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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124235/in-vivo-xct-bone-characterization-of-lattice-structured-implants-fabricated-by-additive-manufacturing
#1
A-F Obaton, J Fain, M Djemaï, D Meinel, F Léonard, E Mahé, B Lécuelle, J-J Fouchet, G Bruno
Several cylindrical specimens and dental implants, presenting diagonal lattice structures with different cell sizes (600, 900 and 1200 μm) were additively manufactured by selective laser melting process. Then they were implanted for two months in a sheep. After removal, they were studied by Archimedes' method as well as X-ray computed tomography in order to assess the penetration of bone into the lattice. We observed that the additive manufactured parts were geometrically conformed to the theoretical specifications...
August 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113328/diabetes-and-risk-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-effects-of-high-glucose-on-reactivation-and-infection-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus
#2
Pey-Jium Chang, Yao-Hsu Yang, Pau-Chung Chen, Lee-Wen Chen, Shie-Shan Wang, Ying-Ju Shih, Li-Yu Chen, Chi-Jen Chen, Chien-Hui Hung, Chun-Liang Lin
Patients with diabetes are generally prone to pathogen infection and tumor progression. Here, we investigated the potential association between diabetes and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a tumor linked to infection with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). By using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we found that diabetes is statistically associated with increased risk of KS in a case-control study. Since a high level of blood sugar is the hallmark of diabetes, we determined whether high glucose promotes both KSHV reactivation and infection, which are crucial for KS pathogenesis...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079265/the-viability-of-primary-hepatocytes-is-maintained-under-a-low-cysteine-glutathione-redox-state-with-a-marked-elevation-in-ophthalmic-acid-production
#3
Jaeyong Lee, Eun Sil Kang, Sho Kobayashi, Takujiro Homma, Hideyo Sato, Han Geuk Seo, Junichi Fujii
Extracellular cystine, the oxidized form of cysteine (Cys), is taken up by cells via the cystine transporter xCT. xCT is not expressed in the liver but is induced in primary hepatocytes under conventional cultured conditions. However, compared to wild-type hepatocytes those from the xCT-knockout mouse showed no evidence of an abnormality and the levels of both Cys and glutathione (GSH) remained unchanged. The levels of ophthalmic acid (OPT), which is produced as an alternative compound by the GSH-synthesizing pathway, became increased during the culturing of hepatocytes...
October 26, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048627/slc7a11-a-component-of-cysteine-glutamate-transporter-is-a-novel-biomarker-for-the-diagnosis-and-prognosis-in-laryngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#4
Zhihong Ma, Hong Zhang, Meng Lian, Changli Yue, Gehong Dong, Yulan Jin, Rui Li, Hongfei Wan, Ru Wang, Ying Wang, Jie Zhai, Hongzhi Ma, Ling Feng, Jianfeng Han, Shuzhou Liu, Youxin Guo, Jianhua Li, Yu Liu, Jugao Fang, Honggang Liu
Solute carrier family 7, membrane 11 (SLC7A11) or (xCT) is a component of the cysteine-glutamate transporter, which plays a critical role in glutathione homeostasis which is important to protect cells from oxidative stress. SLC7A11 is distributed in various tissues and participates in the occurrence of a number of diseases, particularly in the pathogenesis of malignant tumors, but its role in laryngeal cancer development has not yet been clearly defined. The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of SLC7A11 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC)...
September 20, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045497/ceftriaxone-and-n-acetylcysteine-induced-brain-tolerance-to-ischemia-influence-on-glutamate-levels-in-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#5
Weronika Krzyżanowska, Bartosz Pomierny, Beata Bystrowska, Lucyna Pomierny-Chamioło, Małgorzata Filip, Bogusława Budziszewska, Joanna Pera
One of the major players in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia is disrupted homeostasis of glutamatergic neurotransmission, resulting in elevated extracellular glutamate (Glu) concentrations and excitotoxicity-related cell death. In the brain, Glu concentrations are regulated by Glu transporters, including Glu transporter-1 (GLT-1) and cystine/Glu antiporter (system xc-). Modulation of these transporters by administration of ceftriaxone (CEF, 200 mg/kg, i.p.) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 150 mg/kg, i.p.) for 5 days before focal cerebral ischemia may induce brain tolerance to ischemia by significantly limiting stroke-related damage and normalizing Glu concentrations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038345/administering-xct-inhibitors-based-on-circadian-clock-improves-antitumor-effects
#6
Fumiyasu Okazaki, Naoya Matsunaga, Kengo Hamamura, Kayoko Suzuki, Takaharu Nakao, Hiroyuki Okazaki, Masahiko Kutsukake, Shiro Fukumori, Yasuhiro Tsuji, Hideto To
Clock genes encoding transcription factors that regulate circadian rhythms may inform chrono-modulated chemotherapy, where time-dependent dose alterations might affect drug efficacy and reduce side effects. For example, inhibiting the essential cystine transporter xCT with sulfasalazine induces growth arrest in cancer cells. Although the anticancer effects of sulfasalazine have been studied extensively, its effects on transcriptional control of xCT expression have not been studied. Here we show that sulfasalazine administration during the period of increased xCT expression improves its anticancer effects, and that the Clock gene itself induces xCT expression and regulates its circadian rhythm...
October 16, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038291/cystine-uptake-through-the-cystine-glutamate-antiporter-xct-triggers-glioblastoma-cell-death-under-glucose-deprivation
#7
Takeo Goji, Kazuhiko Takahara, Manabu Negishi, Hironori Katoh
Oncogenic signaling in cancer cells alters glucose uptake and utilization to supply sufficient energy and biosynthetic intermediates for survival and sustained proliferation. Oncogenic signaling also prevents oxidative stress and cell death caused by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, elevated glucose metabolism in cancer cells, especially in glioblastoma, results in the cells becoming sensitive to glucose deprivation (i.e. in high glucose dependence), which rapidly induces cell death...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024663/role-of-the-astroglial-glutamate-exchanger-xct-in-ventral-hippocampus-in-resilience-to-stress
#8
Carla Nasca, Benedetta Bigio, Danielle Zelli, Paolo de Angelis, Timothy Lau, Masahiro Okamoto, Hideyo Soya, Jason Ni, Lars Brichta, Paul Greengard, Rachael L Neve, Francis S Lee, Bruce S McEwen
We demonstrate that stress differentially regulates glutamate homeostasis in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and identify a role for the astroglial xCT in ventral dentate gyrus (vDG) in stress and antidepressant responses. We provide an RNA-seq roadmap for the stress-sensitive vDG. The transcription factor REST binds to xCT promoter in co-occupancy with the epigenetic marker H3K27ac to regulate expression of xCT, which is also reduced in a genetic mouse model of inherent susceptibility to depressive-like behavior...
October 11, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993941/il-8-is-involved-in-estrogen-related-receptor-%C3%AE-regulated-proliferation-and-migration-of-colorectal-cancer-cells
#9
Sijuan Ding, Zhaohui Tang, Yongjun Jiang, Honglin Huang, Pengfei Luo, Bohua Qing, Siyuan Zhang, Ruoting Tang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Studies revealed that estrogenic signals were involved in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC), while the roles of estrogen related receptor (ERR) on the progression of CRC have not been well illustrated. Its roles on the development of CRC were investigated. METHODS: The expression of ERRα/β/γ in CRC cells were measured. The effects of ERRα on cell proliferation, migration and expression of cytokines were investigated accordingly...
October 9, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974116/decreased-reproductive-performance-in-xct-knockout-male-mice
#10
Shinji Hamashima, Takujiro Homma, Sho Kobayashi, Naoki Ishii, Toshihiro Kurahashi, Ren Watanabe, Naoko Kimura, Hideyo Sato, Junichi Fujii
Sulphoxidation occurs in protamines that are enriched in cysteine and supplies chromatin for packaging. The extracellular fluid contains higher levels of oxidised cysteine (cystine), and some cells utilise system xc(-), a cystine transporter in which xCT is the main protein component, to fulfil the need for cysteine. We hypothesised that system xc(-) might ensure the supply of cysteine needed for spermatogenesis. The reproductive ability of xCT(-/-) male mice at 6- to 18-weeks of age appeared to be lower than xCT(+/+) male mice...
October 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929919/evaluating-the-efficacy-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-therapy-assisted-walking-after-chronic-motor-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury-effects-on-bone-biomarkers-and-bone-strength
#11
B Catharine Craven, Lora M Giangregorio, S Mohammad Alavinia, Lindsie A Blencowe, Naaz Desai, Sander L Hitzig, Kei Masani, Milos R Popovic
To determine the efficacy of functional electrical stimulation therapy assisted walking (FES-T) compared to a conventional aerobic and resistance training (CONV) with respect to bone biomarkers and lower extremity bone strength outcomes among adults with chronic motor incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Parallel group randomized controlled trial ( www.clinicaltrials.gov - NCT0020196819). Site Tertiary academic rehabilitation centre in Canada. Methods Adults with chronic (≥18 months) motor incomplete SCI (C2-T12 AIS C-D) were consented and randomized to FES-T or CONV training for 45 minutes thrice-weekly for 4 months...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929335/convection-enhanced-delivery-of-sulfasalazine-prolongs-survival-in-a-glioma-stem-cell-brain-tumor-model
#12
Shinya Haryu, Ryuta Saito, Wenting Jia, Takuhiro Shoji, Yui Mano, Aya Sato, Masayuki Kanamori, Yukihiko Sonoda, Oltea Sampetrean, Hideyuki Saya, Teiji Tominaga
Expression of CD44 in glioma cells was previously correlated with tumor grade and is considered a stem cell marker. CD44 stabilizes the cystine-glutamate transporter (xCT) and inhibits apoptosis in cancer stem cells (CSCs). Recently it was found that Sulfasalazine (SSZ), an anti-inflammatory drug, acts as an inhibitor of xCT and therefore has potential as a targeted therapy for CSCs. In this study, we tested an efficacy of SSZ against glioma stem cell model developed in rats. As poor penetration of blood-brain barrier resulted in insufficient efficacy of systemic SSZ treatment, SSZ was delivered locally with convection-enhanced delivery (CED)...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924227/implication-of-the-glutamate-cystine-antiporter-xct-in-schizophrenia-cases-linked-to-impaired-gsh-synthesis
#13
M Fournier, A Monin, C Ferrari, P S Baumann, P Conus, K Do
xCT is the specific chain of the cystine/glutamate antiporter, which is widely reported to support anti-oxidant defenses in vivo. xCT is therefore at the crossroads between two processes that are involved in schizophrenia: oxidative stress and glutamatergic neurotransmission. But data from human studies implicating xCT in the illness and clarifying the upstream mechanisms of xCT imbalance are still scarce. Low glutathione (GSH) levels and genetic risk in GCLC (Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase Catalytic subunit), the gene of limiting synthesizing enzyme for GSH, are both associated with schizophrenia...
September 18, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901145/hollow-polycaprolactone-microspheres-with-without-a-single-surface-hole-by-co-electrospraying
#14
Feng-Lei Zhou, Ali Chirazi, Julie E Gough, Penny L Hubbard Cristinacce, Geoff J M Parker
We describe the co-electrospraying of hollow microspheres from a polycaprolactone (PCL) shell solution and various core solutions including water, cyclohexane, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), and polyethylene glycol (PEG), using different collectors. The morphologies of the resultant microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal microscopy, and nano-X-ray computed tomography (nano-XCT). The core/shell solution miscibility played an important role in the co-electrospraying process and the formation of microsphere structures...
November 8, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882088/slc7a11-xct-protein-expression-is-not-altered-in-the-depressed-brain-and-system-xc-deficiency-does-not-affect-depression-associated-behaviour-in-the-corticosterone-mouse-model
#15
Thomas Demuyser, Lauren Deneyer, Eduard Bentea, Giulia Albertini, Teresa Femenia, Laura Walrave, Hideyo Sato, Niels C Danbolt, Dimitri De Bundel, Alex Michotte, Maria Lindskog, Ann Massie, Ilse Smolders
OBJECTIVES: The cystine/glutamate antiporter (system xc-) is believed to contribute to nonvesicular glutamate release from glial cells in various brain areas. Although recent investigations implicate system xc- in mood disorders, unambiguous evidence has not yet been established. Therefore, we evaluated the possible role of system xc- in the depressive state. METHODS: We conducted a protein expression analysis of the specific subunit of system xc- (xCT) in brain regions of the corticosterone mouse model, Flinders Sensitive Line rat model and post-mortem tissue of depressed patients...
September 8, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881638/the-oxido-metabolic-driver-atf4-enhances-temozolamide-chemo-resistance-in-human-gliomas
#16
Daishi Chen, Manfred Rauh, Michael Buchfelder, Ilker Y Eyupoglu, Nicolai Savaskan
Malignant gliomas are devastating neoplasia with limited curative treatment options. Temozolomide (TMZ, Temcat(®), Temodal(®) or Temodar(®)) is a first-line treatment for malignant gliomas but the development of drug resistance remains a major concern. Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a critical oxido-metabolic regulator in gliomas, and its role in the pathogenesis of TMZ-resistance remains elusive. We investigated the effect of TMZ on human glioma cells under conditions of enhanced ATF4 expression (ATF4(OE)) and ATF4 knock down (ATF4(KD))...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865795/insights-into-the-molecular-basis-for-substrate-binding-and-specificity-of-the-fungal-cystine-transporter-cgcyn1
#17
Anup Arunrao Deshpande, Monika Sharma, Anand Kumar Bachhawat
Cystine transporters are a clinically important class of transporters found in bacteria, pathogenic fungi and mammalian cells. Despite their significance, very little is known about the mechanism of substrate recognition and transport. We have carried out studies on the plasma membrane Candida glabrata cystine transporter, CgCYN1 a member of the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) transporter superfamily. A homology model of CgCYN1 was generated by using crystal structures of three known bacterial APC transporters followed by further refinement using molecular dynamics simulations...
September 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835855/chemotherapeutic-xct-inhibitors-sorafenib-and-erastin-unraveled-with-the-synaptic-optogenetic-function-analysis-tool
#18
Marc Dahlmanns, Eduard Yakubov, Daishi Chen, Tina Sehm, Manfred Rauh, Nicolai Savaskan, Jana Katharina Wrosch
In the search for new potential chemotherapeutics, the compounds' toxicity to healthy cells is an important factor. The brain with its functional units, the neurons, is especially endangered during the radio- and chemotherapeutic treatment of brain tumors. The effect of the potential compounds not only on neuronal survival but also neuronal function needs to be taken into account. Therefore, in this study we aimed to comprehend the biological effects of chemotherapeutic xCT inhibition on healthy neuronal cells with our synaptic optogenetic function analysis tool (SOFA)...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831062/visualization-of-the-internal-structure-of-didymosphenia-geminata-frustules-using-nano-x-ray-tomography
#19
Izabela Zgłobicka, Qiong Li, Jürgen Gluch, Magdalena Płocińska, Teresa Noga, Romuald Dobosz, Robert Szoszkiewicz, Andrzej Witkowski, Ehrenfried Zschech, Krzysztof J Kurzydłowski
For the first time, the three-dimensional (3D) internal structure of naturally produced Didymosphenia geminata frustules were nondestructively visualized at sub-100 nm resolution. The well-optimized hierarchical structures of these natural organisms provide insight that is needed to design novel, environmentally friendly functional materials. Diatoms, which are widely distributed in freshwater, seawater and wet soils, are well known for their intricate, siliceous cell walls called 'frustules'. Each type of diatom has a specific morphology with various pores, ribs, minute spines, marginal ridges and elevations...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826758/%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitor-clavulanic-acid-attenuates-ethanol-intake-and-increases-glial-glutamate-transporters-expression-in-alcohol-preferring-rats
#20
Alqassem Y Hakami, Youssef Sari
Studies from our laboratory showed that upregulation of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT) expression with ceftriaxone, β-lactam antibiotic, in the brain was associated with attenuation of ethanol consumption. In this study, we tested clavulanic acid, which is another β-lactam compound with negligible antimicrobial activity, on ethanol consumption and expression of GLT-1, xCT and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Clavulanic acid has the central β-lactam pharmacophore that is critical for the upregulation of GLT-1 and xCT expression...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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