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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109210/surgical-repair-of-moderate-ischemic-mitral-regurgitation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Mahesh Anantha Narayanan, Saurabh Aggarwal, Yogesh N V Reddy, Venkata M Alla, Janani Baskaran, Arun Kanmanthareddy, Rakesh M Suri
Introduction Moderate mitral regurgitation (MR) of ischemic etiology has been associated with worse outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Studies comparing concomitant mitral valve replacement/repair (MVR/Re) with CABG and standalone CABG have reported conflicting results. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature. Patients and Methods We searched using PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Google scholar databases from January 1960 to June 2016 for clinical trials comparing CABG to CABG + MVR/Re for moderate MR...
January 21, 2017: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109172/integrated-treatment-options-for-male-perpetrators-of-intimate-partner-violence
#2
Cory A Crane, Caroline J Easton
ISSUES: Male-to-female intimate partner violence remains a worldwide public health issue with adverse physical and psychological consequences for victims, perpetrators and children. Personality disorders, addiction, trauma and mood symptoms are established risk factors for intimate partner violence perpetration and factor prominently into a recovery-oriented treatment approach. APPROACH: We reviewed the partner violence literature for detailed reports of traditional as well as innovative, integrated treatment approaches...
January 21, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109167/cell-cycle-tailored-targeting-of-metastatic-melanoma-challenges-opportunities
#3
Nikolas K Haass, Brian Gabrielli
The advent of targeted therapies of metastatic melanoma, such as MAPK pathway inhibitors and immune checkpoint antagonists, has turned dermato-oncology from the 'bad guy' to the 'poster child' in oncology. Current targeted therapies are effective; although here is a clear need to develop combination therapies to delay the onset of resistance. Many anti-melanoma drugs impact on the cell cycle but are also dependent on certain cell cycle phases resulting in cell cycle phase-specific drug insensitivity. Here, we raise the question: Have combination trials been abandoned prematurely as ineffective possibly only because drug scheduling was not optimized? Firstly, if both drugs of a combination hit targets in the same melanoma cell, cell cycle-mediated drug insensitivity should be taken into account when planning combination therapies, timing of dosing schedules and choice of drug therapies in solid tumors...
January 21, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108990/geographic-heterogeneity-in-the-prevalence-of-human-papillomavirus-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#4
Devasena Anantharaman, Behnoush Abedi-Ardekani, Daniel C Beachler, Tarik Gheit, Andrew F Olshan, Kathy Wisniewski, Victor Wunsch-Filho, Tatiana N Toporcov, Eloiza H Tajara, José Eduardo Levi, Raquel A Moyses, Stefania Boccia, Gabriella Cadoni, Guido Rindi, Wolfgang Ahrens, Franco Merletti, David I Conway, Sylvia Wright, Christine Carreira, Helene Renard, Priscilia Chopard, Sandrine McKay-Chopin, Ghislaine Scelo, Massimo Tommasino, Paul Brennan, Gypsyamber D'Souza
Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), although strongly divergent results have been reported regarding the prevalence of HPV16 in different countries, whether this represents important differences in etiology remains unclear. Applying rigorous protocols for sample processing, we centrally evaluated 1420 head and neck tumors (533 oropharynx, 395 oral cavity and 482 larynx) from studies conducted in the US, Europe and Brazil for mucosal HPV DNA and p16(INK4a) expression to evaluate regional heterogeneity in the proportion of HPV16-associated OPSCC and other head and neck cancer, and to assess covariates associated with the risk of HPV16-positive OPSCC...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108822/the-feasibility-of-local-anesthesia-for-the-surgical-treatment-of-umbilical-hernia-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#5
REVIEW
A P Jairam, R Kaufmann, F Muysoms, J Jeekel, J F Lange
BACKGROUND: Yearly approximately 4500 umbilical hernias are repaired in The Netherlands, mostly under general anesthesia. The use of local anesthesia has shown several advantages in groin hernia surgery. Local anesthesia might be useful in the treatment of umbilical hernia as well. However, convincing evidence is lacking. We have conducted a systematic review on safety, feasibility, and advantages of local anesthesia for umbilical hernia repair. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines...
January 20, 2017: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108766/immunosuppressive-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-are-increased-in-splenocytes-from-cancer-patients
#6
Kimberly R Jordan, Puja Kapoor, Eric Spongberg, Richard P Tobin, Dexiang Gao, Virginia F Borges, Martin D McCarter
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of myeloid cells that are increased in the peripheral blood of cancer patients and limit productive immune responses against tumors. Immunosuppressive MDSCs are well characterized in murine splenic tissue and are found at higher frequencies in spleens of tumor-bearing mice. However, no studies have yet analyzed these cells in parallel human spleens. We hypothesized that MDSCs would be increased in the spleens of human cancer patients, similar to tumor-bearing mice...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108756/left-ventricular-noncompaction-cardiomyopathy-in-pediatric-patients-a-case-series-of-a-clinically-heterogeneous-disease
#7
Umang Gupta, Pooja Makhija
Left ventricular noncompaction is a rare form of cardiomyopathy, which results from multiple trabeculations in the left ventricular myocardium. The clinical presentation is highly variable, and spectrum includes asymptomatic patients diagnosed during family screening on one end to patients with depressed systolic function, heart failure, thromboembolic complications, and cardiac arrhythmias on the other (Kim et al in J Am Coll Cardiol 53: 2009, 2009). Further, the progression of the condition is highly variable...
January 21, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108739/targeting-oncogenic-vulnerabilities-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-biological-bases-and-ongoing-clinical-studies
#8
Alberto Ocana, Atanasio Pandiella
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is still an incurable disease despite the great scientific effort performed during the last years. The huge heterogeneity of this disease has motivated the evaluation of a great number of therapies against different molecular alterations. In this article, we review the biological bases of this entity and how the known molecular evidence supports the current preclinical and clinical development of new therapies. Special attention will be given to ongoing clinical studies and potential options for future drug combinations...
January 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108663/determination-of-the-conformational-ensemble-of-the-tar-rna-by-x-ray-scattering-interferometry
#9
Xuesong Shi, Peter Walker, Pehr B Harbury, Daniel Herschlag
The conformational ensembles of structured RNA's are crucial for biological function, but they remain difficult to elucidate experimentally. We demonstrate with HIV-1 TAR RNA that X-ray scattering interferometry (XSI) can be used to determine RNA conformational ensembles. X-ray scattering interferometry (XSI) is based on site-specifically labeling RNA with pairs of heavy atom probes, and precisely measuring the distribution of inter-probe distances that arise from a heterogeneous mixture of RNA solution structures...
January 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108576/dual-source-computed-tomography-based-analysis-of-stent-performance-its-association-with-valvular-calcification-and-residual-aortic-regurgitation-after-implantation-of-a-balloon-expandable-transcatheter-heart-valve
#10
Julius Gerstmeyer, Maximilian Kütting, Buntaro Fujita, Annika Schuhbäck, Martin Arnold, Jochen Börgermann, Stephan Achenbach, Ulrich Steinseifer, Jan Gummert, Stephan Ensminger
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the mutual influence of valvular calcifications and transcatheter aortic valve stent geometry during and after implantation of a balloon-expandable SAPIEN(®)/SAPIEN XT(®) prostheses. Aortic valve calcification has been linked with adverse complications after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). However, little is known about the fate of the calcifications after TAVI as well as its influence on transcatheter heart valve geometry...
January 20, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108571/dynamical-theory-of-shear-bands-in-structural-glasses
#11
Apiwat Wisitsorasak, Peter G Wolynes
The heterogeneous elastoplastic deformation of structural glasses is explored using the framework of the random first-order transition theory of the glass transition along with an extended mode-coupling theory that includes activated events. The theory involves coupling the continuum elastic theory of strain transport with mobility generation and transport as described in the theory of glass aging and rejuvenation. Fluctuations that arise from the generation and transport of mobility, fictive temperature, and stress are treated explicitly...
January 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108516/fibrinolytic-enzyme-co-therapy-improves-tumor-perfusion-and-therapeutic-efficacy-of-anticancer-nanomedicine
#12
Ameya R Kirtane, Tanmoy Sadhukha, Hyunjoon Kim, Vidhi Khanna, Brenda Koniar, Jayanth Panyam
Elevated interstitial fluid pressure and solid stress within tumors contribute to poor intratumoral distribution of nanomedicine. In this study, we hypothesized that the presence of fibrin in tumor extracellular matrix contributes to hindered intratumoral distribution of nanocarriers and that this can be overcome through the use of a fibrinolytic enzyme such as tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Analysis of fibrin expression in human tumor biopsies showed significant fibrin staining in nearly all tumor types evaluated...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108439/de-novo-2p16-1-microdeletion-with-metastatic-esophageal-adenocarcinoma
#13
Don Chamil Codipilly, Ralitza H Gavrilova, Eric G Tangalos
Microdeletions involving chromosome 2p15-16.1 are a rare genetic abnormality and have been reported in 18 separate patients, mainly children, since 2007. This microdeletion syndrome is characterised by a heterogeneous expression of intellectual impairment, dysmorphic facies, musculoskeletal abnormalities and potential neurodevelopmental anomalies. We report the first case of natural progression in an adult patient who died at a young age of metastatic esophageal adenocarcinoma. Important learning points include the variable phenotypic expression of this microdeletion syndrome and the fact that clinicians must be thorough in investigating objective discrepancies in patients who cannot endorse classical symptoms...
January 20, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108365/neutrophil-subset-responses-in-infants-with-severe-viral-respiratory-infection
#14
Bart Cortjens, Sarah A Ingelse, Job C Calis, Alexander P Vlaar, Leo Koenderman, Reinout A Bem, Job B van Woensel
Neutrophils are the predominant inflammatory cells recruited to the respiratory tract as part of the innate immune response to viral infections. Recent reports indicate the existence of distinct functional neutrophil subsets in the circulatory compartment of adults, following severe inflammatory conditions. Here, we evaluated the occurrence of neutrophil subsets in blood and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid during severe viral respiratory infection in infants based on CD16/CD62L expression. We show that during the course of severe respiratory infection infants may develop four heterogeneous neutrophil subsets in blood (mature, immature, progenitor, and suppressive neutrophils), each with distinct activation states...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108325/mononuclear-phagocytes-as-a-target-not-a-barrier-for-drug-delivery
#15
Seok-Beom Yong, Yoonsung Song, Hyung Jin Kim, Qurrat Ul Ain, Yong-Hee Kim
Mononuclear phagocytes have been generally recognized as a barrier to drug delivery. Recently, a new understanding of mononuclear phagocytes (MPS) ontogeny has surfaced and their functions in disease have been unveiled, demonstrating the need for re-evaluation of perspectives on mononuclear phagocytes in drug delivery. In this review, we described mononuclear phagocyte biology and focus on their accumulation mechanisms in disease sites with explanations of monocyte heterogeneity. In the 'MPS as a barrier' section, we summarized recent studies on mechanisms to avoid phagocytosis based on two different biological principles: protein adsorption and self-recognition...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108290/pmp22-mutant-allele-specific-sirna-alleviates-demyelinating-neuropathic-phenotype-in-vivo
#16
Ji-Su Lee, Eun Hyuk Chang, Ok Jae Koo, Dong Hwan Jwa, Won Min Mo, Geon Kwak, Hyo Won Moon, Hwan Tae Park, Young Bin Hong, Byung-Ok Choi
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a genetic disorder that can be caused by aberrations in >80 genes. CMT has heterogeneous modes of inheritance, including autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked dominant, and X-linked recessive. Over 95% of cases are dominantly inherited. In this study, we investigated whether regulation of a mutant allele by an allele-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) can alleviate the demyelinating neuropathic phenotype of CMT. We designed 19 different allele-specific siRNAs for Trembler J (Tr-J) mice harboring a naturally occurring mutation (Leu16Pro) in Pmp22...
January 17, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108239/preoperative-ultrasonography-for-evaluation-of-clinically-n0-neck-in-oral-cavity-carcinoma
#17
Angel Rollon-Mayordomo, Teresa Creo-Martinez, Yolanda Marin-Lapeira, Juan-Andres Rodriguez-Ruiz, Pedro Infante-Cossio
The aim of this study was to evaluate preoperative ultrasound criteria to detect lymph node (LN) cervical metastasis in patients with clinically node-negative neck (cN0) oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). A prospective, single-center, observational study was conducted in 90 patients undergoing cancer excision with or without elective neck dissection (END) between 2005 and 2012. A surgeon and an experienced radiologist performed preoperative cervical ultrasonography in all cases. The primary objective was to obtain an a priori sensitivity of 90% and specificity >50% in cN0 OCSCC staging...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108233/murine-cd103-dendritic-cells-protect-against-steatosis-progression-towards-steatohepatitis
#18
Eva-Carina Heier, Anna Meier, Henrike Julich-Haertel, Sonja Djudjaj, Monica Rau, Thomas Tschernig, Andreas Geier, Peter Boor, Frank Lammert, Veronika Lukacs-Kornek
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is the hepatic consequence of metabolic syndrome and can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The identification of molecular and cellular factors that determine the progression of NASH and lead to irreversible hepatocellular damage are crucial. Dendritic cells (DCs) represent a heterogeneous cell population among which CD103(+) DCs play a significant role in immunity and tolerance. METHODS: Steatosis progression towards steatohepatitis was analyzed using multicolor FACS analyses, cytokine and qPCR array in high sucrose diet (HSD) and methionine and choline deficient diet (MCD) fed wild-type and Batf3 (Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor, ATF-Like-3) deficient animals, which lack CD103(+) DCs (classical type-1 DC, cDC1s)...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108168/joint-refinement-of-fret-measurements-using-spectroscopic-and-computational-tools
#19
Alexander Kyrychenko, Mykola V Rodnin, Chiranjib Ghatak, Alexey S Ladokhin
The variability of the orientation factor is a long-standing challenge in converting FRET efficiency measurements into donor-acceptor distances. We propose the use of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to characterize orientation distributions and thus improve the accuracy of distance measurements. Here, we test this approach by comparing experimental and simulated FRET efficiencies for a model donor-acceptor pair of enhanced cyan and enhanced yellow FPs connected by a flexible linker. Several spectroscopic techniques were used to characterize FRET in solution...
January 17, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108125/interventions-to-support-risk-and-benefit-understanding-of-disease-modifying-drugs-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Gurpreet K Reen, Eli Silber, Dawn W Langdon
OBJECTIVE: The present review evaluates interventions that have been designed to improve understanding of the complex risk-benefit profiles of disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). METHODS: A systematic search conducted using PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar and PsycINFO identified 15 studies. Interventions which provided treatment information were present across a range of study designs. A narrative synthesis was conducted due to heterogeneity of research findings...
December 28, 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
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