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clonal population

Marco A Moro-García, Juan C Mayo, Rosa M Sainz, Rebeca Alonso-Arias
T lymphocytes, from their first encounter with their specific antigen as naïve cell until the last stages of their differentiation, in a replicative state of senescence, go through a series of phases. In several of these stages, T lymphocytes are subjected to exponential growth in successive encounters with the same antigen. This entire process occurs throughout the life of a human individual and, earlier, in patients with chronic infections/pathologies through inflammatory mediators, first acutely and later in a chronic form...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Khaled R Alkharsah, Suriya Rehman, Fatimah Alkhamis, Amani Alnimr, Asim Diab, Amein K Al-Ali
BACKGROUND: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) constitutes a major global health concern causing hospital and community acquired infections. A wide diversity of MRSA genotypes are circulating in geographically related regions. Therefore understanding the molecular epidemiology of MRSA is fundamental to design control and clearance measures. METHODS: A total of 106 MRSA isolates from infection (51) and carrier colonization sites (55) are characterized genetically based on SCCmec and MLST genotyping methods in addition to detection of PVL, TSST-1 and enterotoxins...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Kelly Kyker-Snowman, Bracha Erlanger Avigdor, Mansoor Nasim, Ashley Cimino-Mathews, Sarah J Wheelan, Pedram Argani, Ben Ho Park
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Tumor heterogeneity is a now well-recognized phenomenon that can affect the classification, prognosis and treatment of human cancers. Heterogeneity is often described in primary breast cancers based upon histologic subtypes, hormone- and HER2-receptor status, and immunolabeling for various markers, which can be seen within a single tumor as mixed cellular populations, or as separate discrete foci. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN/METHODS: Here, we present a case report of a patient's primary breast cancer that had two separate but adjacent histologic components, one that was estrogen receptor (ER) positive, and the other ER negative...
March 15, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Jin Yang Baek, Cheol-In Kang, So Hyun Kim, Kwan Soo Ko, Doo Ryeon Chung, Kyong Ran Peck, Nam Yong Lee, Jae-Hoon Song
The use of fluoroquinolones to treat respiratory tract infections and pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae has affected the emergence of resistance to this class of drugs. Increasing pneumococcal resistance to levofloxacin has become a major public health concern. We investigated the prevalence and genetic characteristics of levofloxacin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae (LNSP) clinical isolates in Korea. A total of 43 LNSP isolates collected from a national surveillance study at 13 tertiary hospitals between 2008 and 2014 were analyzed for serotype and antimicrobial susceptibilities to 19 antimicrobial agents as well as the quinolone resistance-determining region mutation...
February 16, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Erico Masala, Ana Valencia-Martinez, Serena Pillozzi, Tommaso Rondelli, Alice Brogi, Alessandro Sanna, Antonella Gozzini, Annarosa Arcangeli, Persio Dello Sbarba, Valeria Santini
Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) are clonal neoplasms where stem/progenitor cells endowed with self-renewal and capable of perpetuating the disease have been demonstrated. It is known that oxygen tension plays a key role in driving normal hematopoiesis and that hematopoietic stem cells are maintained in hypoxic areas of the bone marrow (BM). Hypoxia could also regulate leukemic/dysplastic hematopoiesis. We evaluated the stem cell potential of MDS cells derived from the BM of 39 MDS patients and selected under severe hypoxia...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Tanmoy Dey, Amanda Saville, Kevin Myers, Susanta Tewari, David E L Cooke, Sucheta Tripathy, William E Fry, Jean B Ristaino, Sanjoy Guha Roy
The population structure of the Phytophthora infestans populations that caused the recent 2013-14 late blight epidemic in eastern India (EI) and northeastern India (NEI) was examined. The data provide new baseline information for populations of P. infestans in India. A migrant European 13_A2 genotype was responsible for the 2013-14 epidemic, replacing the existing populations. Mutations have generated substantial sub-clonal variation with 24 multi-locus genotypes (MLGs) found, of which 19 were unique variants not yet reported elsewhere globally...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bernard Louizette Christophe, Mariana Mott, Gabriela da Cunha, Juliana Caierão, Pedro D Azevedo, Cícero Dias
PURPOSE: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the elderly is an important public health issue due to the increased proportion of this population in many countries including Brazil. We aimed to characterise pneumococci isolates in adults >50 years with IPD, following the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) as part of the National Childhood Immunisation Program for children ≤2 years in March 2010. METHODOLOGY: Between 2013 and 2015, pneumococcal isolates were collected and serotypes were determined using multiplex PCR and/or Quellung reaction...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Baoli Fan, Allen David McHugh, Shujiang Guo, Quanlin Ma, Jianhui Zhang, Xiaojuan Zhang, Weixing Zhang, Juan Du, Qiushi Yu, Changming Zhao
Calligonum mongolicum is a successful pioneer shrub to combat desertification, which is widely used for vegetation restoration in the desert regions of northwest China. In order to reveal the limitations to natural regeneration of C. mongolicum by asexual and sexual reproduction, following the process of sand dune stabilization, we assessed clonal shoots, seedling emergence, soil seed bank density, and soil physical characteristics in mobile and stabilized sand dunes. Controlled field and pot experiments were also conducted to assess germination and seedling emergence in different dune soil types and seed burial depths...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Anja Kammesheidt, Theresa R Tonozzi, Stephen W Lim, Glenn D Braunstein
PURPOSE: The primary purpose of this study was to clinically evaluate circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) with a nine gene, 96 mutation panel among subjects at increased risk for cancer with no previous cancer diagnosis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: DNA from 1059 asymptomatic subjects was analyzed for detection of low levels ctDNA using a blood plasma liquid biopsy assay. Subjects with detectable copies of ctDNA were asked to provide additional blood samples and relevant medical records throughout their one-year of participation...
2018: International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics
G La Rosa, R Calero-Bernal, J E Pérez-Martín, D Tonanzi, F Galati, F J Serrano-Aguilera, B M Rosenthal, E Pozio
Recurrent self-mating can result in nearly clonal propagation of biological lineages, but even occasional outcrossing can serve to redistribute variation in future generations, providing cohesion among regional populations. The zoonotic parasite Trichinella spiralis has been suspected to undergo frequent inbreeding, resulting in genetically uniform larval cohorts which differ markedly from one another. Here, we explored the extent of inbreeding for this parasite by determining how genetic variation (at variable microsatellite markers) is distributed among 1,379 larvae derived from 41 wild boars in Extremadura, Spain...
March 8, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Miriam Steinberg, Joseph P Gaut, Stanley Paul Hmiel, Aadil Kakajiwala
Monoclonal gammopathies are a rare diagnosis in pediatric patients. A 19-year-old female patient with past medical history of hypogammaglobulinemia and natural killer cell deficiency and stage III follicular lymphoma, in remission, presented with a right-sided pneumonia, noted to have acute kidney injury and proteinuria. Complement C3 and C4 levels were normal. Anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies, antinuclear antibodies, anti-extractable nuclear antigen antibodies, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were negative...
March 9, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Christina Straub, Elena Colombi, Li Li, Hongwen Huang, Matthew D Templeton, Honour C McCann, Paul B Rainey
Interactions between commensal microbes and invading pathogens are understudied, despite their likely effects on pathogen population structure and infection processes. We describe the population structure and genetic diversity of a broad range of co-occurring Pseudomonas syringae isolated from infected and uninfected kiwifruit during an outbreak of bleeding canker disease caused by P. syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) in New Zealand. Overall population structure was clonal and affected by ecological factors including infection status and cultivar...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Apostolos Liakopoulos, Gerrita van den Bunt, Yvon Geurts, Martin C J Bootsma, Mark Toleman, Daniela Ceccarelli, Wilfrid van Pelt, Dik J Mevius
Extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESCR ) Enterobacteriaceae pose a serious infection control challenge for public health. The emergence of the ESCR phenotype is mostly facilitated by plasmid-mediated horizontal extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC gene transfer within Enterobacteriaceae . Current data regarding the plasmid contribution to this emergence within the Dutch human population is limited. Hence, the aim of this study was to gain insight into the role of plasmids in the dissemination of ESBL/AmpC genes inside Dutch households with preschool children and precisely delineate co-colonization...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Zenat Z Hossain, Israt Farhana, Suhella M Tulsiani, Anowara Begum, Peter K M Jensen
Fish have been considered natural reservoirs of Vibrio cholerae , the deadly diarrheal pathogen. However, little is known about the role of fish in the transmission of V. cholerae from the Bay of Bengal to the households of rural and urban Bangladesh. This study analyzes the incidence and pathogenic potential of V. cholerae in Hilsha ( Tenualosa ilisha ), a commonly caught and consumed fish that exhibits a life cycle in both freshwater and marine environments in Bangladesh. During the period from October 2014 to October 2015, samples from the gills, recta, intestines, and scale swabs of a total of 48 fish were analyzed...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Pritesh Desai, Vikas Tahiliani, Tarun E Hutchinson, Farhad Dastmalchi, Jessica Stanfield, Georges Abboud, Paul G Thomas, Carl F Ware, Jianxun Song, Michael Croft, Shahram Salek-Ardakani
The transition of effector T cells or memory precursors into distinct long-lived memory T cell subsets is not well understood. Although many molecules made by APCs can contribute to clonal expansion and effector cell differentiation, it is not clear if clonal contraction and memory development is passive or active. Using respiratory virus infection, we found that CD8 T cells that cannot express the TNF family molecule lymphotoxin-like, exhibits i nducible expression, competes with HSV g lycoprotein D for herpes virus entry mediator, a receptor expressed by T lymphocytes (LIGHT) are unimpaired in their initial response and clonally expand to form effector cell pools...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Xiao-Hong Pu, Qing Ye, Jun Yang, Hong-Yan Wu, Xi-Wei Ding, Jiong Shi, Liang Mao, Xiang-Shan Fan, Jun Chen, Yu-Dong Qiu, Qin Huang
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a subtype of primary liver cancer rarely curable by surgery that is increasing rapidly in incidence. Chromosomal translocations and amplifications of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) locus are present in several kinds of tumors including ICC, but their incidence has not been assessed in Chinese patients. Using break-apart probes and by determining the ratios of FGFR2/chromosome enumeration probe (CEP) 10 double-color probes, we evaluated 122 ICCs for the presence of FGFR2 translocations and amplifications, respectively, by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
March 4, 2018: Human Pathology
Dawn S Lin, Andrey Kan, Jerry Gao, Edmund J Crampin, Philip D Hodgkin, Shalin H Naik
A thorough understanding of cellular development is incumbent on assessing the complexities of fate and kinetics of individual clones within a population. Here, we develop a system for robust periodical assessment of lineage outputs of thousands of transient clones and establishment of bona fide cellular trajectories. We appraise the development of dendritic cells (DCs) in fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand culture from barcode-labeled hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) by serially measuring barcode signatures and visualize these multidimensional data using developmental interpolated t-distributed stochastic neighborhood embedding (DiSNE) time-lapse movies...
March 6, 2018: Cell Reports
M Saba Rahim, Himanshu Sharma, Afsana Parveen, Joy K Roy
Previously, association mapping (AM) methodology was used to unravel genetic complications in animal science by measuring the complex traits for candidate and non-candidate genes. Nowadays, this statistical approach is widely used to clarify the complexity in plant breeding program-based genome-wide breeding strategies, marker development, and diversity analysis. This chapter is particularly focused on methodologies with limitations and provides an overview of AM models and software used up to now. Association or linkage disequilibrium mapping has become a very popular method for discovering candidate and non-candidate genes and confirmation of quantitative trait loci (QTL) on various parts of the genome and in marker-assisted selection for breeding...
March 7, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Xue Cai, Michael E Sughrue
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most invasive and devastating primary brain tumor with a median overall survival rate about 18 months with aggressive multimodality therapy. Its unique characteristics of heterogeneity, invasion, clonal populations maintaining stem cell-like cells and recurrence, have limited responses to a variety of therapeutic approaches, and have made GBM the most difficult brain cancer to treat. A great effort and progress has been made to reveal promising molecular mechanisms to target therapeutically...
February 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Ana Carolina C Campos, Nathália L Andrade, Mithila Ferdous, Monika A Chlebowicz, Carla C Santos, Julio C D Correal, Jerome R Lo Ten Foe, Ana Cláudia P Rosa, Paulo V Damasco, Alex W Friedrich, John W A Rossen
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are often caused by Escherichia coli . Their increasing resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics challenges the treatment of UTIs. Whereas, E. coli ST131 is often multidrug resistant (MDR), ST69 remains susceptible to antibiotics such as cephalosporins. Both STs are commonly linked to community and nosocomial infections. E. coli phylogenetic groups B2 and D are associated with virulence and resistance profiles making them more pathogenic. Little is known about the population structure of E...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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