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Mechanical obstetrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033106/current-options-for-mechanical-prevention-of-preterm-birth
#1
REVIEW
Rupsa C Boelig, Vincenzo Berghella
Cervical insufficiency can be defined by a combination of obstetric history, cervical dilation on exam, and/or short cervical length in women with prior preterm birth. Options for mechanical intervention include cerclage and pessary. There is evidence to support the benefit of a cervical cerclage in women with singleton gestations who have a diagnosis of cervical insufficiency either based on second trimester painless cervical dilatation leading to recurrent early preterm births, or a history of early spontaneous preterm birth and a second trimester transvaginal ultrasound short cervical length or cervical dilation on exam...
October 12, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990044/microrna%C3%A2-320-targets-mitogen%C3%A2-activated-protein-kinase-1-to-inhibit-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#2
Yongqian Xu, Jian Hu, Chunxia Zhang, Yuanyuan Liu
Ovarian cancer is the second most frequently occurring cancer and the most fatal gynecological malignancy of all gynecological cancers worldwide. MicroRNAs (miR) have been reported to be downregulated or upregulated in a variety of human malignancies, and involved in the formation and progression of the majority of human cancers, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). miR‑320 has been identified as a tumor suppressor in multiple human cancers. However, the expression levels, biological role and underlying mechanisms of miR‑320 in EOC remain to be elucidated...
September 29, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953612/new-diagnoses-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-the-spanish-pediatric-hiv-cohort-corispe-from-2004-to-2013
#3
Santiago Jiménez de Ory, María Isabel González-Tomé, Claudia Fortuny, Maria Jose Mellado, Pere Soler-Palacin, Matilde Bustillo, José Tomas Ramos, Maria Angeles Muñoz-Fernández, Maria Luisa Navarro
Vertical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has decreased in industrialized countries in recent decades, but there are no studies on the mechanisms of HIV transmission among infected children in Spain. Our aim was to study the characteristics and trends of diagnoses of vertically HIV-infected children in Spain from 2004 to 2013.Vertically HIV-infected children were selected if they were diagnosed from 2004 to 2013, were aged 0 to 18 years old, and were included in the Cohort of the Spanish Pediatric HIV Network (CoRISpe)...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953570/the-association-between-learning-climate-and-adverse-obstetrical-outcomes-in-16-nontertiary-obstetrics-gynecology-departments-in-the-netherlands
#4
Alina Smirnova, Anita C J Ravelli, Renée E Stalmeijer, Onyebuchi A Arah, Maas Jan Heineman, Cees P M van der Vleuten, Joris A M van der Post, Kiki M J M H Lombarts
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between learning climate and adverse perinatal and maternal outcomes in obstetrics-gynecology departments. METHOD: The authors analyzed 23,629 births and 103 learning climate evaluations from 16 nontertiary obstetrics-gynecology departments in the Netherlands in 2013. Multilevel logistic regressions were used to calculate the odds of adverse perinatal and maternal outcomes, by learning climate score tertile, adjusting for maternal and department characteristics...
September 26, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923011/nurse-midwives-ability-to-diagnose-acute-third-and-fourth-degree-obstetric-lacerations-in-western-kenya
#5
Leeya F Pinder, Kelsey H Natsuhara, Thomas F Burke, Svjetlana Lozo, Monica Oguttu, Leah Miller, Brett D Nelson, Melody J Eckardt
BACKGROUND: Obstetric fistula devastates the lives of women and is found most commonly among the poor in resource-limited settings. Unrepaired third- and fourth-degree perineal lacerations have been shown to be the source of approximately one-third of the fistula burden in fistula camps in Kenya. In this study, we assessed potential barriers to accurate identification by Kenyan nurse-midwives of these complex perineal lacerations in postpartum women. METHODS: Nurse-midwife trainers from each of the seven sub-counties of Siaya County, Kenya were assessed in their ability to accurately identify obstetric lacerations and anatomical structures of the perineum, using a pictorial assessment tool...
September 18, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920404/effects-of-zearalenone-on-the-localization-and-expression-of-the-growth-hormone-receptor-gene-in-the-uteri-of-post-weaning-piglets
#6
Min Zhou, LiJie Yang, Weiren Yang, Libo Huang, Xuemei Zhou, Shuzhen Jiang, Zaibin Yang
Objective: In this study, we investigated the adverse effects of dietary zearalenone (ZEA) (0.5 to 1.5 mg•kg-1 diet) on the localization and expression of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in the uteri of post-weaning gilts and explored another mechanism of the reproductive toxicity of ZEA on piglets. Methods: A total of forty healthy piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Large White) aged 28 d were selected for study. Piglets were transferred to single cages after 10 days' adaptation on an obstetric table...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916875/traumatic-injuries-to-the-pregnant-patient-a-critical-literature-review
#7
REVIEW
P Petrone, P Jiménez-Morillas, A Axelrad, C P Marini
INTRODUCTION: Trauma during pregnancy is the leading non-obstetrical cause of maternal death and a significant public health burden. This study reviews the most common causes of trauma during pregnancy, morbidity, and mortality, and the impact upon perinatal outcomes associated with trauma, providing a management approach to pregnant trauma patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the current literature from January 2006 to July 2016 was performed...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913590/challenges-of-anticoagulation-therapy-in-pregnancy
#8
REVIEW
Annemarie E Fogerty
Thrombotic complications in pregnancy represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Pregnancy is a primary hypercoagulable state due to enhanced production of clotting factors, a decrease in protein S activity, and inhibition of fibrinolysis. These physiologic changes will yield a collective rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) of about 1-2 in 1000 pregnancies for the general obstetric population, which represents a five- to tenfold increased risk in pregnancy compared to age-matched non-pregnant peers...
September 14, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904671/-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-a-rare-case-related-to-pregnancy
#9
Jihad Drissi, Ayman Hachi, Laila Adlani, Jaouad Kouach, Driss Moussaoui, Mohamed Dehayni
We report the case of a 25-year old primipara whose pregnancy was complicated by idiopathic intracranial hypertension (ICHT) associated with visual impairment in the first quarter. She underwent lumboperitoneal shunt without obstetric consequences. This study aimed to determine the features of this rare pathological entity whose pathophysiological mechanism is poorly elucidated. It would be caused by poor absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) through the arachnoid granulations. Major risk factors are: obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome, thrombophilia and hyperfibrinolyse...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901313/microrna-30c-inhibits-metastasis-of-ovarian-cancer-by-targeting-metastasis-associated-gene-1
#10
Xia Wang, Li-Wei Qiu, Chen Peng, Shu-Ping Zhong, Lin Ye, Di Wang
BACKGROUND: It is important to find reliable molecular markers or biological targets that associate with ovarian cancer (OC) metastasis for diagnosis and treatment. In this study, researchers investigated the regulated chain of microRNA-30c (miR-30c) and metastasis-associated gene 1 (MTA1) in OC tissues and cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of miR-30c and MTA1 was detected with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry in 33 OC and matched adjacent tissues...
2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888700/surgical-repair-of-rectovaginal-fistula-using-the-modified-martius-procedure-a-step-by-step-guide
#11
Dan Wang, Juan Chen, Lan Zhu, Mingchen Sang, Fan Yu, Qing Zhou
STUDY OBJECTIVE: to demonstrate the surgical repair of rectovaginal fistula by the modified Martius procedure. DESIGN: step by step presentation of the procedure using video. SETTING: Rectovaginal fistula (RVF) is abnormal epithelialized connections between the vagina and rectum. Causes of rectovaginal fistula include obstetrical trauma, Crohn disease, pelvic irradiation and postsurgical complications. Many surgical interventions have been developed, from laparoscopic technique to muscle transposition and even rectal resection...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886617/viscous-effects-in-pelvic-floor-muscles-during-childbirth-a-numerical-study
#12
M C P Vila Pouca, J P S Ferreira, D A Oliveira, M P L Parente, R M Natal Jorge
During vaginal delivery women sustain stretching of their pelvic floor, risking tissue injury and adverse outcomes. Realistic numerical simulations of childbirth can help in the understanding of the pelvic floor mechanics and on the prevention of related disorders. In previous studies, biomechanical finite element simulations of a vaginal delivery have been performed disregarding the viscous effects present on all biological soft tissues. The inclusion of the viscoelastic behaviour is fundamental, since it allows to investigate rate-dependent responses...
September 8, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877554/the-role-of-sociodemographic-factors-in-maternal-psychological-distress-and-mother-preterm-infant-interactions
#13
Kaboni W Gondwe, Rosemary White-Traut, Debra Brandon, Wei Pan, Diane Holditch-Davis
Preterm birth has been associated with greater psychological distress and less positive mother infant interactions than were experienced by mothers of full-term infants. Maternal and infant sociodemographic factors have also shown a strong association with psychological distress and the mother-infant relationship. However, findings on their effects over time are limited. In this longitudinal analysis, we explored the relationship of maternal and infant sociodemographic variables (maternal age, maternal education, marital status, being on social assistance, maternal race, infant birth weight, and infant gender) to maternal psychological distress (depressive, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, parenting stress symptoms, and maternal worry about child's health) through 12 months corrected age for prematurity, and on the home environment, and mother-infant interactions through 6 months corrected age for prematurity...
September 6, 2017: Research in Nursing & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860857/preventing-nausea-and-vomiting-in-women-undergoing-regional-anesthesia-for-cesarean-section-challenges-and-solutions
#14
REVIEW
Yvonne Jelting, Christian Klein, Thomas Harlander, Leopold Eberhart, Norbert Roewer, Peter Kranke
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative nausea and vomiting (IONV) or postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) affecting women undergoing regional anesthesia for cesarean section is an important clinical problem since these techniques are used widely. There are burdens of literature about IONV/PONV and several in parturient and cesarean. However, it needs more attention. The underlying mechanisms of IONV and PONV in the obstetrical setting mainly include hypotension due to sympathicolysis during neuraxial anesthesia, bradycardia owing to an increased vagal tone, the visceral stimulation via the surgical procedure and intravenously administered opioids...
2017: Local and Regional Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844723/cocontraction-measured-with-short-range-stiffness-was-higher-in-obstetric-brachial-plexus-lesions-patients-compared-to-healthy-subjects
#15
Galia V Anguelova, Erwin de Vlugt, Alistair N Vardy, Erik W van Zwet, J Gert van Dijk, Martijn J A Malessy, Jurriaan H de Groot
We suggest short range stiffness (SRS) at the elbow joint as an alternative diagnostic for EMG to assess cocontraction. Elbow SRS is compared between obstetric brachial plexus lesion (OBPL) patients and healthy subjects (cross-sectional study design). Seven controls (median 28years) and five patients (median 31years) isometrically flexed and extended the elbow at rest and three additional torques [2.1,4.3,6.4Nm] while a fast stretch stimulus was applied. SRS was estimated in silico using a neuromechanical elbow model simulating the torque response from the imposed elbow angle...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841636/research-ethics-committee-approval-as-reported-for-abstracts-submitted-to-the-annual-euroanaesthesia-meeting
#16
Paul McConnell, Nechama Kaufman, Stefan De Hert, Charles Marc Samama, Zsolt Molnar, Sharon Einav
BACKGROUND: The annual congress of the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA) is one of the largest anaesthesia congresses in the world and exhibits more than 1200 abstracts annually. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to quantify the frequency of inadequate evidence of ethical approval for abstracts submitted to the ESA congress and to examine whether abstracts without appropriate ethical approval were subsequently accepted. DESIGN AND SETTING: All abstracts submitted in 2015 were adjudicated according to European ethical criteria...
September 4, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839113/geographic-access-modeling-of-emergency-obstetric-and-neonatal-care-in-kigoma-region-tanzania-transportation-schemes-and-programmatic-implications
#17
Yi No Chen, Michelle M Schmitz, Florina Serbanescu, Michelle M Dynes, Godson Maro, Michael R Kramer
BACKGROUND: Access to transportation is vital to reducing the travel time to emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) for managing complications and preventing adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. This study examines the distribution of travel times to EmONC in Kigoma Region, Tanzania, using various transportation schemes, to estimate the proportion of live births (a proxy indicator of women needing delivery care) with poor geographic access to EmONC services. METHODS: The 2014 Reproductive Health Survey of Kigoma Region identified 4 primary means of transportation used to travel to health facilities: walking, cycling, motorcycle, and 4-wheeled motor vehicle...
September 27, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832906/thrombocalc-implementation-and-uptake-of-personalized-postpartum-venous-thromboembolism-risk-assessment-in-a-high-throughput-obstetric-environment
#18
Fergal O'Shaughnessy, Jennifer C Donnelly, Sharon M Cooley, Mary Deering, Ajita Raman, Geraldine Gannon, Jane Hickey, Alan Holland, Niamh Hayes, Kathleen Bennett, Fionnuala Ní Áinle, Brian J Cleary
INTRODUCTION: Venous thromboembolism risk assessment (VTERA) is recommended in all pregnant and postpartum women. Our objective was to develop, pilot and implement a user-friendly electronic VTERA tool. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We developed "Thrombocalc", an electronic VTERA tool using Microsoft EXCEL(™) . Thrombocalc was designed as a score-based tool to facilitate rapid assessment of all women after childbirth. Calculation of a total score estimated risk of venous thromboembolism in line with consensus guidelines...
August 18, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818301/in-vitro-fertilization-and-adverse-obstetric-and-perinatal-outcomes
#19
Chantae S Sullivan-Pyke, Suneeta Senapati, Monica A Mainigi, Kurt T Barnhart
Most IVF-conceived children are healthy, but IVF has also been associated with adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes as well as congenital anomalies. There is also literature suggesting an association between IVF and neurodevelopmental disorders as well as potentially long-term metabolic outcomes. The main driver for adverse outcomes is the higher risk of multiple gestations in IVF, but as the field moves toward single embryo transfer, the rate of multiple gestations is decreasing. Studies have shown that singleton IVF pregnancies still have a higher incidence of adverse outcomes compared to unassisted singleton pregnancies...
October 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811893/knowledge-of-obstetric-danger-signs-and-associated-factors-among-pregnant-women-attending-antenatal-care-at-health-facilities-of-yirgacheffe-town-gedeo-zone-southern-ethiopia
#20
Desalegn Tsegaw Hibstu, Yadeshi Demisse Siyoum
BACKGROUND: Obstetric danger signs are not the literal obstetric complications, merely symptoms that are well named by non-clinical personnel. The identification of these danger signs and its relation with complications during pregnancy would increase the capacity of women, their partners and families to seek for timely health care, following the appropriate steps to insure a safe birth and post-partum. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of obstetric danger signs and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Yirgacheffe town, Gedeo zone, Southern Ethiopia...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
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