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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929919/evaluating-the-efficacy-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-therapy-assisted-walking-after-chronic-motor-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury-effects-on-bone-biomarkers-and-bone-strength
#1
B Catharine Craven, Lora M Giangregorio, S Mohammad Alavinia, Lindsie A Blencowe, Naaz Desai, Sander L Hitzig, Kei Masani, Milos R Popovic
To determine the efficacy of functional electrical stimulation therapy assisted walking (FES-T) compared to a conventional aerobic and resistance training (CONV) with respect to bone biomarkers and lower extremity bone strength outcomes among adults with chronic motor incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Parallel group randomized controlled trial ( www.clinicaltrials.gov - NCT0020196819). Site Tertiary academic rehabilitation centre in Canada. Methods Adults with chronic (≥18 months) motor incomplete SCI (C2-T12 AIS C-D) were consented and randomized to FES-T or CONV training for 45 minutes thrice-weekly for 4 months...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929335/convection-enhanced-delivery-of-sulfasalazine-prolongs-survival-in-a-glioma-stem-cell-brain-tumor-model
#2
Shinya Haryu, Ryuta Saito, Wenting Jia, Takuhiro Shoji, Yui Mano, Aya Sato, Masayuki Kanamori, Yukihiko Sonoda, Oltea Sampetrean, Hideyuki Saya, Teiji Tominaga
Expression of CD44 in glioma cells was previously correlated with tumor grade and is considered a stem cell marker. CD44 stabilizes the cystine-glutamate transporter (xCT) and inhibits apoptosis in cancer stem cells (CSCs). Recently it was found that Sulfasalazine (SSZ), an anti-inflammatory drug, acts as an inhibitor of xCT and therefore has potential as a targeted therapy for CSCs. In this study, we tested an efficacy of SSZ against glioma stem cell model developed in rats. As poor penetration of blood-brain barrier resulted in insufficient efficacy of systemic SSZ treatment, SSZ was delivered locally with convection-enhanced delivery (CED)...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924227/implication-of-the-glutamate-cystine-antiporter-xct-in-schizophrenia-cases-linked-to-impaired-gsh-synthesis
#3
M Fournier, A Monin, C Ferrari, P S Baumann, P Conus, K Do
xCT is the specific chain of the cystine/glutamate antiporter, which is widely reported to support anti-oxidant defenses in vivo. xCT is therefore at the crossroads between two processes that are involved in schizophrenia: oxidative stress and glutamatergic neurotransmission. But data from human studies implicating xCT in the illness and clarifying the upstream mechanisms of xCT imbalance are still scarce. Low glutathione (GSH) levels and genetic risk in GCLC (Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase Catalytic subunit), the gene of limiting synthesizing enzyme for GSH, are both associated with schizophrenia...
September 18, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901145/hollow-polycaprolactone-microspheres-with-without-single-surface-hole-by-co-electrospraying
#4
Fenglei Zhou, Ali Chirazi, Julie E Gough, Penny L Hubbard Cristinacce, Geoff J M Parker
We describe the co-electrospraying of hollow microspheres from a polycaprolactone (PCL) shell solution and various core solutions including water, cyclohexane, polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polyethylene glycol (PEG), using different collectors. The morphologies of resultant microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal microscopy and nano-XCT. The core/shell solution miscibility played an important role in the co-electrospraying process and the formation of microsphere structures...
September 13, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882088/slc7a11-xct-protein-expression-is-not-altered-in-the-depressed-brain-and-system-xc-deficiency-does-not-affect-depression-associated-behaviour-in-the-corticosterone-mouse-model
#5
Thomas Demuyser, Lauren Deneyer, Eduard Bentea, Giulia Albertini, Teresa Femenia, Laura Walrave, Hideyo Sato, Niels C Danbolt, Dimitri De Bundel, Alex Michotte, Maria Lindskog, Ann Massie, Ilse Smolders
OBJECTIVES: The cystine/glutamate antiporter (system xc-) is believed to contribute to nonvesicular glutamate release from glial cells in various brain areas. Although recent investigations implicate system xc- in mood disorders, unambiguous evidence has not yet been established. Therefore, we evaluated the possible role of system xc- in the depressive state. METHODS: We conducted a protein expression analysis of the specific subunit of system xc- (xCT) in brain regions of the corticosterone mouse model, Flinders Sensitive Line rat model and post-mortem tissue of depressed patients...
September 8, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881638/the-oxido-metabolic-driver-atf4-enhances-temozolamide-chemo-resistance-in-human-gliomas
#6
Daishi Chen, Manfred Rauh, Michael Buchfelder, Ilker Y Eyupoglu, Nicolai Savaskan
Malignant gliomas are devastating neoplasia with limited curative treatment options. Temozolomide (TMZ, Temcat(®), Temodal(®) or Temodar(®)) is a first-line treatment for malignant gliomas but the development of drug resistance remains a major concern. Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a critical oxido-metabolic regulator in gliomas, and its role in the pathogenesis of TMZ-resistance remains elusive. We investigated the effect of TMZ on human glioma cells under conditions of enhanced ATF4 expression (ATF4(OE)) and ATF4 knock down (ATF4(KD))...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865795/insights-into-the-molecular-basis-for-substrate-binding-and-specificity-of-the-fungal-cystine-transporter-cgcyn1
#7
Anup Arunrao Deshpande, Monika Sharma, Anand Kumar Bachhawat
Cystine transporters are a clinically important class of transporters found in bacteria, pathogenic fungi and mammalian cells. Despite their significance, very little is known about the mechanism of substrate recognition and transport. We have carried out studies on the plasma membrane Candida glabrata cystine transporter, CgCYN1 a member of the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) transporter superfamily. A homology model of CgCYN1 was generated by using crystal structures of three known bacterial APC transporters followed by further refinement using molecular dynamics simulations...
September 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835855/chemotherapeutic-xct-inhibitors-sorafenib-and-erastin-unraveled-with-the-synaptic-optogenetic-function-analysis-tool
#8
Marc Dahlmanns, Eduard Yakubov, Daishi Chen, Tina Sehm, Manfred Rauh, Nicolai Savaskan, Jana Katharina Wrosch
In the search for new potential chemotherapeutics, the compounds' toxicity to healthy cells is an important factor. The brain with its functional units, the neurons, is especially endangered during the radio- and chemotherapeutic treatment of brain tumors. The effect of the potential compounds not only on neuronal survival but also neuronal function needs to be taken into account. Therefore, in this study we aimed to comprehend the biological effects of chemotherapeutic xCT inhibition on healthy neuronal cells with our synaptic optogenetic function analysis tool (SOFA)...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831062/visualization-of-the-internal-structure-of-didymosphenia-geminata-frustules-using-nano-x-ray-tomography
#9
Izabela Zgłobicka, Qiong Li, Jürgen Gluch, Magdalena Płocińska, Teresa Noga, Romuald Dobosz, Robert Szoszkiewicz, Andrzej Witkowski, Ehrenfried Zschech, Krzysztof J Kurzydłowski
For the first time, the three-dimensional (3D) internal structure of naturally produced Didymosphenia geminata frustules were nondestructively visualized at sub-100 nm resolution. The well-optimized hierarchical structures of these natural organisms provide insight that is needed to design novel, environmentally friendly functional materials. Diatoms, which are widely distributed in freshwater, seawater and wet soils, are well known for their intricate, siliceous cell walls called 'frustules'. Each type of diatom has a specific morphology with various pores, ribs, minute spines, marginal ridges and elevations...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826758/%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitor-clavulanic-acid-attenuates-ethanol-intake-and-increases-glial-glutamate-transporters-expression-in-alcohol-preferring-rats
#10
Alqassem Y Hakami, Youssef Sari
Studies from our laboratory showed that upregulation of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT) expression with ceftriaxone, β-lactam antibiotic, in the brain was associated with attenuation of ethanol consumption. In this study, we tested clavulanic acid, which is another β-lactam compound with negligible antimicrobial activity, on ethanol consumption and expression of GLT-1, xCT and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Clavulanic acid has the central β-lactam pharmacophore that is critical for the upregulation of GLT-1 and xCT expression...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826492/environmental-cystine-drives-glutamine-anaplerosis-and-sensitizes-cancer-cells-to-glutaminase-inhibition
#11
Alexander Muir, Laura V Danai, Dan Y Gui, Chiara Y Waingarten, Caroline A Lewis, Matthew G Vander Heiden
Many mammalian cancer cell lines depend on glutamine as a major tri-carboxylic acid (TCA) cycle anaplerotic substrate to support proliferation. However, some cell lines that depend on glutamine anaplerosis in culture rely less on glutamine catabolism to proliferate in vivo. We sought to understand the environmental differences that cause differential dependence on glutamine for anaplerosis. We find that cells cultured in adult bovine serum, which better reflects nutrients available to cells in vivo, exhibit decreased glutamine catabolism and reduced reliance on glutamine anaplerosis compared to cells cultured in standard tissue culture conditions...
August 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820402/does-signaling-of-estrogen-related-receptors-affect-structure-and-function-of-bank-vole-leydig-cells
#12
P Pawlicki, A Milon, M Zarzycka, J Galas, W Tworzydlo, A Kaminska, L Pardyak, K Lesniak, A Pacwa, B Bilinska, E Gorowska-Wojtowicz, M Kotula-Balak
To get a deeper insight into the function of estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) and dissect underlying mechanism in Leydig cells, ERRs (type α, β and γ) were blocked or activated in testes of adult bank voles (Myodes glareolus) which show seasonal changes in the intratesticular sex hormones level. Both actively reproducing animals (long day conditions; LD) and those with regression of the reproductive system (short day conditions; SD) received intraperitoneal injections of selective ERRα antagonist 3-[4-(2,4-Bis-trifluoromethylbenzyloxy)-3-methoxyphenyl]-2-cyano-N-(5-trifluoromethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)acrylamide (XCT 790) or selective ERRβ/ERRγ agonist N-(4-(Diethylaminobenzylidenyl)-N'-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-hydrazine (DY131) (50 μ/kg bw; six doses every other day)...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819374/variant-cd44-expression-is-enriching-for-a-cell-population-with-cancer-stem-cell-like-characteristics-in-human-lung-adenocarcinoma
#13
Makoto Nishino, Mari Ozaki, Ahmed E Hegab, Junko Hamamoto, Shizuko Kagawa, Daisuke Arai, Hiroyuki Yasuda, Katsuhiko Naoki, Kenzo Soejima, Hideyuki Saya, Tomoko Betsuyaku
Background: Preliminary studies have identified cancer stem cells (CSCs) in various cancers and there are several ongoing clinical studies targeting these cells. CD44 (standard or variant isoforms) and/or aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) expression is the most commonly used markers for the identification of CSCs. The goal of the current study was to examine the ability of CD44v, either alone or in combination with ALDH, to identify CSCs within human lung cancer cells lines. Methods: We examined several lung adenocarcinoma cell lines for the ability of CD44v and/or ALDH expression to enrich for cells with CSC characteristics such as in vitro differential proliferation rate, chemotherapeutic-resistance, tumorsphere formation, and in vivo tumorigenicity...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805788/nrf2-keap1-pathway-promotes-cell-proliferation-and-diminishes-ferroptosis
#14
Z Fan, A-K Wirth, D Chen, C J Wruck, M Rauh, M Buchfelder, N Savaskan
Cancer cells are hallmarked by high proliferation and imbalanced redox consumption and signaling. Various oncogenic pathways such as proliferation and evading cell death converge on redox-dependent signaling processes. Nrf2 is a key regulator in these redox-dependent events and operates in cytoprotection, drug metabolism and malignant progression in cancer cells. Here, we show that patients with primary malignant brain tumors (glioblastomas, WHO °IV gliomas, GBM) have a devastating outcome and overall reduced survival when Nrf2 levels are upregulated...
August 14, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774144/micromechanical-properties-of-a-new-polymeric-microcapsule-for-self-healing-cementitious-materials
#15
Leyang Lv, Erik Schlangen, Zhengxian Yang, Feng Xing
Self-healing cementitious materials containing a microencapsulated healing agent are appealing due to their great application potential in improving the serviceability and durability of concrete structures. In this study, poly(phenol-formaldehyde) (PF) microcapsules that aim to provide a self-healing function for cementitious materials were prepared by an in situ polymerization reaction. Size gradation of the synthesized microcapsules was achieved through a series of sieving processes. The shell thickness and the diameter of single microcapsules was accurately measured under environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM)...
December 20, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772728/research-advances-of-microencapsulation-and-its-prospects-in-the-petroleum-industry
#16
REVIEW
Miaomiao Hu, Jintang Guo, Yongjin Yu, Lei Cao, Yang Xu
Additives in the petroleum industry have helped form an efficient system in the past few decades. Nowadays, the development of oil and gas has been facing more adverse conditions, and smart response microcapsules with the abilities of self-healing, and delayed and targeted release are introduced to eliminate obstacles for further exploration in the petroleum industry. However, limited information is available, only that of field measurement data, and not mechanism theory and structural innovation data. Thus we propose that the basic type, preparation, as well as mechanism of microcapsules partly depend on other mature fields...
March 31, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687200/ceftriaxone-reduces-alcohol-intake-in-outbred-rats-while-upregulating-xct-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core
#17
Bethany A Stennett, Jan C Frankowski, Joanna Peris, Lori A Knackstedt
Alcohol addiction is a chronic disease characterized by an inability to regulate drinking. A critical brain region involved in alcohol consumption is the nucleus accumbens (NA). Glutamate transmission in this region regulates alcohol consumption and relapse to alcohol-seeking. Across multiple alcohol-administration rodent models, basal extracellular glutamate levels are increased in the NA during early withdrawal. Glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and system xC-, containing the subunit xCT, regulate NA glutamate levels...
August 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682254/multiscale-shannon-s-entropy-modelling-of-orientation-and-distance-in-steel-fiber-micro-tomography-data
#18
John P Chiverton, Olubisi Ige, Stephanie J Barnett, Tony Parry
This work is concerned with the modelling and analysis of the orientation and distance between steel fibers in Xray Micro-Tomography (XCT) data. The advantage of combining both orientation and separation in a model is that it helps provide a detailed understanding of how the steel fibers are arranged, which is easy to compare. The developed models are designed to summarise the randomness of the orientation distribution of the steel fibers both locally and across an entire volume based on multiscale entropy...
June 30, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681454/human-monocytes-downregulate-innate-response-receptors-following-exposure-to-the-microbial-metabolite-n-butyrate
#19
Felix Lasitschka, Thomas Giese, Marco Paparella, Stefan R Kurzhals, Guido Wabnitz, Katrin Jacob, Judith Gras, Konrad A Bode, Anne-Kristin Heninger, Timea Sziskzai, Yvonne Samstag, Cornelia Leszinski, Bettina Jocher, Mohammed Al-Saeedi, Stefan C Meuer, Jutta Schröder-Braunstein
INTRODUCTION: Hyporesponsiveness of human lamina propria immune cells to microbial and nutritional antigens represents one important feature of intestinal homeostasis. It is at least partially mediated by low expression of the innate response receptors CD11b, CD14, CD16 as well as the cystine-glutamate transporter xCT on these cells. Milieu-specific mechanisms leading to the down-regulation of these receptors on circulating monocytes, the precursor cells of resident macrophages, are mostly unknown...
July 6, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667792/phase-i-study-of-salazosulfapyridine-in-combination-with-cisplatin-and-pemetrexed-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#20
Kohei Otsubo, Kaname Nosaki, Chiyo K Imamura, Hiroaki Ogata, Akitaka Fujita, Shinya Sakata, Fumihiko Hirai, Gouji Toyokawa, Eiji Iwama, Taishi Harada, Takashi Seto, Mitsuhiro Takenoyama, Takeshi Ozeki, Taisei Mushiroda, Mieko Inada, Junji Kishimoto, Kenji Tsuchihashi, Kentaro Suina, Osamu Nagano, Hideyuki Saya, Yoichi Nakanishi, Isamu Okamoto
Spliced variant isoforms of CD44 (CD44v) are a marker of cancer stem cells in solid tumors. They stabilize the xCT subunit of the transporter system xc(-) and thereby promote synthesis of the antioxidant glutathione. Salazosulfapyridine (SASP) is an inhibitor of xCT and suppresses the proliferation of CD44v-positive cancer cells. Chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer were enrolled in a dose-escalation study (standard 3 + 3 design) of SASP in combination with cisplatin and pemetrexed...
September 2017: Cancer Science
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