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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289330/the-heterogeneity-of-cancer-stem-like-cells-at-the-invasive-front
#1
Go J Yoshida
Cancer stem-like cells exhibit the multi-functional roles to survive and persist for a long period in the minimal residual disease after the conventional anti-cancer treatments. Cancer stem-like cells of solid malignant tumors which highly express CD44v8-10, the variant isoform of CD44 generated by alternative splicing, has a resistance to redox stress by the robust production of glutathione mediated by ESRP1-CD44v-xCT (cystine/glutamate antiporter) axis. It has been reported that CD44v and c-Myc tend to show the inversed expression pattern at the invasive front of the aggressive tumors...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273808/role-of-ul3-in-multidrug-resistance-in-p53-mutated-lung-cancer-cells
#2
Annapina Russo, Assunta Saide, Silvia Smaldone, Raffaella Faraonio, Giulia Russo
Cancer is one of the most common causes of death among adults. Chemotherapy is crucial in determining patient survival and quality of life. However, the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) continues to pose a significant challenge in the management of cancer. In this study, we analyzed the role of human ribosomal protein uL3 (formerly rpL3) in multidrug resistance. Our studies revealed that uL3 is a key determinant of multidrug resistance in p53-mutated lung cancer cells by controlling the cell redox status...
March 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258140/ecological-and-evolutionary-insights-into-pathovar-diversity-of-xanthomonas-citri
#3
Kanika Bansal, Samriti Midha, Sanjeet Kumar, Prabhu B Patil
Citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri pv. citri (Xct), is a serious disease of citrus plants worldwide. Earlier phylogenetic studies using housekeeping genes revealed that Xct is related to many other pathovars, which can be collectively referred as Xanthomonas citri pathovars (XCPs). In the present study, we report the genome sequence of eighteen XCPs compared with four XCPs available in the public domain. In a tree based on phylogenomic marker genes, all the XCPs form a monophyletic cluster suggesting their origin from a common ancestor...
March 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253902/sulfasalazine-attenuates-evading-anticancer-response-of-cd133-positive-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#4
Yeonhwa Song, Jaewoo Jang, Tae-Hoon Shin, Sang Mun Bae, Jin-Sun Kim, Kang Mo Kim, Seung-Jae Myung, Eun Kyung Choi, Haeng Ran Seo
BACKGROUND: CD133-positive cells in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibit cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties as well as resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation; however, their function remains unknown. In this paper, we identified a hitherto unknown mechanism to overcome CD133-induced resistance to anticancer therapy. METHODS: We applied an alternative approach to enrich the CD133-positive HCC population by manipulating 3D culture conditions...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202313/the-complex-roles-of-stat3-and-stat5-in-maintaining-redox-balance-lessons-from-stat-mediated-xct-expression-in-cancer-cells
#5
Katja Linher-Melville, Gurmit Singh
STAT3 and STAT5 mediate diverse cellular processes, transcriptionally regulating gene expression and interacting with cytoplasmic proteins. Their canonical activity is stimulated by cytokines/growth factors through JAK-STAT signaling. As targets of oncogenes with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, STAT3 and STAT5 become constitutively active in hematologic neoplasms and solid tumors, promoting cell proliferation and survival and modulating redox homeostasis. This review summarizes reactive oxygen species (ROS)-regulated STAT activation and how STATs influence ROS production...
February 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185919/rheostatic-cd44-isoform-expression-and-its-association-with-oxidative-stress-in-human-malignant-mesothelioma
#6
Shan Hwu Chew, Yasumasa Okazaki, Shinya Akatsuka, Shenqi Wang, Li Jiang, Yuuki Ohara, Fumiya Ito, Hideyuki Saya, Yoshitaka Sekido, Shinya Toyokuni
CD44 exists as a standard (CD44s) isoform and different variant isoforms (CD44v) due to alternative splicing. While the complex nature of these different isoforms has not been fully elucidated, CD44v expression has been shown to exert oncogenic effects by promoting tumor progression, metastasis and resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapy. One of the CD44v isoforms, CD44v8-10, was recently shown to protect cancer cells from oxidative stress by increasing the synthesis of glutathione (GSH). However, data regarding CD44 isoform expression in malignant mesothelioma (MM) are still lacking...
February 6, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167131/erythropoietin-induced-cytoprotection-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells-is-linked-to-system-xc
#7
Colin Martin, Mikita Patel, Miguel Melendez-Ferro, Brian Sims
Necrotizing enterocolitis is a common but serious complication among premature babies. Currently, there are limited treatment options. These include intensive supportive care and surgical intervention. In this study, we hypothesize that erythropoietin (Epo) could be protective against cell necrosis by increasing the levels of glutathione. This can be regulated by increasing the activity of system xC(-). This was demonstrated using intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) as a model system. S4-CPG and sulfasalazine pharmacologically inhibit xCT, which induced cell death...
March 15, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157330/low-threshold-multiexciton-optical-gain-in-colloidal-cdse-cdte-core-crown-type-ii-nanoplatelet-heterostructures
#8
Qiuyang Li, Zihao Xu, James R McBride, Tianquan Lian
Colloidal cadmium chalcogenide core/crown type-II nanoplatelet heterostructures, such as CdSe/CdTe, are promising materials for lasing and light-emitting applications. Their rational design and improvement requires the understanding of the nature of single- and multiexciton states. Using pump fluence and wavelength-dependent ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, we have identified three spatially and energetically distinct excitons (in the order of increasing energy): interface-localized charge transfer exciton (XCT, with electron in the CdSe core bound to the hole in the CdTe crown), and CdTe crown-localized XCdTe and CdSe core-localized XCdSe excitons...
February 7, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105580/pixel-based-dxa-derived-structural-properties-strongly-correlate-with-pqct-measures-at-the-one-third-distal-femur-site
#9
Alexander M Baker, David W Wagner, B Jenny Kiratli, Gary S Beaupre
While bone mineral density has been traditionally used to quantify fracture risk for individuals with spinal cord injuries, recent studies are including engineering measurements such as section modulus and cross sectional moment of inertia. These are almost exclusively calculated by peripheral QCT scanners which, unlike DXA scanners, are rarely found in clinical settings. Using fifty-four fresh frozen femora, we developed and validated a pixel-by-pixel method to calculate engineering properties at the distal femur using a Hologic QDR-1000 W DXA scanner and compared them against similar parameters measured using a Stratec XCT-3000 peripheral QCT scanner...
January 19, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086920/absence-of-system-xc-on-immune-cells-invading-the-central-nervous-system-alleviates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalitis
#10
Ellen Merckx, Giulia Albertini, Magdalena Paterka, Cathy Jensen, Philipp Albrecht, Michael Dietrich, Joeri Van Liefferinge, Eduard Bentea, Lise Verbruggen, Thomas Demuyser, Lauren Deneyer, Jan Lewerenz, Geert van Loo, Jacques De Keyser, Hideyo Sato, Pamela Maher, Axel Methner, Ann Massie
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS), leading to neurodegeneration and chronic disability. Accumulating evidence points to a key role for neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and excitotoxicity in this degenerative process. System xc(-) or the cystine/glutamate antiporter could tie these pathological mechanisms together: its activity is enhanced by reactive oxygen species and inflammatory stimuli, and its enhancement might lead to the release of toxic amounts of glutamate, thereby triggering excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073699/activation-of-nrf2-attenuates-carbonyl-stress-induced-by-methylglyoxal-in-human-neuroblastoma-cells-increase-in-gsh-levels-is-a-critical-event-for-the-detoxification-mechanism
#11
Shoichi Nishimoto, Shin Koike, Naho Inoue, Toshihiro Suzuki, Yuki Ogasawara
The present study focused on the methylglyoxal (MG) detoxification mechanism in neuroblastoma cells. The involvement of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) pathway as a defense response against the formation of MG-modified proteins, which is well-known evidence of carbonyl stress, was also examined. We found that MG treatment resulted in accumulation of modified proteins bearing the structure of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) derived from MG in SH-SY5Y cells...
January 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070112/selenium-uptake-through-cystine-transporter-mediated-by-glutathione-conjugation
#12
Takao Tobe, Koji Ueda, Akira Aoki, Yoshinori Okamoto, Nakao Kojima, Hideto Jinno
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element and is regarded as a protective agent against cancer. In particular, antioxidant effects of selenoenzymes contribute to cancer prevention. Se can also produce reactive oxygen species and, thereby, exert cancer-selective cytotoxicity. Selenodiglutathione (SDG) is a primary Se metabolite conjugated to two glutathione (GSH) moieties. SDG increases intracellular Se accumulation and is more toxic than selenous acid (H2SeO3), but the mechanisms for importing Se compounds into cells are not fully understood...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057599/aspirin-plus-sorafenib-potentiates-cisplatin-cytotoxicity-in-resistant-head-and-neck-cancer-cells-through-xct-inhibition
#13
Jong-Lyel Roh, Eun Hye Kim, Hyejin Jang, Daiha Shin
The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug aspirin and the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib have both shown experimental and clinical anticancer activities. The present study investigated whether aspirin and sorafenib synergize to potentiate cisplatin treatment in resistant head and neck cancer (HNC) cells. The effects of aspirin, sorafenib and cisplatin, and combinations thereof were assessed by measuring cell viability, death, glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, protein and mRNA expression, genetic inhibition and overexpression of cystine-glutamate antiporter (xCT) and tumor xenograft mouse models...
March 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046525/su-c-207a-03-development-of-proton-ct-imaging-system-using-thick-scintillator-and-ccd-camera
#14
S Tanaka, T Nishio, K Matsushita, M Tsuneda, S Kabuki, M Uesaka
PURPOSE: In the treatment planning of proton therapy, Water Equivalent Length (WEL), which is the parameter for the calculation of dose and the range of proton, is derived by X-ray CT (xCT) image and xCT-WEL conversion. However, about a few percent error in the accuracy of proton range calculation through this conversion has been reported. The purpose of this study is to construct a proton CT (pCT) imaging system for an evaluation of the error. METHODS: The pCT imaging system was constructed with a thick scintillator and a cooled CCD camera, which acquires the two-dimensional image of integrated value of the scintillation light toward the beam direction...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024798/zonisamide-attenuates-lactacystin-induced-parkinsonism-in-mice-without-affecting-system-xc
#15
Eduard Bentea, Joeri Van Liefferinge, Lise Verbruggen, Katleen Martens, Sho Kobayashi, Lauren Deneyer, Thomas Demuyser, Giulia Albertini, Katrien Maes, Hideyo Sato, Ilse Smolders, Jan Lewerenz, Ann Massie
Zonisamide (ZNS), an anticonvulsant drug exhibiting symptomatic effects in Parkinson's disease (PD), was recently reported to exert neuroprotection in rodent models. One of the proposed neuroprotective mechanisms involves increased protein expression of xCT, the specific subunit of the cystine/glutamate antiporter system xc(-), inducing glutathione (GSH) synthesis. Here, we investigated the outcome of ZNS treatment in a mouse model of PD based on intranigral proteasome inhibition, and whether the observed effects would be mediated by system xc(-)...
April 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018725/region-based-diffuse-optical-tomography-with-registered-atlas-in-vivo-acquisition-of-mouse-optical-properties
#16
Wenbo Wan, Yihan Wang, Jin Qi, Lingling Liu, Wenjuan Ma, Jiao Li, Limin Zhang, Zhongxing Zhou, Huijuan Zhao, Feng Gao
The reconstruction quality in the model-based optical tomography modalities can greatly benefit from a priori information of accurate tissue optical properties, which are difficult to be obtained in vivo with a conventional diffuse optical tomography (DOT) system alone. One of the solutions is to apply a priori anatomical structures obtained with anatomical imaging systems such as X-ray computed tomography (XCT) to constrain the reconstruction process of DOT. However, since X-ray offers low soft-tissue contrast, segmentation of abdominal organs from sole XCT images can be problematic...
December 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993695/effects-of-orally-administered-augmentin-on-glutamate-transporter-1-cystine-glutamate-exchanger-expression-and-ethanol-intake-in-alcohol-preferring-rats
#17
Alqassem Y Hakami, Fahad S Alshehri, Yusuf S Althobaiti, Youssef Sari
Alcohol dependence is associated with deficits in glutamate uptake and impairment of glutamate homeostasis in different brain reward regions. Glutamate transporter subtype 1 (GLT-1), cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT) and glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) are one of the key players in regulating extracellular glutamate concentration in the brain. Parenteral treatment with ceftriaxone, β-lactam antibiotic, has been reported to attenuate ethanol consumption and reinstatement to cocaine-seeking behavior, in part, by restoring the expression of GLT-1 and xCT in mesocorticolimbic brain regions in rats...
March 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940248/integrin-targeted-hybrid-fluorescence-molecular-tomography-x-ray-computed-tomography-for-imaging-tumor-progression-and-early-response-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
Xiaopeng Ma, Valerie Phi Van, Melanie A Kimm, Jaya Prakash, Horst Kessler, Katja Kosanke, Annette Feuchtinger, Michaela Aichler, Aayush Gupta, Ernst J Rummeny, Michel Eisenblätter, Jens Siveke, Axel K Walch, Rickmer Braren, Vasilis Ntziachristos, Moritz Wildgruber
Integrins play an important role in tumor progression, invasion and metastasis. Therefore we aimed to evaluate a preclinical imaging approach applying ανβ3 integrin targeted hybrid Fluorescence Molecular Tomography/X-ray Computed Tomography (FMT-XCT) for monitoring tumor progression as well as early therapy response in a syngeneic murine Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) model. Lewis Lung Carcinomas were grown orthotopically in C57BL/6 J mice and imaged in-vivo using a ανβ3 targeted near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) probe...
December 7, 2016: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888396/effects-of-administered-ethanol-and-methamphetamine-on-glial-glutamate-transporters-in-rat-striatum-and-hippocampus
#19
Fahad S Alshehri, Yusuf S Althobaiti, Youssef Sari
Exposure to ethanol (EtOH) or methamphetamine (MA) can lead to increase in extracellular glutamate concentration in the brain. Although studies from ours showed the effects of EtOH exposure on key glial glutamate transporters, little is known about the effects of sequential exposure to EtOH and MA or MA alone on certain glial glutamate transporters. In this study, we investigated the effects of sequential exposure to EtOH and MA on the expression of the major glutamate transporters, glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1), as well as cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT) and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) in striatum and hippocampus...
March 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869804/systemic-depletion-of-l-cyst-e-ine-with-cyst-e-inase-increases-reactive-oxygen-species-and-suppresses-tumor-growth
#20
Shira L Cramer, Achinto Saha, Jinyun Liu, Surendar Tadi, Stefano Tiziani, Wupeng Yan, Kendra Triplett, Candice Lamb, Susan E Alters, Scott Rowlinson, Yan Jessie Zhang, Michael J Keating, Peng Huang, John DiGiovanni, George Georgiou, Everett Stone
Cancer cells experience higher oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species (ROS) than do non-malignant cells because of genetic alterations and abnormal growth; as a result, maintenance of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) is essential for their survival and proliferation. Under conditions of elevated ROS, endogenous L-cysteine (L-Cys) production is insufficient for GSH synthesis. This necessitates uptake of L-Cys that is predominantly in its disulfide form, L-cystine (CSSC), via the xCT(-) transporter. We show that administration of an engineered and pharmacologically optimized human cyst(e)inase enzyme mediates sustained depletion of the extracellular L-Cys and CSSC pool in mice and non-human primates...
January 2017: Nature Medicine
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