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Qiong Ding, Kitora Tanigawa, Jun Kaneko, Mamoru Totsuka, Yoshinori Katakura, Etsuko Imabayashi, Hiroshi Matsuda, Tatsuhiro Hisatsune
In a previously reported double-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT), we demonstrated that daily supplementation with anserine (750 mg) and carnosine (250 mg) improves brain blood flow and memory function in elderly people. Here, we conducted a sub-analysis of MRI data and test scores from the same RCT to determine whether anserine/carnosine supplementation specifically benefits elderly people carrying the APOE e4 allele, which is a risk gene for accelerated brain aging and for the onset of Alzheimer's Disease...
June 2018: Aging and Disease
Amilcare Barca, Francesca Gatti, Daniela Spagnolo, Stefania Ippati, Carla Vetrugno, Tiziano Verri
In excitable tissues, the endogenous dipeptide carnosine (CAR, β-Ala-l-His) sustains homeostatic responses to various challenges. By eliciting hypoglycemic effects via actions on the autonomic nervous system and protection of pancreatic beta-cells, CAR is also relevant in diabetes. We investigated the expression of genes involved in CAR biosynthesis, degradation, and membrane transport pathways, in the pancreas and brains of mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ) and then exposed to dietary CAR. We induced hyperglycemia by STZ intraperitoneal injections; then, STZ-treated mice received drinking water with or without CAR for two weeks...
June 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Laila Mohamed Fadda, Hala A Attia, Nouf Mohamed Al-Rasheed, Hanaa Mahmoud Ali, Nawal Mohamed Al-Rasheed
This study assessed the effect of L-arginine (L-argin), carnosine (carno), or their combination in the amelioration of certain biochemical indices induced in the liver of hypoxic rats. Hypoxia was induced via sodium nitrite (S.nit) injection at a dose of 75 mg/kg. Rats were administered L-argin (250 mg/kg) or carno (250 mg/kg), either alone or in combination, 24 hours and 1 hour prior to S.nit intoxication. Hypoxia significantly elevated serum alanine aminotransferase, in addition to a significant upregulation of hepatic heat shock protein 70 with concurrent reduction in the level of vascular endothelial growth factor...
April 2018: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
Jooyeon Lee, Jeong-Ran Park, Hanbyeol Lee, Soojin Jang, Se-Min Ryu, Hyejin Kim, Donguk Kim, Aera Jang, Se-Ran Yang
L-carnosine, a dipeptide of the amino acids β-alanine and histidine, is found in various tissues, such as the central nervous system and skeletal muscles. Recently, L-carnosine has been reported to possess anti-tumor activity; however, the molecular mechanism underlying its activity in colorectal cancer is still unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effect of L-carnosine using a human colorectal cancer cell line, HCT116. Treatment with L-carnosine (0, 100, or 200 mM) for 24 h gradually reduced cellular proliferation according to immunochemistry and 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) analyses and induced G0/G1 phase arrest...
June 4, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Federica Gevi, Giuseppina Fanelli, Lello Zolla
Male hypogonadism associated with insulin resistance (IR) very often leads to metabolic syndrome, at variance with hypogonadism in its first stadium of insulin sensitivity (IS). A plasma metabolomic investigation of these patients can provide useful information in comparison with the values of IS patients. To this aim plasma from insulin-resistant males with hypogonadism were analysed by using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Thus, metabolites were compared to the controls through multivariate statistical analysis and grouped by metabolic pathways...
April 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Ramin Ghodsi, Sorayya Kheirouri
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a cluster of heterogeneous molecules that are generated in a non-enzymatic reaction by the binding of sugars with amino groups of DNA, lipids and proteins. Carnosine is a naturally occurring dipeptide with antioxidant activity, which inhibits protein carbonylation and glycoxidation. This systematic review searched international sources for all published and unpublished original research in English from any year up to the end of April 2018. An electronic search of PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar was conducted...
June 1, 2018: Amino Acids
Giuseppina Fanelli, Federica Gevi, Antonio Belardo, Lello Zolla
Male hypogonadism is a disorder characterised by low levels of the hormone testosterone. At beginning subjects with low levels of testosterone do not show insulin resistance (insulin-sensitive patients), which develops over time (insulin-resistance patients). To analyse the metabolic alterations mainly related to decreased testosterone, we performed metabolomics investigations on the plasma of males with hypogonadism who showed normal insulin levels. Plasma from patients with low testosterone (<8 nmol/l) and homeostatic model assessment for insulin-resistance-index (HOMAi) < 2...
April 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Żaneta Zdanowska-Sąsiadek, Joanna Marchewka, Jarosław Olav Horbańczuk, Agnieszka Wierzbicka, Paulina Lipińska, Artur Jóźwik, Atanas G Atanasov, Łukasz Huminiecki, Aleksander Sieroń, Karolina Sieroń, Nina Strzałkowska, Adrian Stelmasiak, Stefaan De Smet, Thomas Van Hecke, Louwrens C Hoffman
The aim of the study was to compare three types of meat snacks made from ostrich, beef, and chicken meat in relation to their nutrients content including fat, fatty acids, heme iron, and peptides, like anserine and carnosine, from which human health may potentially benefit. Dry meat samples were produced, from one type of muscle, obtained from ostrich ( m. ambiens ), beef ( m. semimembranosus ), and broiler chicken meat ( m. pectoralis major ). The composition of dried ostrich, beef, and chicken meat, with and without spices was compared...
May 25, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Mohammad Mehdi Ommati, Akram Jamshidzadeh, Reza Heidari, Zilong Sun, Mohammad Javad Zamiri, Forouzan Khodaei, Saeed Mousapour, Fatemeh Ahmadi, Nafiseh Javanmard, Babak Shirazi Yeganeh
Lead (Pb)-induced reproductive toxicity is a well-characterized adverse effect associated with this heavy metal. It has been found that Pb exposure is associated with altered spermatogenesis, increased testicular degeneration, and pathological sperm alterations. On the other hand, it has been reported that Pb-induced reproductive toxicity is associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and diminished antioxidant capacity in the reproductive system. Hence, administration of antioxidants as protective agents might be of value against Pb-induced reproductive toxicity...
May 16, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Amalia Simonetti, Annamaria Perna, Roberto Giudice, Angelo Cappuccio, Emilio Gambacorta
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of high pre-slaughter environmental temperature on meat (Longissimus lumborum muscle) quality traits of Italian autochthonous pigs Suino Nero Lucano (SNL). High pre-slaughter environmental temperature influenced the meat quality of autochthonous pigs. In particular, the meat from SNL pigs exposed to heat stress (H) showed significantly lower pH values at 24 and 48 hr post mortem, haem iron content and redness (a*) value, and a significantly higher shear force, drip loss and lightness (L*) values, compared to meat from SNL pigs reared under comfortable environmental temperature (C)...
May 9, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Fariheen Aisha Ansari, Aijaz Ahmed Khan, Riaz Mahmood
The widespread use of sodium nitrite (NaNO2 ) as food preservative, rampant use of nitrogenous fertilizers for agricultural practices, and improper disposal of nitrogenous wastes have drastically increased human exposure to high nitrite levels causing various health disorders and death. In the present study, the protective effect of carnosine and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against NaNO2 -induced intestinal toxicity in rats was investigated. Animals were given a single acute oral dose of NaNO2 at 60 mg/kg body weight with or without prior administration of either carnosine at 100 mg/kg body weight/day for 7 days or NAC at 100 mg/kg body weight/day for 5 days...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Marija Jozanović, Nikola Sakač, Milan Sak-Bosnar, Emanuel Carrilho
Microchip electrophoresis (ME) was applied for the separation of two physiologically important imidazole dipeptides-carnosine and anserine. The capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C4 D) was employed for quantification of both dipeptides after separation in a new home-built ME unit. The separation parameters were optimized as follows to enable quantitative, baseline separation of both dipeptides: injection time 16 s, injection voltage 900 V/cm, and separation voltage 377.1 V/cm. The C4 D detector responded linearly to both imidazole dipeptides in the range 0-20 mg L-1 ...
April 30, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Nidhi Tiwari, Pankaj Bhatia, Amit Kumar, Amteshwar S Jaggi, Nirmal Singh
The present study investigates the potential of Carnosine, a histamine precursor in rat model of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo)-induced vascular dementia (VaD). Wistar rats were subjected to BCCAo procedure under anaesthesia to induce VaD. The rats were subjected to Morris water maze (MWM) test (6th day onwards post-surgery). MWM test was employed to assess learning and memory of the animals whereby escape latency time, time spent in target quadrant and Path length (distance travelled) taken as important parameters...
April 20, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Radka Klepochová, Ladislav Valkovič, Thomas Hochwartner, Christoph Triska, Norbert Bachl, Harald Tschan, Siegfried Trattnig, Michael Krebs, Martin Krššák
Purpose: The influence of endurance training on skeletal muscle metabolism can currently be studied only by invasive sampling or through a few related parameters that are investigated by either proton (1 H) or phosphorus (31 P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic differences between endurance-trained triathletes and healthy volunteers using multi-parametric data acquired by both, 31 P- and 1 H-MRS, at ultra-high field (7T) in a single experimental protocol...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Tim Weigand, Benjamin Singler, Thomas Fleming, Peter Nawroth, Karel D Klika, Christian Thiel, Hans Baelde, Sven F Garbade, Andreas H Wagner, Markus Hecker, Benito A Yard, Albert Amberger, Johannes Zschocke, Claus P Schmitt, Verena Peters
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Reactive dicarbonyl compounds, such as methylglyoxal (MG), contribute to diabetic complications. MG-scavenging capacities of carnosine and anserine, which have been shown to mitigate diabetic nephropathy, were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: MG-induced cell toxicity was characterized by MTT and MG-H1-formation, scavenging abilities by Western Blot and NMR spectroscopies, cellular carnosine transport by qPCR and microplate luminescence and carnosine concentration by HPLC...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Olga I Kulikova, Daniil S Berezhnoy, Sergey L Stvolinsky, Alexander V Lopachev, Valentina S Orlova, Tatiana N Fedorova
In a model of early-stage Parkinson's disease induced by a single intranasal administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to Wistar rats, a neuroprotective effect of a new derivative of carnosine and α-lipoic acid (C/LA nanomicellar complex) was demonstrated. Acute intraperitoneal administration of carnosine, α-lipoic acid and C/LA complex following MPTP administration normalized the total antioxidant activity in the brain tissue. Of all the compounds tested only C/LA complex normalized the metabolism of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT), while its components did not show similar effects when used separately...
June 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Laura Blancquaert, Audrey Baguet, Tine Bex, Anneke Volkaert, Inge Everaert, Joris Delanghe, Mirko Petrovic, Chris Vervaet, Stefaan De Henauw, Dumitru Constantin-Teodosiu, Paul Greenhaff, Wim Derave
Balanced vegetarian diets are popular, although they are nearly absent in creatine and carnosine and contain considerably less carnitine than non-vegetarian diets. Few longitudinal intervention studies investigating the effect of a vegetarian diet on the availability of these compounds currently exist. We aimed to investigate the effect of transiently switching omnivores onto a vegetarian diet for 6 months on muscle and plasma creatine, carnitine and carnosine homeostasis. In a 6-month intervention, forty omnivorous women were ascribed to three groups: continued omnivorous diet (control, n 10), vegetarian diet without supplementation (Veg+Pla, n 15) and vegetarian diet combined with daily β-alanine (0·8-0·4 g/d) and creatine supplementation (1 g creatine monohydrate/d) (Veg+Suppl, n 15)...
April 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Kirthi Menon, Aya Mousa, Barbora de Courten
INTRODUCTION: Ageing of populations globally, coupled with the obesity epidemic, has resulted in the rising prevalence of chronic diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. Prevention of risk factors that contribute to these diseases is key in managing the global burden of chronic diseases. Recent studies suggest that carnosine, a dipeptide with anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and antiglycating properties may have a role in the prevention of chronic diseases; however, no previous reviews have examined the effects of carnosine and other histidine-containing peptides (HCDs) on chronic disease risk factors and outcomes...
March 22, 2018: BMJ Open
Jay R Hoffman, Alyssa Varanoske, Jeffrey R Stout
β-Alanine is one of the more popular sport supplements used by strength/power athletes today. The popularity of β-alanine stems from its ability to enhance intracellular muscle-buffering capacity thereby delaying fatigue during high-intensity exercise by increasing muscle carnosine content. Recent evidence also suggests that elevated carnosine levels may enhance cognitive performance and increase resiliency to stress. These benefits are thought to result from carnosine's potential role as an antioxidant. This review will discuss these new findings including recent investigations examining β-alanine supplementation and increased resiliency to posttraumatic stress and mild traumatic brain injury...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Matthew I Black, Andrew M Jones, Paul T Morgan, Stephen J Bailey, Jonathan Fulford, Anni Vanhatalo
Purpose: To investigate the influence of β-alanine (BA) supplementation on muscle carnosine content, muscle pH and the power-duration relationship (i.e., critical power and W'). Methods: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 20 recreationally-active males (22 ± 3 y, V°O2peak 3.73 ± 0.44 L·min-1 ) ingested either BA (6.4 g/d for 28 d) or placebo (PL) (6.4 g/d) for 28 d. Subjects completed an incremental test and two 3-min all-out tests separated by 1-min on a cycle ergometer pre- and post-supplementation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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