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Carnosine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027815/l-carnosine-as-an-adjunctive-therapy-to-risperidone-in-children-with-autistic-disorder-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#1
Reihaneh Hajizadeh-Zaker, Alireza Ghajar, Bita Mesgarpour, Mohsen Afarideh, Mohammad-Reza Mohammadi, Shahin Akhondzadeh
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at investigating the efficacy and tolerability of l-carnosine as an add-on to risperidone in the management of children with autism. METHODS: This was a 10-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Seventy drug-free children aged 4-12 years old with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition. (DSM-5) who had an Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) scale irritability subscale score of ≥12, entered the study...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027595/carnosinase-diabetes-mellitus-and-the-potential-relevance-of-carnosinase-deficiency
#2
REVIEW
Verena Peters, Johannes Zschocke, Claus P Schmitt
Carnosinase (CN1) is a dipeptidase, encoded by the CNDP1 gene, that degrades histidine-containing dipeptides, such as carnosine, anserine and homocarnosine. Loss of CN1 function (also called carnosinase deficiency or aminoacyl-histidine dipeptidase deficiency) has been reported in a small number of patients with highly elevated blood carnosine concentrations, denoted carnosinaemia; it is unclear whether the variety of clinical symptoms in these individuals is causally related to carnosinase deficiency. Reduced CN1 function should increase serum carnosine concentrations but the genetic basis of carnosinaemia has not been formally confirmed to be due to CNDP1 mutations...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993795/reactive-carbonyl-species-scavengers-novel-therapeutic-approaches-for-chronic-diseases
#3
Sean S Davies, Linda S Zhang
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: To summarize recent evidence supporting the use of reactive carbonyl species scavengers in the prevention and treatment of disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The newly developed 2-aminomethylphenol class of scavengers shows great promise in preclinical trials for a number of diverse conditions including neurodegenerative diseases and cardiovascular disease. In addition, new studies with the thiol-based and imidazole-based scavengers have found new applications outside of adjunctive therapy for chemotherapeutics...
April 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974740/anserine-beta-alanyl-3-methyl-l-histidine-improves-neurovascular-unit-dysfunction-and-spatial-memory-in-aged-a%C3%AE-ppswe-psen1de9-alzheimer-s-model-mice
#4
Jun Kaneko, Akiko Enya, Kota Enomoto, Qiong Ding, Tatsuhiro Hisatsune
Anserine/carnosine supplementation improves cerebral blood flow and verbal episodic memory in elderly people, as we previously reported. Anserine's buffering activity is superior to that of carnosine at neutral pH. In human sera, carnosine but not anserine is rapidly cleaved by carnosinase, limiting its effectiveness. This study examined the effects of anserine on AβPPswe/PSEN1dE9 Alzheimer's disease (AD) model mice over 18-months old, an age at which these mice exhibit detectable memory deficits. We found that 8 weeks of anserine treatment completely recovered the memory deficits, improved pericyte coverage on endothelial cells in the brain, and diminished chronic glial neuroinflammatory reactions in these mice...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960829/separation-and-determination-of-peptide-metabolite-of-bacillus-licheniformis-in-a-microbial-fuel-cell-by-high-speed-capillary-micellar-electrokinetic-chromatography
#5
Wei Wang, Ruiguang Bai, Xiaoyu Cai, Ping Lin, Lihong Ma
A method using high-speed capillary micellar electrokinetic chromatography and a microbial fuel cell was applied to determine the metabolite of the peptides released by Bacillus licheniformis. Two peptides, l-carnosine and l-alanyl-l-glutamine were used as the substrate to feed Bacillus licheniformis in a microbial fuel cell. The metabolism process of the bacterium was monitored by analyzing the voltage outputs of the microbial fuel cell. A home-made spontaneous injection device was applied to perform high-speed capillary micellar electrokinetic chromatography...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933425/carnosine-suppresses-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-recovery-induced-proliferation-and-migration-of-reactive-astrocytes-of-rats-in-vitro
#6
Li Ou-Yang, Yuan Liu, Bing-Yu Wang, Pei Cao, Jing-Jing Zhang, Yu-Yan Huang, Yao Shen, Jian-Xin Lyu
Glial scar formation resulted from excessive astrogliosis limits axonal regeneration and impairs recovery of function, thus an intervention to ameliorate excessive astrogliosis is crucial for the recovery of neurological function after cerebral ischemia. In this study we investigated the effects of carnosine, an endogenous water-soluble dipeptide (β-alanyl-L-histidine), on astrogliosis of cells exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/recovery (OGD/R) in vitro. Primary cultured rat astrocytes exhibited a significant increase in proliferation at 24 h recovery after OGD for 2 h...
September 21, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932258/the-effect-for-japanese-workers-of-a-self-help-computerized-cognitive-behaviour-therapy-program-with-a-supplement-soft-drink
#7
Kentaro Shirotsuki, Yuji Nonaka, Keiichi Abe, So-Ichiro Adachi, Shohei Adachi, Tomifusa Kuboki, Mutsuhiro Nakao
BACKGROUND: Computerized cognitive behaviour therapy (CCBT) programs can provide a useful self-help approach to the treatment of psychological problems. Previous studies have shown that CCBT has moderate effects on depression, insomnia, and anxiety. The present study investigated whether a supplement drink that includes L-carnosine enhances the effect of CCBT on psychological well-being. METHODS: Eighty-seven participants were randomly allocated to a control group, CCBT, or CCBT with supplement drink...
2017: BioPsychoSocial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926352/zinc-l-carnosine-complex-polaprezinc-for-the-treatment-of-binge-eating-three-case-reports
#8
Kensaku Sakae, Hiroyuki Yanagisawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924423/vegan-diets-practical-advice-for-athletes-and-exercisers
#9
REVIEW
David Rogerson
With the growth of social media as a platform to share information, veganism is becoming more visible, and could be becoming more accepted in sports and in the health and fitness industry. However, to date, there appears to be a lack of literature that discusses how to manage vegan diets for athletic purposes. This article attempted to review literature in order to provide recommendations for how to construct a vegan diet for athletes and exercisers. While little data could be found in the sports nutrition literature specifically, it was revealed elsewhere that veganism creates challenges that need to be accounted for when designing a nutritious diet...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910200/comparison-of-two-%C3%AE-alanine-dosing-protocols-on-muscle-carnosine-elevations
#10
David D Church, Jay R Hoffman, Alyssa N Varanoske, Ran Wang, Kayla M Baker, Michael B La Monica, Kyle S Beyer, Sarah J Dodd, Leonardo P Oliveira, Roger C Harris, David H Fukuda, Jeffrey R Stout
OBJECTIVE: β-alanine (BA) is a nonproteogenic amino acid that combines with histidine to form carnosine. The amount taken orally in individual doses, however, is limited due to symptoms of paresthesia that are associated with higher doses. The use of a sustained-release formulation has been reported to reduce the symptoms of paresthesia, suggesting that a greater daily dose may be possible. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether increasing the daily dose of BA can result in a similar increase in muscle carnosine in a reduced time...
September 14, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887733/computational-design-of-bio-inspired-carnosine-based-hobr-antioxidants
#11
Farzaneh Sarrami, Li-Juan Yu, Amir Karton
During a respiratory burst the enzyme myeloperoxidase generates significant amounts of hypohalous acids (HOX, X = Cl and Br) in order to inflict oxidative damage upon invading pathogens. However, excessive production of these potent oxidants is associated with numerous inflammatory diseases. It has been suggested that the endogenous antioxidant carnosine is an effective HOCl scavenger. Recent computational and experimental studies suggested that an intramolecular Cl(+) transfer from the imidazole ring to the terminal amine might play an important role in the antioxidant activity of carnosine...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880219/influence-of-skeletal-muscle-carnosine-content-on-fatigue-during-repeated-resistance-exercise-in-recreationally-active-women
#12
Alyssa N Varanoske, Jay R Hoffman, David D Church, Ran Wang, Kayla M Baker, Sarah J Dodd, Nicholas A Coker, Leonardo P Oliveira, Virgil L Dawson, David H Fukuda, Jeffrey R Stout
Carnosine is a naturally occurring intramuscular dipeptide that is thought to attenuate fatigue during high-intensity exercise. Carnosine content is influenced by various factors, including gender and diet. Despite research reporting that carnosine content is lower in women compared to men and lower in vegetarians compared to omnivores, no investigations have examined carnosine content in women based on dietary protein intake and its effect on muscle fatigue. Twenty recreationally active women were assigned to either a high (HI; n = 5), moderate (MOD; n = 10), or low (LO; n = 5) group based upon intramuscular carnosine content of the vastus lateralis...
September 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871847/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-carnosinase-genes-cndp1-and-cndp2-are-associated-with-power-athletic-status
#13
João Paulo Limongi França Guilherme, Antonio Herbert Lancha Junior
Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine), abundantly found in skeletal muscle, plays an important role during exercise, especially for high-intensity contractions. Variability in muscle carnosine content between individuals exists and may also be explained by different genetic bases, although no study has addressed the association of polymorphisms in genes related to carnosine metabolism in athletes. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the carnosinase genes (CNDP1 and CNDP2) in a large Brazilian cohort of athletes and non-athletes...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864708/does-supplementation-with-carnosine-improve-cardiometabolic-health-and-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-pre-diabetes-and-type-2-diabetes-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#14
Estifanos Baye, Kirthi Menon, Maximilian Pj de Courten, Arul Earnest, James Cameron, Barbora de Courten
INTRODUCTION: Carnosine, an over-the-counter food supplement, has a promising potential for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases through its anti-inflammatory, antiglycation, antioxidative and chelating effects. We have previously shown that supplementation with carnosine preserves insulin sensitivity and secretion in non-diabetic overweight and obese individuals. The effect of carnosine on cardiometabolic risk and related cognitive outcomes in patients with pre-diabetes and T2DM has thus far not been studied...
September 1, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863318/therapeutic-effect-of-carnosine-in-rat-model-of-experimental-liver-carcinogenesis
#15
Amr A Fouad, Hatem O Qutub, Abdullatif S Al Rashed, Walid N Al-Melhim
The possible anticancer effect of carnosine versus doxorubicin was investigated against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induced by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) (500mg/kg/day, p.o., for 5days) in rats. Following induction of HCC, rats treated with either carnosine (10mg/kg/day, i.p.), or doxorubicin (2.5mg/kg, i.p., once weekly), for 2 weeks. Carnosine significantly decreased serum alanine aminotransferase, and hepatic lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and nuclear factor-κB p65 unit, and significantly increased liver total antioxidant status in TCA-challenged rats...
August 26, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836498/evaluation-of-liposomal-carnosine-in-adjuvant-arthritis
#16
Lukáš Slovák, Silvester Poništ, Tatiana Fedorova, Anna Logvinenko, Irina Levacheva, Olga Samsonova, Udo Bakowsky, Ľudmila Pašková, Tomáš Čavojský, Lia Tsiklauri, Katarína Bauerová
Liposomal carnosine could overcome the problems associated with direct application of this peptide. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of liposomal and non-liposomal carnosine in adjuvant arthritis were compared. The experiments were done on healthy animals, untreated arthritic animals, arthritic animals with oral administration of carnosine, and with subcutaneous administration of liposomal carnosine, both administered in the same daily dose of 150 mg/kg b.w. during 28 days. Carnosine reduced hind paw volume on day 28...
October 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834691/quenching-activity-of-carnosine-derivatives-towards-reactive-carbonyl-species-focus-on-%C3%AE-methylglyoxal-and-%C3%AE-malondialdehyde-dicarbonyls
#17
Giulio Vistoli, Mara Colzani, Angelica Mazzolari, Ettore Gilardoni, Carola Rivaletto, Marina Carini, Giancarlo Aldini
The study combines HPLC-based with MS-based competitive analyses to evaluate the quenching activity of a set of carnosine derivatives towards methylglyoxal (MGO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) chosen as representative of α- and β-dicarbonyls, respectively. The obtained results underline that these derivatives are moderately reactive towards MDA with which they form the corresponding N-propenal adduct via Michael addition. In contrast they proved a rather poor quenching activity towards MGO with which they can condense to give MOLD-like adducts through a concerted mechanism involving more quenchers molecules...
August 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833918/attenuation-of-dna-damage-and-mrna-gene-expression-in-hypoxic-rats-using-natural-antioxidants
#18
Laila Mohamed Fadda, Hala A Attia, Nouf Mohamed Al-Rasheed, Hanaa Mahmoud Ali, Manal Aldossari
This study aimed to explore the efficiency of carnosine (Cs) and/or l-arginine (Agn) in the downregulation of apoptotic and inflammatory molecule expression and DNA damage caused hepatic injury in response to sodium nitrite (Sd)-induced hypoxia in rats. Rats were injected with Sd; Agn or/and Cs were administrated prior to Sd intoxication. Sd significantly decreased hemoglobin concentration and Bcl-2 mRNA expression, while increased expressions of apoptotic markers (Bax and caspase), tumor necrosis factor-α, nuclear factor kappa B, and C-reactive protein and the oxidative DNA damage in hepatic tissue...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777736/a-pilot-study-of-the-effect-of-human-breast-milk-on-urinary-metabolome-analysis-in-infants
#19
Hiromichi Shoji, Hikari Taka, Naoko Kaga, Naho Ikeda, Tomohiro Kitamura, Yoshiki Miura, Toshiaki Shimizu
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the nutritional effect of breast feeding on healthy term infants by using urinary metabolome analysis. METHODS: Urine samples were collected from 19 and 14 infants at 1 and 6 months, respectively. Infants were separated into two groups: the breast-fed group receiving <540 mL/week of their intake from formula (n=13 at 1 month; n=9 at 6 months); and the formula-fed group receiving no breast milk (BM) (n=6 at 1 month; n=5 at 6 months)...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776910/antiglycation-and-anti-oxidant-efficiency-of-carnosine-in-the-plasma-and-liver-of-aged-rats
#20
İlknur Bingül, Zülbiye Yılmaz, A Fatih Aydın, Jale Çoban, Semra Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Müjdat Uysal
AIM: Increases in oxidative stress and advanced glycation end-products (AGE) formation play an important role in the pathogenesis of aging. Carnosine (CAR; β-alanyl-L-histidine) has anti-oxidant and antiglycating properties. We investigated the effect of CAR supplementation on AGE levels, and protein and lipid oxidation products in the serum and liver tissue in aged rats. METHODS: Young (3 months-of-age) and aged (20 months-of-age) rats were injected with CAR (250 mg/kg/daily; i...
August 4, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
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