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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742458/morphological-and-genetic-analyses-of-the-invasive-forest-pathogen-phytophthora-austrocedri-reveal-two-clonal-lineages-colonised-britain-and-argentina-from-a-common-ancestral-population
#1
Béatrice Henricot, Ana Pérez-Sierra, April Armstrong, Paul Sharp, Sarah Green
Phytophthora austrocedri is causing widespread mortality of Austrocedrus chilensis in Argentina and Juniperus communis in Britain. The pathogen has also been isolated from J. horizontalis in Germany. Isolates from Britain, Argentina and Germany are homothallic with no clear differences in the dimensions of sporangia, oogonia or oospores. Argentinian and German isolates grew faster than British isolates across a range of media and had a higher temperature tolerance although most isolates regardless of origin grew best at 15°C and all isolates were killed at 25°C...
July 25, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740494/insights-in-anaphylaxis-and-clonal-mast-cell-disorders
#2
REVIEW
David González-de-Olano, Iván Álvarez-Twose
The prevalence of anaphylaxis among patients with clonal mast cell disorders (MCD) is clearly higher comparing to the general population. Due to a lower frequency of symptoms outside of acute episodes, clonal MCD in the absence of skin lesions might sometimes be difficult to identify which may lead to underdiagnosis, and anaphylaxis is commonly the presenting symptom in these patients. Although the release of mast cell (MC) mediators upon MC activation might present with a wide variety of symptoms, particular clinical features typically characterize MC mediator release episodes in patients with clonal MCD without skin involvement...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736829/clonal-analysis-of-regulatory-t-cell-defect-in-patients-with-autoimmune-polyendocrine-syndrome-type-1-suggests-intrathymic-impairment
#3
Tuisku-Tuulia Koivula, Sini M Laakso, Heikki J Niemi, Eliisa Kekäläinen, Pia Laine, Lars Paulin, Petri Auvinen, T Petteri Arstila
Mutations in the Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) gene disrupt thymic T cell development and negative selection, leading to the recessively inherited polyendocrine autoimmune disease APS-1 (autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1). The patients also have a functional defect in the FOXP3(+) regulatory T cell population, but its origin is unclear. Here we have used T cell receptor sequencing to analyze the clonal relationship of major CD4(+) T cell subsets in 3 patients and 3 healthy controls. The naive regulatory T cells showed little overlap with helper T cell subsets, supporting divergence in the thymus...
July 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734506/phenotypic-and-genetic-characteristics-of-fluoroquinolone-and-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#4
Antonio Moreno-Flores, Carmen Potel-Alvarellos, Susana Otero-Varela, Maximiliano Álvarez-Fernández
INTRODUCTION: Fluoroquinolone resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has increased in recent years. The objective of this study was to characterise two MRSA populations, one susceptible to fluoroquinolones and other resistant identifying the clonal types and the differential characteristics of both MRSA populations. METHODS: Molecular typing using PFGE, MLST, spa and SSCmec was performed on 192 MRSA strains isolated from 2009 to 2011, 49 only oxacillin-resistant (OX-R) and 143 oxacillin and levofloxacin-resistant (OX-R-LEV-R)...
July 19, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733998/quiescent-oct4-neural-stem-cells-nscs-repopulate-ablated-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-nscs-in-the-adult-mouse-brain
#5
Rachel L Reeve, Samantha Z Yammine, Cindi M Morshead, Derek van der Kooy
Adult primitive neural stem cells (pNSCs) are a rare population of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)(-) Oct4(+) cells in the mouse forebrain subependymal zone bordering the lateral ventricles that give rise to clonal neurospheres in leukemia inhibitory factor in vitro. pNSC neurospheres can be passaged to self-renew or give rise to GFAP(+) NSCs that form neurospheres in epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2, which we collectively refer to as definitive NSCs (dNSCs). Label retention experiments using doxycycline-inducible histone-2B (H2B)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice and several chase periods of up to 1 year quantified the adult pNSC cell cycle time as 3-5 months...
July 21, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732789/effect-of-ceftiofur-and-enrofloxacin-on-e-coli-sub-population-in-pig-gastrointestinal-tract
#6
Dachuan Lin, Kaichao Chen, Miaomiao Xie, Lianwei Ye, Edward Wai-Chi Chan, Sheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistant sub-population of the gut microbiome in both human and animals may be enriched during antimicrobial treatment. METHODS: This study investigated how the size and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of antibiotic resistant sub-population organisms in the animal gastrointestinal tract changed upon exposure to different levels of ceftiofur and enrofloxacin by plating fecal samples collected from piglets before and after antibiotic treatment onto MacConkey agar containing 0...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732506/new-insights-into-blimp-1-in-t-lymphocytes-a-divergent-regulator-of-cell-destiny-and-effector-function
#7
REVIEW
Shin-Huei Fu, Li-Tzu Yeh, Chin-Chen Chu, B Lin-Ju Yen, Huey-Kang Sytwu
B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1) serves as a master regulator of the development and function of antibody-producing B cells. Given that its function in T lymphocytes has been identified within the past decade, we review recent findings with emphasis on its role in coordinated control of gene expression during the development, differentiation, and function of T cells. Expression of Blimp-1 is mainly confined to activated T cells and is essential for the production of interleukin (IL)-10 by a subset of forkhead box (Fox)p3(+) regulatory T cells with an effector phenotype...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729708/new-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-beijing-clonal-complexes-in-china-revealed-by-phylogenetic-and-bayesian-population-structure-analyses-of-24-loci-miru-vntrs
#8
Chao Zheng, Yann Reynaud, Changsong Zhao, Thierry Zozio, Song Li, Dongxia Luo, Qun Sun, Nalin Rastogi
Beijing lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis constitutes the most predominant lineage in East Asia. Beijing epidemiology, evolutionary history, genetics are studied in details for years revealing probable origin from China followed by worldwide expansion, partially linked to higher mutation rate, hypervirulence, drug-resistance, and association with cases of mixed infections. Considering huge amount of data available for 24-loci Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats, we performed detailed phylogenetic and Bayesian population structure analyses of Beijing lineage strains in mainland China and Taiwan using available 24-loci MIRU-VNTR data extracted from publications or the SITVIT2 database (n = 1490)...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719434/primary-cutaneous-small-medium-cd4-t-cell-lymphoproliferative-disorder-occurring-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-melanoma
#9
Jonathan J Davick, Elizabeth Gaughan, Megan Barry, Alejandro A Gru
Therapeutic agents designed to stimulate the immune system are now cornerstones in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. These drugs promote lymphocyte growth and survival, which could plausibly result in clinical lymphoproliferative disorders. We report the case of a 62-year-old female with metastatic melanoma who developed primary cutaneous small/medium CD4 T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (PC-SMTCL) after treatment with vemurafenib and recombinant high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2). The patient developed a painless red papule behind the ear...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717170/population-structure-of-an-orchid-mycorrhizal-fungus-with-genus-wide-specificity
#10
M P Ruibal, Y Triponez, L M Smith, R Peakall, C C Linde
Fundamental life history processes of mycorrhizal fungi with inconspicuous fruiting bodies can be difficult to elucidate. In this study we investigated the species identities and life history of the orchid mycorrhizal Tulasnella fungi, which associate with the south eastern Australia orchid genus Chiloglottis. Tulasnella prima was the primary partner and was found to be associated with all 17 Chiloglottis species across a range of >1000 km, and to occur in the two edaphic conditions investigated (soil and sphagnum hammocks)...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716556/impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-pcv7-and-pcv13-on-pneumococcal-invasive-diseases-in-italian-children-and-insight-into-evolution-of-pneumococcal-population-structure
#11
Romina Camilli, Fabio D'Ambrosio, Maria Del Grosso, Fernanda Pimentel de Araujo, Maria Grazia Caporali, Martina Del Manso, Giovanni Gherardi, Fortunato D'Ancona, Annalisa Pantosti
BACKGROUND: The use of PCV7 for children immunization was gradually implemented in the Italian regions starting from 2006 and was replaced by PCV13 in 2010-2011. In this study we aimed to assess the PCV impact on invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) incidence, serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance in Italian children under 5years old. METHODS: All IPD cases in children from 5 Italian regions (Emilia-Romagna, Lombardia, A. P. Bolzano, A. P. Trento, and Piemonte) reported through the nationwide surveillance system during 2008-2014 were included in this study...
July 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714591/experimental-evolution-with-a-multicellular-host-causes-diversification-within-and-between-microbial-parasite-populations-differences-in-emerging-phenotypes-of-two-different-parasite-strains
#12
Michaela H Kloesener, Joy Bose, Rebecca D Schulte
Host-parasite coevolution is predicted to have complex evolutionary consequences, potentially leading to the emergence of genetic and phenotypic diversity for both antagonists. However, little is known about variation in phenotypic responses to coevolution between different parasite strains exposed to the same experimental conditions. We infected Caenorhabditis elegans with one of two strains of Bacillus thuringiensis and either allowed the host and the parasite to experimentally coevolve (coevolution treatment) or allowed only the parasite to adapt to the host (one-sided parasite adaptation)...
July 17, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713859/fungus-causing-white-nose-syndrome-in-bats-accumulates-genetic-variability-in-north-america-with-no-sign-of-recombination
#13
Jigar Trivedi, Josianne Lachapelle, Karen J Vanderwolf, Vikram Misra, Craig K R Willis, John M Ratcliffe, Rob W Ness, James B Anderson, Linda M Kohn
Emerging fungal diseases of wildlife are on the rise worldwide, and the white-nose syndrome (WNS) epidemic in North American bats is a catastrophic example. The causal agent of WNS is a single clone of the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Early evolutionary change in this clonal population has major implications for disease ecology and conservation. Accumulation of variation in the fungus through mutation, and shuffling of variation through recombination, could affect the virulence and transmissibility of the fungus and the durability of what appears to be resistance arising in some bat populations...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709943/propagation-and-control-of-gene-expression-noise-with-non-linear-translation-kinetics
#14
J David Van Dyken
Gene expression is a stochastic process involving small numbers of molecules. As a consequence, cells in a clonal population vary randomly and sometimes substantially from one another in the concentration of mRNA and protein species, a phenomenon known as gene expression noise. Previous theoretical models of gene expression noise assumed that translation is first-order (linear) in mRNA concentration, leading to unfiltered propagation of mRNA noise to the protein level. Here I consider the biological ramifications of relaxing this assumption...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707659/-drug-resistance-mutations-and-susceptibility-phenotypes-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolates-in-russia
#15
A A Kubanov, A T Leinsoo, A V Chestkov, E I Dementieva, B L Shaskolskiy, V S Solomka, D A Gryadunov, D G Deryabin
Steady growth in the degree of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae calls for the control of the spreading of resistance mutations. Here we present the data describing drug resistance mutations, the results of antimicrobial susceptibility tests, and molecular genotypes of 128 recent N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected across 9 regions of the Russian Federation. The mutations in chromosome genes penA, ponA, rpsJ, gyrA, parC, which determine the susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae to penicillins, tetracyclines, and fluoroquinolones were detected by multiplex amplification followed by hybridization on a hydrogel microarray...
May 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706392/acquired-aplastic-anemia-associated-with-trisomy-eight-converting-into-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#16
Sumit Grover, Amit Kumar Dhiman, Bhavna Garg, Neena Sood, Vikram Narang
Aplastic anemia (AA) is nowadays considered to be a clonal disorder arising from a defective hematopoietic stem cell developing after a generalized insult to bone marrow. Immunosuppressive treatment (IST) of AA causes suppression of the target dominant population of haematopoietic cells allowing the defective non targeted clones to expand. This may give rise to acute leukemia. Cytogenetic studies for chromosomal aberrations such as trisomy and monosomy may help in detecting such conversions. We present a case of acquired AA in a 60-year-old male presenting with pancytopenia and hypoplastic marrow treated with antithymocyte globulin, converting into myelodysplastic syndrome and later on acute promyelocytic leukemia after being in remission for 4 years...
July 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702705/wolbachia-in-the-genus-bicyclus-a-forgotten-player
#17
Anne Duplouy, Oskar Brattström
Bicyclus butterflies are key species for studies of wing pattern development, phenotypic plasticity, speciation and the genetics of Lepidoptera. One of the key endosymbionts in butterflies, the alpha-Proteobacterium Wolbachia pipientis, is affecting many of these biological processes; however, Bicyclus butterflies have not been investigated systematically as hosts to Wolbachia. In this study, we screen for Wolbachia infection in several Bicyclus species from natural populations across Africa as well as two laboratory populations...
July 12, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700614/aphid-symbionts-and-endogenous-resistance-traits-mediate-competition-between-rival-parasitoids
#18
Laura J Kraft, James Kopco, Jason P Harmon, Kerry M Oliver
Insects use endogenous mechanisms and infection with protective symbionts to thwart attacks from natural enemies. Defenses that target specific enemies, however, potentially mediate competition between rivals and thereby impact community composition. Following its introduction to North America to control pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum), the parasitoid Aphidius ervi competitively displaced other parasitoids, except for the native Praon pequodorum. The pea aphid exhibits tremendous clonal variation in resistance to A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697994/molecular-epidemiology-of-dientamoeba-fragilis
#19
REVIEW
Simone M Cacciò
The flagellated protozoan Dientamoeba fragilis is one of the most commonly diagnosed parasite of the human gut, with a global distribution. Nevertheless, essential aspects of its biology remain incompletely understood or controversial, most notably life cycle, host range, transmission routes and the ability to cause disease. Molecular epidemiologic studies are also scarce, and limited by the lack of informative genotyping tools. To date, two D. fragilis genotypes (1 and 2) are recognized, with a strong predominance of genotype 1 in both humans and few animal hosts...
July 8, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697813/multilocus-sequence-typing-and-clonal-population-genetic-structure-of-cyclospora-cayetanensis-in-humans
#20
Junqiang Li, Yankai Chang, K E Shi, Rongjun Wang, Kanda Fu, Shan Li, Jinling Xu, Liting Jia, Zhenxin Guo, Longxian Zhang
To investigate the prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis in a longitudinal study and to conduct a population genetic analysis, fecal specimens from 6579 patients were collected during the cyclosporiasis - prevalent seasons in two urban areas of central China in 2011-2015. The overall incidence of C. cayetanensis infection was 1·2% (76/6579): 1·6% (50/3173) in Zhengzhou and 0·8% (26/3406) in Kaifeng (P 0·05). All the isolates clustered in the C. cayetanensis clade based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence phylogenetic analysis...
July 12, 2017: Parasitology
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