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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779219/immunohistochemical-and-molecular-analysis-of-spitzoid-neoplasms-with-pulverocyte-subclones
#1
S M Amin, A M Haugh, J A Bubley, A E Verzì, E A Merkel, C Y Lee, V L Quan, E M Garfield, L M Sholl, B Zhang, P Gerami
BACKGROUND: Clonal naevi are characterized by a focal proliferation of pigmented melanocytes in an otherwise banal naevus. These subclones are often composed of aggregates of larger, epithelioid melanocytes with nuclear atypia and dusty-grey cytoplasmic pigmentation, which are referred to as 'pulverocytes', and this finding may lead to a misdiagnosis of malignant melanoma (MM). AIM: To characterize the significance of subclones of dusty-grey pigmented epithelioid melanocytes within spitzoid neoplasms...
May 20, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778470/genetic-diversity-of-thermoduric-spoilage-microorganisms-of-milk-from-brazilian-dairy-farms
#2
J C Ribeiro Júnior, R Tamanini, A L M de Oliveira, A A Alfieri, V Beloti
When correctly pasteurized, packaged, and stored, milk with low total bacterial counts (TBC) has a longer shelf life. Therefore, microorganisms that resist heat treatments are especially important in the deterioration of pasteurized milk and in its shelf life. The aim of this work was to quantify the thermoduric microorganisms after the pasteurization of refrigerated raw milk samples with low TBC and to identify the diversity of these isolates with proteolytic or lipolytic potential by RFLP analysis. Twenty samples of raw milk were collected in bulk milk tanks shortly after milking in different Brazilian dairy farms and pasteurized...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778209/ovine-mannheimia-haemolytica-isolates-from-lungs-with-and-without-pneumonic-lesions-belong-to-similar-genotypes
#3
Andrés García-Alvarez, José Francisco Fernández-Garayzábal, Fernando Chaves, Chris Pinto, Dolores Cid
This study investigated the genetic characteristics of 121 ovine Mannheimia haemolytica isolates from lungs with (n = 75) and without pneumonic lesions (n = 46) using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), virulence-associated gene typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Twelve STs were identified with most isolates (81%) belonged to ST16, ST28 and ST8. Analysis of the M. haemolytica MLST Database indicate a wide distribution of these genotypes in small ruminants, never reported in bovine isolates...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776613/high-resolution-melting-analysis-hrm-for-the-assessment-of-clonality-in-feline-b-cell-lymphomas
#4
Manfred Henrich, Svenja Scheffold, Werner Hecht, Manfred Reinacher
Analysis of clonality is gaining importance in diagnosing lymphomas in veterinary medicine. Usually, PCR for the analysis of antigen receptor rearrangement (PARR) is followed by electrophoretic separation of the PCR products. Aim of this study was to test the feasibility of HRM for the assessment of clonality in B-cell lymphomas of cats. High resolution melting analysis differentiates PCR products by their different melting point using the decrease in fluorescence of an intercalating dye during melting of the PCR product...
June 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774100/differential-proteomic-profile-of-leukemic-cd34-progenitor-cells-from-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-patients
#5
Maria Rosaria Ricciardi, Valentina Salvestrini, Roberto Licchetta, Simone Mirabilii, Mattia Forcato, Gabriele Gugliotta, Simona Salati, Fausto Castagnetti, Gianantonio Rosti, Massimo Breccia, Giuliana Alimena, Rossella Manfredini, Silvio Bicciato, Roberto Massimo Lemoli, Agostino Tafuri
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is a stem cell disease sustained by a rare population of quiescent cells which are to some extent resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). BCR-ABL oncogene activates multiple cross-talking signal transduction pathways (STP), such as RAS/MEK/ERK, PI3K/Akt, Wnt and STAT5, contributing to abnormal proliferation of clonal cells. From this perspective, the aim of this study was to analyze the expression and activation profile of STP involved in the mechanisms of cell proliferation/quiescence and survival of the progenitor CD34+ cells from chronic phase (CP) CML...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771192/fine-scale-population-genetic-structure-and-within-tree-distribution-of-mating-types-of-venturia-effusa-cause-of-pecan-scab-in-the-u-s-a
#6
Clive Bock, Carolyn Young, Katherine Stevenson, Nikki Charlton
Scab (caused by Venturia effusa) is the major disease of pecan in the southeastern U.S.A. There is no information available on the fine scale population genetic diversity, or the occurrence of clonal types at small spatial scales that provides insight into inoculum sources and dispersal mechanisms, and potential opportunity for sexual reproduction. To investigate fine scale genetic diversity, 4 trees (cv. Wichita = populations) were sampled hierarchically: within each tree canopy, 4 approximately evenly spaced terminals (subpopulations) were selected and up to 6 leaflets (sub-subpopulations) were sampled from different compound leaves on each terminal...
May 17, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768737/providence-of-cd25-kir-cd127-foxp3-cd8-t-cell-subset-determines-the-dynamics-of-tumor-immune-surveillance
#7
Sreeparna Chakraborty, Pushpak Bhattacharjee, Abir K Panda, Kirti Kajal, Sayantan Bose, Gaurisankar Sa
CD8+ T-regulatory cells are progressively emerging as crucial components of immune system. The previous report suggests the presence of FOXP3-positive CD8+ Treg cells, similar to CD4+ Tregs, in cancer patients which produce high levels of IL10 and TGFβ for its immunosuppressive activities. At an early stage of tumor development, we have identified a subset of FOXP3-negative CD8+ CD25+ KIR+ CD127- a Treg-like subset which is essentially IFNγ-positive. However, this early induced CD8+ CD25+ CD127- T cell subset certainly distinct from the IFNγ+ CD8+ T-effecter cells...
May 16, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767852/membrane-tethered-syntaxin-4-locally-abrogates-e-cadherin-function-and-activates-smad-signals-contributing-to-asymmetric-mammary-epithelial-morphogenesis
#8
Yuina Hirose, Kota Shirai, Yohei Hirai
Spatial and temporal epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical event for the generation of asymmetric epithelial architectures. We found that only restricted cell populations in the morphogenic mammary epithelia extrude syntaxin-4, a plasmalemmal t-SNARE protein, and that epithelial cell clusters with artificial heterogenic presentation of extracellular syntaxin-4 undergo asymmetric morphogenesis. A previous study revealed that inducible expression of cell surface syntaxin-4 causes EMT-like cell behaviors in the clonal mammary epithelial cells, where laminin-mediated signals were abolished so that cells readily succumb to initiate EMT...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760902/exploring-the-evolution-of-multicellularity-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-under-bacteria-environment-an-experimental-phylogenetics-approach
#9
Julian F Quintero-Galvis, Rocío Paleo-López, Jaiber J Solano-Iguaran, María Josefina Poupin, Thomas Ledger, Juan Diego Gaitan-Espitia, Andrzej Antoł, Michael Travisano, Roberto F Nespolo
There have been over 25 independent unicellular to multicellular evolutionary transitions, which have been transformational in the complexity of life. All of these transitions likely occurred in communities numerically dominated by unicellular organisms, mostly bacteria. Hence, it is reasonable to expect that bacteria were involved in generating the ecological conditions that promoted the stability and proliferation of the first multicellular forms as protective units. In this study, we addressed this problem by analyzing the occurrence of multicellularity in an experimental phylogeny of yeasts ( Sacharomyces cerevisiae ) a model organism that is unicellular but can generate multicellular clusters under some conditions...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760888/adaptive-phenotypic-plasticity-in-a-clonal-invader
#10
Gerlien Verhaegen, Kyle E McElroy, Laura Bankers, Maurine Neiman, Martin Haase
Organisms featuring wide trait variability and occurring in a wide range of habitats, such as the ovoviviparous New Zealand freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum , are ideal models to study adaptation. Since the mid-19th century, P. antipodarum , characterized by extremely variable shell morphology, has successfully invaded aquatic areas on four continents. Because these obligately and wholly asexual invasive populations harbor low genetic diversity compared to mixed sexual/asexual populations in the native range, we hypothesized that (1) this phenotypic variation in the invasive range might be adaptive with respect to colonization of novel habitats, and (2) that at least some of the variation might be caused by phenotypic plasticity...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758422/clonal-expansion-of-environmentally-adapted-escherichia-coli-contributes-to-propagation-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-beef-cattle-feedlots
#11
Lisa Tymensen, Rahat Zaheer, Shaun R Cook, Kingsley K Amoako, Noriko Goji, Ron Read, Calvin W Booker, Sherry J Hannon, Norman Neumann, Tim A McAllister
Livestock wastewater lagoons represent important environmental reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), although factors contributing to their proliferation within these reservoirs remain poorly understood. Here, we characterized Escherichia coli from feedlot cattle feces and associated wastewater lagoons using CRISPR1 subtyping, and demonstrated that while generic E. coli were genetically diverse, populations were dominated by several 'feedlot-adapted' CRISPR types (CTs) that were widely distributed throughout the feedlot...
May 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758330/human-liver-infiltrating-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-are-composed-of-clonally-expanded-circulating-and-tissue-resident-populations
#12
Stuart Hunter, Carrie Willcox, Martin Davey, Sofya Kasatskaya, Hannah Jeffery, Dmitriy Chudakov, Ye Oo, Benjamin Willcox
BACKGROUND & AIM: γδ T-cells comprise a substantial proportion of tissue-associated lymphocytes. However, our current understanding of human γδ T-cells is primarily based on peripheral blood subsets, while the immunobiology of tissue-associated subsets remains largely unclear. METHODS: To address this, we characterised the TCR diversity, immunophenotype and function of human liver infiltrating γδ T-cells, focussing on the predominant tissue-associated Vδ2neg γδ subset, which is implicated in liver immunopathology...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754430/position-of-human-blood-group-o-h-and-phenotype-determining-enzymes-in-growth-and-infectious-disease
#13
REVIEW
Peter Arend
The human ABO(H) blood group phenotypes arise from the evolutionarily oldest genetic system found in primate populations. While the blood group antigen A is considered the ancestral primordial structure, under the selective pressure of life-threatening diseases blood group O(H) came to dominate as the most frequently occurring blood group worldwide. Non-O(H) phenotypes demonstrate impaired formation of adaptive and innate immunoglobulin specificities due to clonal selection and phenotype formation in plasma proteins...
May 12, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751087/population-genetic-and-evolution-analysis-of-controversial-genus-edwardsiella-by-multilocus-sequence-typing
#14
Noemí Buján, Sabela Balboa, Jesús L Romalde, Alicia E Toranzo, Beatriz Magariños
At present, the genus Edwardsiella compiles five species: E. tarda, E. hoshinae, E. ictaluri, E. piscicida and E. anguillarum. Some species of this genus such us E. ictaluri and E. piscicida are important pathogens of numerous fish species. With the description of the two latter species, the phylogeny of Edwardsiella became more complicated. With the aim to clarify the relationships among all species in the genus, a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approach was developed and applied to characterize 56 isolates and 6 reference strains belonging to the five Edwardsiella species...
May 8, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749540/personalized-regulation-of-glioblastoma-cancer-stem-cells-based-on-biomedical-technologies-from-theory-to-experiment-review
#15
Igor Bryukhovetskiy, Arina Ponomarenko, Irina Lyakhova, Sergey Zaitsev, Yulia Zayats, Maria Korneyko, Marina Eliseikina, Polina Mischenko, Valerie Shevchenko, Hari Shanker Sharma, Aruna Sharma, Yuri Khotimchenko
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most aggressive brain tumors. GBM represents >50% of primary tumors of the nervous system and ~20% of intracranial neoplasms. Standard treatment involves surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. However, the prognosis of GBM is usually poor, with a median survival of 15 months. Resistance of GBM to treatment can be explained by the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) among the GBM cell population. At present, there are no effective therapeutic strategies for the elimination of CSCs...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746526/clonal-plasticity-and-diversity-facilitates-the-adaptation-of-rhododendron-aureum-georgi-to-alpine-environment
#16
Xiaolong Wang, Wei Zhao, Lin Li, Jian You, Biao Ni, Xia Chen
Four small oval populations and five large intensive populations of Rhododendron aureum growing at the alpine in Changbai Mountain (China) were studied in two types of habitat (in the tundra and in Betula ermanii forest). Identification and delimitation of genets were inferred from excavation in small populations and from amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers by the standardized sampling design in large populations. Clonal architecture and clonal diversity were then estimated. For the four small populations, they were monoclonal, the spacer length (18...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743378/horizontal-transmission-of-the-ectoparasite-gyrodactylus-arcuatus-monogenea-gyrodactylidae-to-the-next-generation-of-the-three-spined-stickleback-gasterosteus-aculeatus
#17
Jaakko Lumme, Marek S Zietara
In the parthenogenetic monogeneans of the genus Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832, the genetic diversity within or between hosts is determined by the relative roles of lateral transmission and clonal propagation. Clonality and limited transmission lead to high-amplitude metapopulation dynamics and strong genetic drift. In Baltic populations of the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus, the local mitochondrial diversity of Gyrodactylus arcuatus Bychowsky, 1933 is very high, and spatial differentiation weak...
April 19, 2018: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740480/estimating-the-intra-taxa-diversity-population-genetic-structure-and-evolutionary-pathways-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-cryptococcus-gattii
#18
Marina Muñoz, Milena Camargo, Juan D Ramírez
Members of the Cryptococcus complex, includes Cryptococcus neoformans (most common fungal infection of the brain) and Cryptococcus gattii (high-impact emerging pathogen worldwide). Currently, the fungal multilocus sequence typing database (Fungal MLST Database) constitutes a valuable data repository of the genes used for molecular typing of these pathogens. We analyzed the data available in the Fungal MLST Database for seven housekeeping genes, with the aim to evaluate its contribution in the description of intra-taxa diversity, population genetic structure, and evolutionary patterns...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740479/a-new-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-database-for-rainbow-trout-generated-through-whole-genome-resequencing
#19
Guangtu Gao, Torfinn Nome, Devon E Pearse, Thomas Moen, Kerry A Naish, Gary H Thorgaard, Sigbjørn Lien, Yniv Palti
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are highly abundant markers, which are broadly distributed in animal genomes. For rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ), SNP discovery has been previously done through sequencing of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) libraries, reduced representation libraries (RRL) and RNA sequencing. Recently we have performed high coverage whole genome resequencing with 61 unrelated samples, representing a wide range of rainbow trout and steelhead populations, with 49 new samples added to 12 aquaculture samples from AquaGen (Norway) that we previously used for SNP discovery...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738809/assessment-of-the-mode-of-action-underlying-development-of-forestomach-tumors-in-rodents-following-oral-exposure-to-ethyl-acrylate-and-relevance-to-humans
#20
REVIEW
Chad M Thompson, Mina Suh, Grace Chappell, Susan Borghoff, Robert Ellis-Hutchings, Karin Wiench, Lavorgie Finch, Deborah M Proctor
Chronic repeated gavage dosing of high concentrations of ethyl acrylate (EA) causes forestomach tumors in rats and mice. For two decades, there has been general consensus that these tumors are unique to rodents because of: i) lack of carcinogenicity in other organs, ii) specificity to the forestomach (an organ unique to rodents which humans do not possess), iii) lack of carcinogenicity by other routes of exposure, and iv) obvious site of contact toxicity at carcinogenic doses. In 1986, EA was classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)...
May 5, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
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