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Carnosine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454153/muscle-carnosine-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-and-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Charly Keytsman, Laura Blancquaert, Inez Wens, Maarten Missine, Pieter Van Noten, Frank Vandenabeele, Wim Derave, Bert O Eijnde
BACKGROUND: Muscle carnosine is related to contractile function (Ca ++ handling) and buffering of exercise-induced acidosis. As these muscular functions are altered in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) it is relevant to understand muscle carnosine levels in MS. METHODS: Tibialis anterior muscle carnosine was measured in an animal MS model (EAE, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, n = 40) and controls (CON, n = 40) before and after exercise training (EAE EX , CON EX , 10d, 1 h/d, 24 m/min treadmill running) or sedentary conditions (EAE SED , CON SED )...
February 11, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433209/effect-of-hop-%C3%AE-acids-as-dietary-supplement-for-broiler-chickens-on-meat-composition-and-redox-stability
#2
A Zawadzki, C Alloo, A B Grossi, E S P do Nascimento, L C Almeida, S Bogusz Junior, L H Skibsted, D R Cardoso
Addition of β-acids extracted from hop at different levels (0, 30mgkg-1, 60mgkg-1, 240mgkg-1) to the diet of broiler chickens demonstrated significant effects on the average concentration of polar metabolites and fatty acids of relevance for meat quality. The largest metabolic differences between control group and chicken fed different levels of β-acids were achieved using 30mgkg-1 of supplement. As determined by EPR spin-trapping, increased redox stability was also obtained for meat from chicken fed 30mgkg-1 of β-acids which also had highest level of endogenous antioxidants, especially anserine, carnosine, NADH and PUFAs...
March 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430839/effects-of-l-carnosine-supplementation-on-sleep-disorders-and-disease-severity-in-autistic-children-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#3
Zahra Mehrazad-Saber, Sorayya Kheirouri, Seyyed-Gholamreza Noorazar
Sleep disorders are frequently reported in autistic patients. Evidences suggest that increased oxidative stress and reduced antioxidants may play a major role in the pathogenesis of these disorders. Carnosine acts as an antioxidant, antitoxic and neuroprotective agent. The aim of this trial study was to examine the effects of carnosine supplementation on the sleep disorders and severity of autism core symptoms in autistic patients. In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial, 43 autistic patients (31 boys and 12 girls; aged 4 to 16 years) were divided into two groups of carnosine and control that received 500 mg of carnosine and 500 mg of placebo per day for two months, respectively...
February 11, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427913/l-carnosine-as-an-add-on-to-risperidone-for-treatment-of-negative-symptoms-in-patients-with-stable-schizophrenia-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#4
Alireza Ghajar, Mohammad-Reza Khoaie-Ardakani, Zahara Shahmoradi, Amir-Reza Alavi, Mohsen Afarideh, Mohammad-Reza Shalbafan, Maryam Ghazizadeh-Hashemi, Shahin Akhondzadeh
Since l-carnosine has shown effectiveness in improvement of cognition in patients with schizophrenia, this 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted. Sixty-three patients with chronic schizophrenia, who were clinically stable on a stable dose of risperidone, entered the study. The patients were randomly assigned to l-carnosine (2 gr/day in two divided doses) or placebo for eight weeks. The patients were assessed using the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), extrapyramidal symptom rating scale (ESRS), and Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) during the study course...
February 3, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420997/l-carnosine-supplementation-attenuated-fasting-glucose-triglycerides-advanced-glycation-end-products-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-levels-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
Shiva Houjeghani, Sorayya Kheirouri, Esmaeil Faraji, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi
Considering the pathologic importance of metabolic disturbances, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and chronic inflammation in diabetes mellitus and ameliorating potentials of l-carnosine in hampering these detritions and because these effects have not been investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) so far, we conducted the current study. We hypothesized that l-carnosine would improve glycemic control, lipid profile, AGE, soluble receptor of AGEs (sRAGE), and inflammatory markers. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 54 patients with T2D were recruited and assigned into either intervention group (n=27, receiving 2 capsules of l-carnosine 500 mg each) or control group (n=27)...
January 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417441/glycotoxins-dietary-and-metabolic-origins-possible-amelioration-of-neurotoxicity-by-carnosine-with-special-reference-to-parkinson-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Alan R Hipkiss
There is a strong association between neurodegeneration and protein glycation; possible origins of neurotoxic glycated protein, also called glycotoxins, include (i) diet (i.e., proteins cooked at high temperatures), (ii) protein glycation in the gut, and (iii) intracellular reaction of proteins with deleterious aldehydes, especially methylglyoxal (MG). It is likely that excessive glycolysis provokes increased generation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate which decomposes into MG due to activity-induced deamidation of certain asparagine residues in the glycolytic enzyme triose-phosphate isomerase (TPI)...
February 7, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399121/protective-effects-of-beef-decoction-rich-in-carnosine-on-cerebral-ischemia-injury-by-permanent-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-rats
#7
Ai-Hong Wang, Qian Ma, Xin Wang, Gui-Hua Xu
Inflammation has a role in the cerebral injury induced by ischemia and the present study aimed to determine the mechanism of the protective effect of beef decoction (BD) with carnosine against it. A rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion was established using a suture method in the vehicle and each of the BD groups. In experiment 1, 72 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham, vehicle and BD-treated group. Rats in the BD group were given 600 mg/kg BD by oral gavage for 1, 3 and 7 days...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382141/zinc-carnosine-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Masahiro Kawahara, Ken-Ichiro Tanaka, Midori Kato-Negishi
Zinc (Zn) is abundantly present in the brain, and accumulates in the synaptic vesicles. Synaptic Zn is released with neuronal excitation, and plays essential roles in learning and memory. Increasing evidence suggests that the disruption of Zn homeostasis is involved in various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, a vascular type of dementia, and prion diseases. Our and other numerous studies suggest that carnosine (β-alanyl histidine) is protective against these neurodegenerative diseases...
January 29, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372035/the-toxicity-study-of-synthesized-inverse-carnosine-peptide-analogues-on-hepg2-and-ht-29-cells
#9
Mohammad Hassan Houshdar Tehrani, Abdolhamid Bamoniri, Mohammadreza Gholibeikian
Objective: Cancer has risen as the main cause of diseases with the highest rate of mortality in the world. Drugs used in cancer, usually demonstrate side effects on normal tissues. On the other hand, anticancer small peptides, effective on target tissues, should be safe on healthy organs, as being naturally originated compounds. In addition, they may have good pharmacokinetic properties. carnosine, a natural dipeptide, has shown many biological functions, including anti-oxidant, anti-senescence, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334583/effects-of-carnosine-beta-alanyl-l-histidine-in-an-experimental-rat-model-of-acute-kidney-injury-due-to-septic-shock
#10
Sabiha Sahin, Dilek Burukoglu Donmez
BACKGROUND Acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the human intensive care unit (ICU). Kidney function and the histological findings of AKI were investigated in an experimental rat model with sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and compared with and without treatment with carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine). MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups consisting eight rats in each: Group 1 - control; Group 2 - septic shock; and Group 3 - septic shock treated with carnosine...
January 15, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325148/effect-of-dietary-%C3%AE-alanine-supplementation-on-growth-performance-meat-quality-carnosine-content-and-gene-expression-of-carnosine-related-enzymes-in-broilers
#11
Bo Qi, Jing Wang, You-Biao Ma, Shu-Geng Wu, Guang-Hai Qi, Hai-Jun Zhang
The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of dietary β-alanine supplementation on growth performance, meat quality, antioxidant ability, carnosine content, and gene expression of carnosine-related enzymes in broiler chicks. We randomly assigned 540 1-day-old Arbor Acres broilers to 5 dietary treatments supplemented with 0 (control group), 250, 500, 1,000, or 2,000 mg/kg of β-alanine (mg β-alanine per kg feed). Each treatment included 6 replicates of 18 birds. The feeding trial lasted for 42 d...
January 6, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315787/metabolomic-serum-profiling-after-acl-injury-in-rats-a-pilot-study-implicating-inflammation-and-immune-dysregulation-in-post-traumatic-osteoarthritis
#12
Tristan Maerz, Eric Sherman, Michael Newton, Ali Yilmaz, Praveen Kumar, Stewart F Graham, Kevin C Baker
ACL rupture is a major risk factor for post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) development. Little information exists on acute systemic metabolic indicators of disease development. 36 female Lewis rats were randomized to Control or noninvasive anterior cruciate ligament rupture (ACLR) and to three post-injury time points: 72 hours, 4 weeks, 10 weeks (n = 6). Serum was collected and analyzed by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and combined direct injection and liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS (DI-MS)...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275640/lost-in-translation-a-critical-look-at-the-role-that-animal-models-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-play-in-current-drug-discovery-strategies
#13
Kurt Leroy Hoffman, Hugo Cano-Ramírez
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe neuropsychiatric illness estimated to affect between 1-3% of the population. In today's literature, there are a number well-validated and convincing animal models of OCD described. Areas covered: Herein, the authors look at the role that animal models of OCD (including transgenic models, deer mouse stereotypy, quinpirole sensitization, post-training signal attenuation, and mouse marble burying) have played in determining the current directions of OCD drug discovery...
March 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258561/a-pilot-investigation-on-dna-methylation-modifications-associated-with-complex-posttraumatic-symptoms-in-elderly-traumatized-in-childhood
#14
Zoya Marinova, Andreas Maercker, Edna Grünblatt, Tomasz K Wojdacz, Susanne Walitza
OBJECTIVE: Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) is a newly proposed diagnosis in the International Classification of Diseases-version 11, which is currently intensively investigated. Childhood trauma is regarded as main source of CPTSD symptoms, even in later life. Induction of DNA methylation changes by childhood trauma may contribute to its long-lasting adverse health consequences. The current study analyzed the correlation of genome-wide DNA methylation profiles with complex posttraumatic sequelae in buccal epithelial cells from 31 elderly former indentured child laborers (Verdingkinder) using the Infinium Illumina 450k Human DNA methylation chip...
December 19, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246277/%C3%AE-alanine-supplementation-elevates-intramuscular-carnosine-content-and-attenuates-fatigue-in-men-and-women-similarly-but-does-not-change-muscle-l-histidine-content
#15
Alyssa N Varanoske, Jay R Hoffman, David D Church, Nicholas A Coker, Kayla M Baker, Sarah J Dodd, Leonardo P Oliveira, Virgil L Dawson, Ran Wang, David H Fukuda, Jeffrey R Stout
β-Alanine (BA) supplementation results in elevated intramuscular carnosine content, enhancing buffering capacity during intense exercise. Although men have greater muscle carnosine content than women, elevations still appear to occur despite high baseline levels. Recent research has suggested that BA supplementation may also reduce muscle l-histidine. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to compare 28 days of BA (6 g·d -1 ) supplementation in men and women on performance and muscle carnosine, l-histidine, and BA...
December 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236301/synergistic-effect-of-carnosine-on-browning-of-adipose-tissue-in-exercised-obese-rats-a-focus-on-circulating-irisin-levels
#16
Mona F Schaalan, Basma K Ramadan, Azza H Abd Elwahab
BACKGROUND: The recent appreciation of the energy burning capacity of brown adipose tissue turns it to an attractive target as anti-obesity therapy. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the effect of L-carnosine on browning of white adipose tissue in exercised obese rats. METHODS: Sixty adult male Wistar albino rats between 7-8 weeks-old weighing 130-150 g were allocated into six groups;(i) normal control rats fed normal diet; (ii) high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats, (iii) normal control rats fed normal diet and injected with L-carnosine (250mg/kg), (iv) HFD-rats injected with L-carnosine (250mg/kg),(v): HFD-rats subjected to exercise training; (vi): HFD- rats subjected to exercise training and L-carnosine together...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234057/effect-of-carnosine-supplementation-on-the-plasma-lipidome-in-overweight-and-obese-adults-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Estifanos Baye, Jozef Ukropec, Maximilian Pj de Courten, Silvia Vallova, Patrik Krumpolec, Timea Kurdiova, Giancarlo Aldini, Barbara Ukropcova, Barbora de Courten
Carnosine has been shown to reduce oxidation and glycation of low density lipoprotein hence improving dyslipidaemia in rodents. The effect of carnosine on human plasma lipidome has thus far not been investigated. We aimed to determine whether carnosine supplementation improves the plasma lipidome in overweight and obese individuals. Lipid analysis was performed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in 24 overweight and obese adults: 13 were randomly assigned to 2 g carnosine daily and 11 to placebo, and treated for 12 weeks...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230946/direct-hplc-separation-of-carnosine-enantiomers-with-two-chiral-stationaryn-phases-based-on-penicillamine-and-teicoplanin-derivatives
#18
Laura Fumagalli, Lucia Pucciarini, Luca Regazzoni, Ettore Gilardoni, Marina Carini, Giulio Vistoli, Giancarlo Aldini, Roccardo Sardella
Carnosine is present in high concentrations in specific human tissues such as the skeletal muscle, and among its biological functions, the remarkable scavenging activity towards reactive carbonyl species is noteworthy. Although the two enantiomers show almost identical scavenging reactivity towards reactive carbonyl species, only d-carnosine is poorly adsorbed at the gastrointestinal level and is stable in human plasma. Direct methods for the enantioselective analysis of carnosine are still missing even though they could find more effective applications in the analysis of complex matrices...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230838/carnosine-prevents-testicular-oxidative-stress-and-advanced-glycation-end-product-formation-in-d-galactose-induced-aged-rats
#19
A F Aydın, C Küçükgergin, J Çoban, I Doğan-Ekici, S Doğru-Abbasoğlu, M Uysal, N Koçak-Toker
D-Galactose is shown to mimic natural ageing in rodents by exacerbating oxidative stress and glycation. Steroid production and having a poor antioxidant system make testis vulnerable to galactose-induced ageing. Antioxidation and antiglycating actions of carnosine may be intriguing for prevention of testicular ageing. In this study, male Wistar rats were applied D-galactose (300 mg/kg; subcutaneously 5 days a week) and carnosine (250 mg/kg; intraperitoneally 5 days a week) along with D-galactose for 2 months...
December 12, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224504/mechanisms-of-carnosine-induced-activation-of-neuronal-cells
#20
Shuntaro Yamashita, Mikako Sato, Takashi Matsumoto, Keishi Kadooka, Takanori Hasegawa, Tatsuya Fujimura, Yoshinori Katakura
Carnosine (β-Ala-l-His), an imidazole dipeptide, is known to have many functions. Recently, we demonstrated in a double-blind randomized controlled trial that carnosine is capable of preserving cognitive function in elderly people. In the current study, we assessed the ability of carnosine to activate the brain, and we tried to clarify the molecular mechanisms behind this activation. Our results demonstrate that carnosine permeates the blood brain barrier and activates glial cells within the brain, causing them to secrete neurotrophins, including BDNF and NGF...
December 11, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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