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Anesthesia and cognitive function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800981/near-infrared-spectroscopy-in-adult-cardiac-surgery-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Matthew J Chan, Tricia Chung, Neil J Glassford, Rinaldo Bellomo
OBJECTIVES: To identify the normal baseline preoperative range of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2) derived using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and the efficacy of perioperative interventions designed to modulate SctO2 in cardiac surgical patients. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) extracted from the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. SETTING: Hospitals performing cardiac surgery...
August 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777716/research-priorities-in-subspecialty-palliative-care-policy-initiatives
#2
Lynn F Reinke, Diane E Meier
Palliative care demonstrably improves quality of life for the seriously ill in a manner that averts preventable health crises and their associated costs. Because of these outcomes, palliative care is now broadening its reach beyond hospitals, and hospice care for those near death, to patients and their families living in the community with chronic multimorbidities that have uncertain or long expected survival. In this article, we address research needed to enable policies supportive of palliative care access and quality, including changes in regulatory, accreditation, financing, and training approaches in the purview of policy makers...
August 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745667/-prevention-and-correction-of-cognitive-dysfunction-after-general-anesthesia
#3
A Yu Novikov, V A Kovalev, N V Vinichuk, Yu A Chernyh, I E Golub, L V Sorokina
AIM: To evaluate clinical efficacy of intraoperative use of cytoflavin in the prevention and correction of cognitive functions in surgical patients with no history of neurological and psychosomatic disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 60 female patients who underwent surgery on the thyroid gland. Patients were stratified into two equal groups matched for main indices. Patients of the main group received infusions of cytoflavin (20 ml in 200 ml of 5% glucose solution)...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743056/apigenin-attenuates-isoflurane-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-via-epigenetic-regulation-and-neuroinflammation-in-aged-rats
#4
Lin Chen, Wenji Xie, Wenqin Xie, Weiqiang Zhuang, Changcheng Jiang, Naizhen Liu
PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH: Post operational cognitive dysfunction (POCD) occurs in patients after anesthesia and surgery. Abnormal histone acetylation and neuroinflammation are key factors in the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment. Apigenin not only has an anti-inflammatory activity but also modifies histone acetylation. We aimed to investigate whether apigenin can attenuate isoflurane exposure-induced cognitive decline by regulating histone acetylation and inflammatory signaling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Spatial learning and memory were assessed by Morris water maze test...
July 6, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742192/significance-of-interleukin-and-matrix-metalloproteinase-in-patients-with-cognitive-dysfunction-after-single-valve-replacement
#5
H-Y Guo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes in serum neurological function parameters, interleukin (IL) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in patients with cognitive dysfunction after single valve replacement. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 51 cases of senile patients with cognitive dysfunction after general anesthesia were selected as the observation group, and 51 senile patients without cognitive dysfunction after general anesthesia were selected as the control group. Serum neurological function parameters and IL and MMP levels were examined and compared between the two groups...
July 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739067/the-unique-role-of-the-pediatric-clinical-research-nurse-in-anesthesia-an-interdisciplinary-collaboration
#6
Christine Dube, Vanessa Young, Michelle Anderson, Brenda Barton, Izabela Leahy
This article describes the distinctive function of the pediatric clinical research nurse (CRN) in the anesthesia setting. The pediatric CRN in anesthesia acts as a liaison between families and the research team and is the major nexus between the principal investigator or anesthesiologist on a study, and the collaborating surgeons from many different departments. This is unique because the CRNs collaborate with physicians in specialties that can include plastics, urology, neurosurgery, orthopaedics, otolaryngology, cardiology, critical care, and many other departments...
August 2017: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724382/activation-of-cannabinoid-receptor-type-2-attenuates-surgery-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-mice-through-anti-inflammatory-activity
#7
Lingling Sun, Rui Dong, Xin Xu, Xi Yang, Mian Peng
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation plays a major role in postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Accumulated evidence indicates that cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) can mediate anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects in part by controlling microglial activity. However, the impact of CB2R on postoperative cognition has not been investigated. We hypothesized that CB2R is involved in surgery-induced cognitive impairment in adult mice. METHODS: Adult C57BL/6 mice were subjected to intramedullary fixation surgery for tibial fracture under isoflurane anesthesia and CB2R agonist (JWH133) or CB2R antagonist (AM630) treatment...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713258/relationship-of-topology-multiscale-phase-synchronization-and-state-transitions-in-human-brain-networks
#8
Minkyung Kim, Seunghwan Kim, George A Mashour, UnCheol Lee
How the brain reconstitutes consciousness and cognition after a major perturbation like general anesthesia is an important question with significant neuroscientific and clinical implications. Recent empirical studies in animals and humans suggest that the recovery of consciousness after anesthesia is not random but ordered. Emergence patterns have been classified as progressive and abrupt transitions from anesthesia to consciousness, with associated differences in duration and electroencephalogram (EEG) properties...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705715/acute-treatment-with-doxorubicin-affects-glutamate-neurotransmission-in-the-mouse-frontal-cortex-and-hippocampus
#9
Theresa Currier Thomas, Joshua A Beitchman, Francois Pomerleau, Teresa Noel, Paiboon Jungsuwadee, D Allan Butterfield, Daret K St Clair, Mary Vore, Greg A Gerhardt
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent chemotherapeutic agent known to cause acute and long-term cognitive impairments in cancer patients. Cognitive function is presumed to be primarily mediated by neuronal circuitry in the frontal cortex (FC) and hippocampus, where glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter. Mice treated with DOX (25 mg/kg i.p.) were subjected to in vivo recordings under urethane anesthesia at 24h post-DOX injection or 5 consecutive days of cognitive testing (Morris Water Maze; MWM). Using novel glutamate-selective microelectrode arrays, amperometric recordings measured parameters of extracellular glutamate clearance and potassium-evoked release of glutamate within the medial FC and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus...
July 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698343/protocol-for-an-observational-study-of-delirium-in-the-post-anaesthesia-care-unit-pacu-as-a-potential-predictor-of-subsequent-postoperative-delirium
#10
Victoria Cui, Catherine M Tedeschi, Vanessa L Kronzer, Sherry L McKinnon, Michael S Avidan
INTRODUCTION: Postoperative delirium can be a serious consequence of major surgery, associated with longer hospital stays, readmission, cognitive and functional deterioration and mortality. Delirium is an acute, reversible disorder characterised by fluctuating course, inattention, disorganised thinking and altered level of consciousness. Delirium occurring in the hours immediately following anaesthesia and delirium occurring in the postoperative period of 1-5 days have been described as distinct clinical entities...
July 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690539/neurimmirs-and-postoperative-delirium-in-elderly-patients-undergoing-total-hip-knee-replacement-a-pilot-study
#11
Rui Dong, Lingling Sun, Yayuan Lu, Xi Yang, Mian Peng, Zongze Zhang
Objective: Postoperative delirium (POD) is a frequent complication after surgery and its occurrence is associated with poor outcomes. The pathophysiology of this complication is not clear, but identification of risk factors is important for positive postoperative outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between the preoperative expression levels of microRNA (miR)-146a, miR-125b, and miR-181c in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum and the development and severity of POD. Methods: Forty elderly patients aged 65 years old and older admitted for elective total hip/knee replacement under spinal anesthesia...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683067/early-postnatal-exposure-to-isoflurane-causes-cognitive-deficits-and-disrupts-development-of-newborn-hippocampal-neurons-via-activation-of-the-mtor-pathway
#12
Eunchai Kang, Danye Jiang, Yun Kyoung Ryu, Sanghee Lim, Minhye Kwak, Christy D Gray, Michael Xu, Jun H Choi, Sue Junn, Jieun Kim, Jing Xu, Michele Schaefer, Roger A Johns, Hongjun Song, Guo-Li Ming, C David Mintz
Clinical and preclinical studies indicate that early postnatal exposure to anesthetics can lead to lasting deficits in learning and other cognitive processes. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon has not been clarified and there is no treatment currently available. Recent evidence suggests that anesthetics might cause persistent deficits in cognitive function by disrupting key events in brain development. The hippocampus, a brain region that is critical for learning and memory, contains a large number of neurons that develop in the early postnatal period, which are thus vulnerable to perturbation by anesthetic exposure...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678068/anesthesia-adverse-events-voluntarily-reported-in-the-veterans-health-administration-and-lessons-learned
#13
Julia Neily, Elda S Silla, Sam John T Sum-Ping, Roberta Reedy, Douglas E Paull, Lisa Mazzia, Peter D Mills, Robin R Hemphill
BACKGROUND: Anesthesia providers have long been pioneers in patient safety. Despite remarkable efforts, anesthesia errors still occur, resulting in complications, injuries, and even death. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) National Center of Patient Safety uses root cause analysis (RCA) to examine why system-related adverse events occur and how to prevent future similar events. This study describes the types of anesthesia adverse events reported in VHA hospitals and their root causes and preventative actions...
July 1, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671090/anesthesia-with-propofol-and-sevoflurane-on-postoperative-cognitive-function-of-elderly-patients-undergoing-general-thoracic-surgery
#14
Wen Yu
This study is to analyze the effects and variations on cognitive function for elderly patients undergoing general thoracic surgery, who accepted the anesthesia with propofol and sevoflurane. A total of 500 elderly general thoracic surgical patients were selected randomly, all receiving the propofol anesthesia (Propofol group). Meanwhile, another totality of 500 patients in the same condition and period were selected and accepted the sevoflurane anesthesia (Sevoflurane group). Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and recovery quality after anesthesia were compared among the patients in both groups respectively at the time of pre-operation and 1 h, 6 h and 12 h after surgery...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658163/effects-of-preconditioning-of-electro-acupuncture-on-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-in-elderly-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Qi Zhang, Ya-Nan Li, Yang-Yang Guo, Chun-Ping Yin, Fang Gao, Xi Xin, Shu-Ping Huo, Xiu-Li Wang, Qiu-Jun Wang
Electro-acupuncture is a burgeoning treatment using the needle inserting into the body acupoints and the low-frequency pulse current being electrified by an electric acupuncture machine. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of preconditioning of electro-acupuncture on postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly.Ninety patients scheduled spine surgery were randomly assigned into 2 groups using a random number table: control group (group C) and electro-acupuncture group (group EA). In group EA, electro-acupuncture was applied on Baihui, Dazhui, and Zusanli acupoints 30 minutes before anesthesia...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638328/protocol-for-the-reconstructing-consciousness-and-cognition-reccognition-study
#16
Kaitlyn L Maier, Andrew R McKinstry-Wu, Ben Julian A Palanca, Vijay Tarnal, Stefanie Blain-Moraes, Mathias Basner, Michael S Avidan, George A Mashour, Max B Kelz
Important scientific and clinical questions persist about general anesthesia despite the ubiquitous clinical use of anesthetic drugs in humans since their discovery. For example, it is not known how the brain reconstitutes consciousness and cognition after the profound functional perturbation of the anesthetized state, nor has a specific pattern of functional recovery been characterized. To date, there has been a lack of detailed investigation into rates of recovery and the potential orderly return of attention, sensorimotor function, memory, reasoning and logic, abstract thinking, and processing speed...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622158/general-anesthesia-and-young-brain-what-is-new
#17
Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, Ansgar Brambrick
Considering that growing population of very young children is exposed to general anesthesia every year, it is of utmost importance to understand how and whether such practice may affect the development and growth of their very immature and vulnerable brains. Compelling evidence from animal studies suggests that an early exposure to general anesthesia is detrimental to normal brain development leading to structural and functional impairments of neurons and glia, and long-lasting impairments in normal emotional and cognitive development...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614179/molecular-hydrogen-inhalation-attenuates-postoperative-cognitive-impairment-in-rats
#18
Yuchang Xin, Huiying Liu, Peng Zhang, Liuhui Chang, Keliang Xie
Postoperative cognitive decline is a major clinical problem with high morbidity and mortality after surgery. Many studies have found that molecular hydrogen (H2) has significant neuroprotection against acute and chronic neurological injury by regulating inflammation and apoptosis. In this study, we hypothesized that H2 treatment could ameliorate the development of cognitive impairment following surgery. Adult male rats were subjected to stabilized tibial fracture operation under anesthesia. Two percent of H2 was inhaled for 3 h beginning at 1 h after surgery...
August 2, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606253/-effect-of-preoperative-depression-on-early-postoperative-cognitive-function-in-laparoscopic-colon-cancer-patients-during-general-anesthesia
#19
Y J Yu, H Y Zhou
Objective: To analyze the effect of preoperative depression on early postoperative cognitive function after general anesthesia during laparoscopic colon cancer surgery. Methods: One hundred and fifty ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱ general aneasthesia patients (male70, female 80)from Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital in May of 2015 to April of 2016, aged 50-85, undergoing selective laparoscopic colon cancer patients were included. Evaluated preoperative depression by self-rating depression scale and evaluated postoperative cognitive function on 1, 3, 7 days by post-operative quality recovery scale...
June 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573153/optical-imaging-of-the-rat-brain-suggests-a-previously-missing-link-between-top-down-and-bottom-up-nervous-system-function
#20
Susan A Greenfield, Antoine-Scott Badin, Giovanni Ferrati, Ian M Devonshire
Optical imaging with voltage-sensitive dyes enables the visualization of extensive yet highly transient coalitions of neurons (assemblies) operating throughout the brain on a subsecond time scale. We suggest that operating at the mesoscale level of brain organization, neuronal assemblies may provide a functional link between "bottom-up" cellular mechanisms and "top-down" cognitive ones within anatomically defined regions. We demonstrate in ex vivo rat brain slices how varying spatiotemporal dynamics of assemblies reveal differences not previously appreciated between: different stages of development in cortical versus subcortical brain areas, different sensory modalities (hearing versus vision), different classes of psychoactive drugs (anesthetics versus analgesics), different effects of anesthesia linked to hyperbaric conditions and, in vivo, depths of anesthesia...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
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