siddiq, Cande V Ananth, Jason D Wright, Mary E DʼAlton, Alexander M Friedman
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the use of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis during antepartum and postpartum hospitalizations in the United States. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study using the Perspective database was performed to analyze temporal trends of mechanical and pharmacologic venous thromboembolism prophylaxis for patients hospitalized for antepartum and postpartum indications between 2006 and 2015. Delivery hospitalizations were excluded. The association between use of prophylaxis and medical and obstetric risk factors as well as patient demographic and hospital characteristics was evaluated with unadjusted and adjusted models accounting for demographic, hospital and medical, and obstetric risk factors...
August 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678605/the-early-pregnancy-placenta-foreshadows-dna-methylation-alterations-of-solid-tumors
#15
Akpéli V Nordor, Djamel Nehar-Belaid, Sophie Richon, David Klatzmann, Dominique Bellet, Virginie Dangles-Marie, Thierry Fournier, Martin J Aryee
The placenta relies on phenotypes that are characteristic of cancer to successfully implant the embryo in the uterus during early pregnancy. Notably, it has to invade its host tissues, promote angiogenesis-while surviving hypoxia-, and escape the immune system. Similarities in DNA methylation patterns between the placenta and cancers suggest that common epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in regulating these behaviors. We show here that megabase-scale patterns of hypomethylation distinguish first from third trimester chorionic villi in the placenta, and that these patterns mirror those that distinguish many tumors from corresponding normal tissues...
July 5, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675713/obesity-in-pregnancy-as-a-model-to-identify-women-at-risk-for-later-metabolic-syndrome
#16
C Neri, C Di Cesare, A Labianca, M Viggiano, A Caruso, G Paradisi
The aim of our study is to identify - in a cohort of obese women - cardiovascular and clinical risk factors in women with previous complicated pregnancies and protective factors in women with previous physiological pregnancies. A total of 135 nonpregnant obese women referring to Policlinico Gemelli in Rome were prospectively collected in 2009-2010. Thirty-two women matched inclusion criteria: 16 reported a previous physiological pregnancy and 16 reported previous obstetric complications. A clinical, instrumental and laboratory evaluation has been performed for each patient...
July 4, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674684/effect-of-fetal-sex-on-maternal-and-obstetric-outcomes
#17
REVIEW
Mohammed Al-Qaraghouli, Yu Ming Victor Fang
Fetal sex plays an important role in modifying the course and complications related to pregnancy and may also have an impact on maternal health and well-being both during and after pregnancy. The goal of this article is to review and summarize the findings from published research on physiologic and pathologic changes that may be affected by fetal sex and the effect of these changes on the maternal and obstetrical outcomes. This will help create awareness that fetal sex is not just a random chance event but an interactive process between the mother, the placenta, and the fetus...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672786/residential-proximity-to-roadways-and-ischemic-placental-disease-in-a-cape-cod-family-health-study
#18
Amelia K Wesselink, Jenny L Carwile, María Patricia Fabian, Michael R Winter, Lindsey J Butler, Shruthi Mahalingaiah, Ann Aschengrau
Exposure to air pollution may adversely impact placental function through a variety of mechanisms; however, epidemiologic studies have found mixed results. We examined the association between traffic exposure and placental-related obstetric conditions in a retrospective cohort study on Cape Cod, MA, USA. We assessed exposure to traffic using proximity metrics (distance of residence to major roadways and length of major roadways within a buffer around the residence). The outcomes included self-reported ischemic placental disease (the presence of at least one of the following conditions: preeclampsia, placental abruption, small-for-gestational-age), stillbirth, and vaginal bleeding...
June 24, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664740/the-impact-of-physiological-peripartal-stress-on-the-lifelong-health-of-newborn
#19
J Hederlingova, P Psenkova, J Zahumensky
In the last decades the exponential increase in frequency of Caesarean sections is being observed. At the same time, there is growing amount of epidemiologic data showing higher lifetime risk of incidence of several diseases in offspring who do not experience natural labour. These findings lead to investigation of mechanisms which are responsible for maladaptation of several organ systems. Authors of this article describe these mechanisms, focusing especially on epigenetic programming, production of microbiome and positive effect of peripartal stress on successful beginning of extrauterine life...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658852/severe-puerperal-sepsis-a-simmering-menace
#20
Sheeba Marwah, Sonam R Topden, Manjula Sharma, Ritin Mohindra, Pratima Mittal
INTRODUCTION: Even decades after the development of effective low-cost antibiotics, sepsis persists as the foremost cause of preventable maternal death worldwide. In developing countries like India, where the paramount impediment to intervention is poverty, maternal mortality due to sepsis is a continuing representation of maternal health inequality. AIM: To determine the incidence, risk factors and mortality in women presenting with puerperal sepsis in a tertiary care health facility in India...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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