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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742955/bayesian-one-step-ipd-network-meta-analysis-of-time-to-event-data-using-royston-parmar-models
#1
Suzanne C Freeman, James R Carpenter
Network meta-analysis (NMA) combines direct and indirect evidence from trials to calculate and rank treatment estimates. While modelling approaches for continuous and binary outcomes are relatively well developed, less work has been done with time-to-event outcomes. Such outcomes are usually analysed using Cox proportional hazard (PH) models. However, in oncology with longer follow-up time, and time-dependent effects of targeted treatments, this may no longer be appropriate. Network meta-analysis conducted in the Bayesian setting has been increasing in popularity...
July 25, 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742937/models-for-discovery-of-targeted-therapy-in-genetic-epileptic-encephalopathies
#2
REVIEW
Snezana Maljevic, Christopher A Reid, Steven Petrou
Epileptic encephalopathies are severe disorders emerging in the first days to years of life that commonly include refractory seizures, various types of movement disorders, and different levels of developmental delay. In recent years, many de novo occurring variants have been identified in individuals with these devastating disorders. To unravel disease mechanisms the functional impact of detected variants associated with epileptic encephalopathies is investigated in a range of cellular and animal models. This review addresses efforts to advance and use such models to identify specific molecular and cellular targets for the development of novel therapies...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742874/the-relationship-between-early-and-late-event-related-potentials-and-temperament-in-adolescents-with-and-without-adhd
#3
Brittany R Alperin, Hanna Gustafsson, Christiana Smith, Sarah L Karalunas
Differences in emotional processing are prevalent in adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are related to clinical impairment, but substantial heterogeneity exists. Within ADHD, some individuals experience difficulty with positive/approach emotions, negative/withdrawal emotions, or both. These problems may reflect differences in emotional reactivity, emotion regulation, or a combination, and the neurophysiological correlates remain unclear. Event-related potentials were collected from 109 adolescents (49 with ADHD) while they completed an emotional go/no-go task with three conditions: happy (positive/approach), fear (negative/withdrawal), and neutral...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742869/ultrasound-non-invasive-measurement-of-intracranial-pressure-in-neurointensive-care-a-prospective-observational-study
#4
Chiara Robba, Danilo Cardim, Tamara Tajsic, Justine Pietersen, Michael Bulman, Joseph Donnelly, Andrea Lavinio, Arun Gupta, David K Menon, Peter J A Hutchinson, Marek Czosnyka
BACKGROUND: The invasive nature of the current methods for monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) has prevented their use in many clinical situations. Several attempts have been made to develop methods to monitor ICP non-invasively. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between ultrasound-based non-invasive ICP (nICP) and invasive ICP measurement in neurocritical care patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a prospective, single-cohort observational study of patients admitted to a tertiary neurocritical care unit...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742860/prognostic-significance-of-microrna-101-in-solid-tumor-a-meta-analysis
#5
Xianxiong Ma, Jie Bai, Gengchen Xie, Yulin Liu, Xiaoming Shuai, Kaixiong Tao
MicroRNA-101 has been reported as an important factor in carcinogenesis of several malignant tumors. However, its actual role in prognosis among solid malignancies remains unclear. Accordingly, we performed this meta-analysis aiming to identify prognostic significance of miR-101 in solid tumor. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for overall survival (OS) or disease-free survival (DFS)/metastasis-free survival (MFS)/progression-free survival (PFS)/relapse-free survival (RFS)/time-to progression (TTP) were estimated with random effects or fixed effects models on the basis of heterogeneity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742616/twenty-year-systematic-review-of-the-hip-pathology-risk-factors-treatment-and-clinical-outcomes-in-artistic-athletes-dancers-figure-skaters-and-gymnasts
#6
Ioanna Bolia, Hajime Utsunomiya, Renato Locks, Karen Briggs, Marc J Philippon
OBJECTIVE: To identify (1) the predominant level of evidence of the clinical studies regarding the hip pathology, risk factors, treatment, and clinical outcomes in artistic athletes (dancers, figure skaters, and gymnasts) (2) the most commonly reported hip pathology, risk factors, treatments, and clinical outcomes in dancers, figure skaters, and gymnasts. METHODS: To conduct this systematic review PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases were searched for relevant studies and pertinent data were collected from the eligible articles...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742594/cervical-evaluation-in-pregnancy-proper-measurement-evaluation-and-management
#7
Joseph R Wax, Angelina Cartin, Michael G Pinette
Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in developed nations. The heterogeneous causes of spontaneous preterm birth make prediction and prevention difficult. The primary importance of transvaginal cervical sonography and cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin lies in their high negative predictive values in assessing risk for preterm birth. Cervical length may be useful in identifying women who are candidates for cervical cerclage or progesterone therapy for preterm birth prevention...
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742579/a-review-of-the-epigenetic-contributions-to-endometriosis
#8
Frances W Grimstad, Alan Decherney
Epigenetic influences have been postulated to affect the course of endometriosis. DNA methyltransferases, estrogen and progesterone receptors, micro-RNAs, and histone deacetylators, have shown differential expression in endometriosis compared with normal endometrium. Others such as aromatase, Steroid Factor-1, COX-2, and Homeobox A10 also have epigenetic modifications in endometriosis. Limitations in this area of research include heterogeneity in study design, patient populations, and methods of analysis. Larger, controlled studies are needed...
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742535/-anonymous-meltdown-content-themes-emerging-in-a-nonfacilitated-peer-only-unstructured-asynchronous-online-support-group-for-family-caregivers
#9
Cynthia A Diefenbeck, Paula R Klemm, Evelyn R Hayes
By providing care for loved ones in the home, family caregivers save millions of dollars for our overtaxed healthcare system. Support groups can lighten the psychological burden of caregiving. Nonprofessionally facilitated (or peer) online caregiver support groups can help meet a critical need in healthcare as a low-cost resource for caregivers. Online caregiver peer support groups can promote the health and well-being of family caregivers and, by extension, the patients themselves, resulting in cost-savings for society...
July 25, 2017: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742456/dietary-fat-intake-and-lung-cancer-risk-a-pooled-analysis
#10
Jae Jeong Yang, Danxia Yu, Yumie Takata, Stephanie A Smith-Warner, William Blot, Emily White, Kim Robien, Yikyung Park, Yong-Bing Xiang, Rashmi Sinha, DeAnn Lazovich, Meir Stampfer, Rosario Tumino, Dagfinn Aune, Kim Overvad, Linda Liao, Xuehong Zhang, Yu-Tang Gao, Mattias Johansson, Walter Willett, Wei Zheng, Xiao-Ou Shu
Purpose Dietary fat may play a role in lung carcinogenesis. Findings from epidemiologic studies, however, remain inconsistent. In this pooled analysis of 10 prospective cohort studies from the United States, Europe, and Asia, we evaluated the associations of total and specific types of dietary fat with lung cancer risk. Methods Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs in each cohort. Study-specific risk estimates were pooled by random- or fixed-effects meta-analysis. The first 2 years of follow-up were excluded to address potential influence of preclinical dietary changes...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742425/association-between-hypertension-and-epistaxis-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Hyun Jin Min, Hyun Kang, Geun Joo Choi, Kyung Soo Kim
Objective Whether there is an association or a cause-and-effect relationship between epistaxis and hypertension is a subject of longstanding controversy. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the association between epistaxis and hypertension and to verify whether hypertension is an independent risk factor of epistaxis. Data Sources A comprehensive search was performed using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. Review Methods The review was performed according to the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines and reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines...
July 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742418/health-risk-behavior-among-justice-involved-male-and-female-youth-exploratory-multi-group-latent-class-analysis
#12
Richard Dembo, Jessica Faber, Jennifer Cristiano, Ralph J DiClemente, Julie M Krupa, Asha Terminello, Jennifer Wareham
BACKGROUND: Youth involved in the juvenile justice system experience a disproportionate prevalence of serious mental health issues, substance abuse, and are at an increased risk of engaging in risky sexual practices. Gender differences exist, with girls at a markedly greater risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted disease. OBJECTIVES: The present study seeks to determine if there are subgroups of male and female youth who differ in their health risk behavior. If so, do any male or female subgroups at different levels of health risk differ in regard to their sociodemographic and psychological factors, and finally, what are intervention/service delivery implications of these differences...
July 25, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742404/pregnane-x-receptor-polymorphisms-and-risk-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-meta-analysis
#13
Xiaolan Guo, Ming Yan
BACKGROUND: Pregnane X receptor (PXR) gene polymorphisms have been widely studied in terms of the association with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), with inconsistent results. OBJECTIVE: The present meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between PXR gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility of IBD, Crohn's disease (CD), and ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: PubMed, Wanfang, and CNKI databases were searched for eligible studies before November 1, 2016...
July 25, 2017: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742376/hypervascular-transformation-of-hypovascular-hypointense-nodules-in-the-hepatobiliary-phase-of-gadoxetic-acid-enhanced-mri-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Chong Hyun Suh, Kyung Won Kim, Junhee Pyo, Jayoun Lee, So Yeon Kim, Seong Ho Park
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of hypovascular hypointense nodules in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and the risk factors for the hypervascular transformation of the nodules through a systematic review and meta-analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched the Ovid-MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for published studies of hypovascular hypointense nodules in patients with chronic liver disease. The pooled proportions of the overall and cumulative incidence rates at 1, 2, and 3 years for the transformation of hypovascular hypointense nodules into hypervascular hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) were assessed by using random-effects modeling...
July 25, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742373/utility-of-mri-to-differentiate-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-adrenal-metastases-from-adrenal-adenomas
#15
Nicola Schieda, Satheesh Krishna, Matthew D F McInnes, Bardia Moosavi, Abdulmohsen Alrashed, Robert Moreland, Evan S Siegelman
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to compare MRI features of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) adrenal metastases and adenomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen clear cell RCC adrenal metastases imaged with MRI were compared to 29 consecutive adenomas between 2006 and 2015. Two blinded radiologists assessed homogeneity (homogeneous vs heterogeneous), signal intensity (SI) decrease on chemical-shift MRI, and T2-weighted SI (isointense, mildly hyperintense, or markedly hyperintense) relative to muscle...
July 25, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742285/variable-expressivity-and-incomplete-penetrance-in-a-large-family-with-non-classical-diamond-blackfan-anemia-associated-with-ribosomal-protein-l11-splicing-variant
#16
Colleen M Carlston, Zeinab A Afify, Janice C Palumbos, Heidi Bagley, Carlos Barbagelata, Whitney L Wooderchak-Donahue, Rong Mao, John C Carey
Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous bone marrow failure disorders with or without congenital anomalies. Variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance have been observed within affected families. Diamond-Blackfan anemia-7 (DBA7), caused by heterozygous mutations in ribosomal protein L11 (RPL11), accounts for approximately 5% of DBA. DBA7 is usually characterized by early-onset bone marrow failure often accompanied by congenital malformations, especially thumb defects...
July 25, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742267/profiling-the-effects-of-short-time-course-cold-ischemia-on-tumor-protein-phosphorylation-using-a-bayesian-approach
#17
You Wu, Jeremy Gaskins, Maiying Kong, Susmita Datta
Phosphorylated proteins provide insight into tumor etiology and are used as diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic markers of complex diseases. However, pre-analytic variations, such as freezing delay after biopsy acquisition, often occur in real hospital settings and potentially lead to inaccurate results. The objective of this work is to develop statistical methodology to assess the stability of phosphorylated proteins under short-time cold ischemia. We consider a hierarchical model to determine if phosphorylation abundance of a protein at a particular phosphorylation site remains constant or not during cold ischemia...
July 25, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742260/incorporating-patient-preferences-into-estimation-of-optimal-individualized-treatment-rules
#18
Emily L Butler, Eric B Laber, Sonia M Davis, Michael R Kosorok
Precision medicine seeks to provide treatment only if, when, to whom, and at the dose it is needed. Thus, precision medicine is a vehicle by which healthcare can be made both more effective and efficient. Individualized treatment rules operationalize precision medicine as a map from current patient information to a recommended treatment. An optimal individualized treatment rule is defined as maximizing the mean of a pre-specified scalar outcome. However, in settings with multiple outcomes, choosing a scalar composite outcome by which to define optimality is difficult...
July 25, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742122/main-predictors-of-periphyton-species-richness-depend-on-adherence-strategy-and-cell-size
#19
Vanessa Majewski Algarte, Tadeu Siqueira, Victor Lemes Landeiro, Liliana Rodrigues, Claudia Costa Bonecker, Luzia Cleide Rodrigues, Natália Fernanda Santana, Sidinei Magela Thomaz, Luis Mauricio Bini
Periphytic algae are important components of aquatic ecosystems. However, the factors driving periphyton species richness variation remain largely unexplored. Here, we used data from a subtropical floodplain (Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil) to quantify the influence of environmental variables (total suspended matter, temperature, conductivity, nutrient concentrations, hydrology, phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton species richness, aquatic macrophyte species richness and zooplankton density) on overall periphytic algal species richness and on the richness of different algal groups defined by morphological traits (cell size and adherence strategy)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742102/pancreatic-size-and-fat-content-in-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-imaging-studies
#20
Tiago Severo Garcia, Tatiana Helena Rech, Cristiane Bauermann Leitão
OBJECTIVES: Imaging studies are expected to produce reliable information regarding the size and fat content of the pancreas. However, the available studies have produced inconclusive results. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of imaging studies assessing pancreas size and fat content in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: Medline and Embase databases were performed. Studies evaluating pancreatic size (diameter, area or volume) and/or fat content by ultrasound, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging in patients with T1DM and/or T2DM as compared to healthy controls were selected...
2017: PloS One
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