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Paraquat poisoning

Hongcui Liu, Qiong Wu, Tianyi Chu, Yinyuan Mo, Shuyang Cai, Mengli Chen, Guonian Zhu
The exact toxicological mechanisms of paraquat (PQ) poisoning are not entirely clear, especially on the high-level acute exposure. To assess the health risk of PQ, especially to suicidal individuals, accidental ingestion eaters, occupational groups, and special multitude, firstly we explored the acute toxic effect and the possible mechanisms of high-level exposure of PQ using zebrafish. The mainly target organs of PQ were swim bladder which is the homolog of the mammalian lung, followed by gastrointestinal tract and liver...
April 27, 2018: Chemosphere
Yahui Tang, Lufeng Hu, Guangliang Hong, Dahai Zhong, Jiaxing Song, Guangju Zhao, Zhongqiu Lu
Complete blood count (CBC) is one of the most extensively used tests in clinical practice. In order to determine the diagnostic value of the CBC in paraquat (PQ) and organophosphorus (OPPs) poisoning, the CBC indices of PQ- and OPPs-poisoned patients were investigated in this study. A total of 96 PQ poisoning patients, 90 OPPs poisoning patients, and 188 healthy subjects were included in this study. The PQ- and OPPs-poisoned patients were divided into different groups according to their clinical symptoms. All CBC indices were analyzed by Fisher discriminant, partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), variance analysis, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC)...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Jie Gao, Zongxun Cao, Shunyi Feng, Yangying Song, Wenjing Bai, Shumin Zhao, Suli Zhang, Yong Li
Lung dysfunction is an important characteristic of injury induced by paraquat (PQ). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of prolonged low-dose methylprednisolone (MP) treatment on lung function in patients with mild PQ poisoning. We analyzed the results of lung function testing in all patients with mild PQ poisoning admitted to Cangzhou Central Hospital between January 2012 and August 2017. Patients were grouped according to short-term treatment (3 mg/kg/day MP for 3 days) or prolonged treatment (3 mg/kg/day MP for 3 days, followed by dosage reduction by half every 3 days, with treatment terminated when a dosage of 0...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
JinJin Liu, Ye Xiong, Mengmeng Jiang
Although paraquat (PQ) concentrations are the most reliable prognosis predictors of PQ poisoning, these laboratory tests are not readily available in all hospitals. In this study, we proposed an imaging related parameter, that is, the ratio of injured lung volume fraction, for the prognosis evaluation of acute PQ poisoning based on the correlation between disease progress and lung imaging features. An artificial neural network was trained and then used to classify the injured and normal lung regions. The ratio of injured lung volume fraction was calculated from the injured lung volume fractions in the first and second CT scans after three-dimensional reconstruction...
2018: BioMed Research International
Chanthasone Vongphouttha, Jie Zhu, Shuhao Deng, Wenlin Tai, Wenjuan Wu, Zhenkun Li, Wen Lei, Yin Wang, Zhaoxing Dong, Tao Zhang
Paraquat (PQ) is a herbicide that is widely used in developing countries, and pulmonary fibrosisis one of the most typical features of PQ poisoning. The molecular mechanism underlying PQ toxicity is largely unknown, which makes it difficult to treat. In the present study, western blot analysis, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and fluorescent immunostaining were used to analyze the effects of rapamycin on PQ-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 and MRC-5 cells...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Meng-Ruey Wu, Chia-Ying Hsiao, Chun-Han Cheng, Feng-Ching Liao, Chuan-Lei Chao, Chun-Yen Chen, Hung-I Yeh, Min-I Su
INTRODUCTION: Paraquat poisoning can result in dysfunction of multiple organs, and pulmonary fibrosis with respiratory failure is the major cause of mortality. For terminally ill patients, some life-prolonging treatments can be non-beneficial treatments (NBT). The objective of this study was to determine if intubation is a NBT for patients with respiratory failure due to paraquat poisoning. METHODS: The study included 68 patients with respiratory failure due to paraquat poisoning...
2018: PloS One
N Magalhães, F Carvalho, R J Dinis-Oliveira
Diquat (1,1'-ethylene-2,2'-bipyridinium ion; DQ) is a nonselective quick-acting herbicide, which is used as contact and preharvest desiccant to control terrestrial and aquatic vegetation. Several cases of human poisoning were reported worldwide mainly due to intentional ingestion of the liquid formulations. Its toxic potential results from its ability to produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species through redox cycling processes that can lead to oxidative stress and potentially cell death. Kidney is the main target organ due to DQ toxicokinetics and redox cycling...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Yan Jin, Wei Liu, Xiaowei Liu, Tao Ma, Chen Yang, Quan Cai, Zhi Liu
Background: Paraquat (PQ) presents with high toxicity for humans and animals, and the lungs become the main target organ by the poisoning of PQ leading to acute lung injury. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were proved to have the repair function on acute lung injury (ALI). We aimed to invatigate the underlying mechanism of EPCs in PQ-induced ALI involving miR-141-3p. Methods: Endothelial progenitor cells were isolated from peripheral blood of C57BL/6J mice and identified by flow cytometry...
2018: Cell & Bioscience
Fang He, Aiting Zhou, Shou Feng, Yuxiang Li, Tao Liu
BACKGROUND: Paraquat (PQ) poisoning can cause multiple organ failure, in which the lung is the primary target organ. There is currently no treatment for PQ poisoning. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which differentiate into multiple cell types, have generated much enthusiasm regarding their use for the treatment of several diseases. The aim of this study was to systematically review and analyze published preclinical studies describing MSC administration for the treatment of PQ poisoning in animal models to provide a basis for cell therapy...
2018: PloS One
Sa'ed H Zyoud
BACKGROUND: Paraquat is considered to be the main pesticide involved in accidental and intentional poisoning, and is responsible for a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to present a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of paraquat intoxication-related research. METHODS: Data was retrieved in March 2017 from the Scopus database. An overview of the research on paraquat intoxication was presented alongside the information related to several bibliometric indicators, such as research trends, countries with their h-index, collaboration, hot issues, top-cited publications, journals, and institutions...
June 2018: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Yin-Hui Leong, Adilah Mohamed Ariff, Halilol Rahman Mohamed Khan, Noor Afiza Abdul Rani, Mohamed Isa Abdul Majid
This study analyses the incidences and patterns of paraquat poisoning from calls received at the Malaysia National Poison Centre (NPC) since 2004 following the ban of the herbicide (2004-2006) and subsequent restriction up to year 2015. Related reported cases to the centre over twelve years (2004-2015) were retrieved and studied in respect to socio-demographic characteristics, mode and type of poisonings, exposure routes and location of incident. Ages of poisoned victims range from 10 months old to 98 years with males being intoxicated more frequently than females (ratio male to female = 2...
May 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Junbo Zhu, Yongtao Yu, Hongbo Li, Fenshuang Zheng, Ruyun Lin, Chun'ai Yang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of sucralfate on cytokines in rats with paraquat (PQ) poisoning. METHODS: Seventy-two healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into PQ model group, sodium bicarbonate intervention group (SB group) and sucralfate suspension gel group (LTL group), with 24 rats in each group. The rat model of PQ poisoning was reproduced by one-time intragastric administration of PQ solution 25 mg/kg. The rats in SB group and LTL group were intragastricly administrated with 5 mL×kg-1 ×d-1 of 100 g/L sodium bicarbonate or 200 g/L sucralfate at 2 hours after exposing to PQ, and the rats in PQ model group were given the same amount of sterile saline...
March 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Xiuxian Wan, Chunyu Zhou, Xin Kang, Dayong Hu, Wen Xue, Xinhua Li, Hui Bao, Ai Peng
BACKGROUND Paraquat is a major cause of fatal poisoning after ingestion in many parts of Asia and the Pacific nations. However, optimal prognostic indicators to evaluate patient mortality have not been unequivocally established. Following acute paraquat poisoning, a number of amino acids (AA), are abnormally expressed in metabolic pathways. However, the alterations in AA metabolite levels after paraquat poisoning remain unknown in humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the present study, 40 patients were enrolled, of whom 16 survived and 24 died...
March 7, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
L J Yu, X D Jian, Z C Zhang, Y L Ren, Q Ning, K Wang, B J Gao, J E Jia
Objective: To investigate the causes of peripheral vascular thrombosis in patients with paraquat poisoning. Methods: The patients with paraquat poisoning who were admitted to our department in recent two years were observed to screen out the patients with large vessel thrombosis. The data on toxic exposure history, clinical features, and treatment were collected to analyze the causes of thrombosis in the patients with paraquat poisoning. Results: Three patients had typical lower limb thrombosis. There was one case of right common femoral vein thrombosis, one case of bilateral calf muscle vein thrombosis, and one case of right calf superficial vein thrombosis and right calf muscle vein thrombosis...
January 20, 2018: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
X H Li, P B Leng, G C Mao, A H Wang
Objective: To analyze the characteristics of acute pesticide poisoning in Ningbo, and to provide scientific basis for the prevention and control strategy. Methods: In February 2017, the pesticide poisoning report card of Ningbo from 2011 to 2016 was drawn from the China Disease Control and prevention information system. The data of the report card was organized by Excel and analyzed by SPSS19.0 software. Results: 2593 cases of acute pesticide poisoning were reported in Ningbo from 2011 to 2016, 125 deaths, and the case fatality rate was 4...
January 20, 2018: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
W Y Fang, C W Lin, B F Wang, S G Feng
Objective: Construct a paraquat (PQ) cell fibrosis model in vitro, observe the effect of PQ on the expression of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-17 (ADAM17) in A549 cells, and explore the role of ADAM17 in the pulmonary fibrosis induced by PQ poisoning. Methods: A549 cells are divided into normal control group, different concentration of PQ groups, CCK-8 is used to detect cell viability, screening concentration and time of PQ, cell morphology is observed under microscope; Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detectes fibrosis markers of collagen type I (Col I) and fibronectin (FN) expression...
January 20, 2018: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
J Zhang, K X Liu, W Gao, X S Xie
Objective: To establish a rat model of paraquat (PQ) -induced pulmonary fibrosis and observe the changes in thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and its receptor CD47 in lung tissue, and to investigate their roles in the pathogenesis of PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods: Fifty-four clean adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control group ( n =6) and 2 h, 12 h, 1 d, 3 d, 7 d, and 14 d PQ poisoning groups ( n =8 per group). A rat model of PQ poisoning was established by a single gavage of 20 wt...
December 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Jian Lu, Yongbing Qian, Wei Jin, Rui Tian, Yong Zhu, Jinfeng Wang, Xiaoxiao Meng, Ruilan Wang
Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is one of the most prevalent causes of death following paraquat (PQ) poisoning. As demonstrated in previous studies by the present authors, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with PQ-induced PF. In addition, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and lysyl oxidase (LOX) promote EMT following PQ poisoning. However, the association between HIF-1α- and LOX-mediated regulation of EMT remains unclear. The present study investigated the association between HIF-1α and LOX with regard to PQ-induced EMT...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Liang Sun, Peng-Bo Yan, Yin Zhang, Lu-Qing Wei, Guo-Qiang Li
The present study retrospectively analyzed 19 patients diagnosed with paraquat (PQ) poisoning with the aim to investigate the effect of activated charcoal hemoperfusion on renal function and PQ elimination. The results indicated that 7 patients died and 12 survived. Non-oliguric renal failure occurred in all of the 7 patients who died. Among the 12 surviving patients, 10 had normal renal function and 2 developed non-oliguric renal failure. There was a linear correlation between plasma and urine paraquat concentration prior to and during activated charcoal hemoperfusion...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
M Asisha Janeela, Ajoy Oommen, Ajay Kumar Misra, I Ramya
N, N'-dimethyl-4, 4'-bipyridinium dichloride (paraquat) is a widely used synthetic, nonselective contact herbicide. Ingestion of toxic doses of paraquat can be fatal with life-threatening effects on the lungs, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, kidney, liver, heart, and other organs. Till date, there are no specific antidotes and none of the current treatments have proven efficacious. The prognosis is uniformly poor worldwide, including those who treat aggressively with multimodal therapies. Long-term survivors are few, and have GI and pulmonary complications...
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
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