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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166753/interventional-locoregional-treatment-and-metabolic-response-advantages-of-using-pet-ct-in-the-evaluation-of-response-to-treatment
#1
Monica Finessi, Marilena Bellò, Francesca P Giunta, Andrea Veltri, Désirée Deandreis
INTRODUCTION: Interventional oncology locoregional therapies are validated treatment modalities for primary and secondary tumors in liver, lung, kidney and bone. At this time, there is no accordance in the choice of imaging modality to assess treatment response. Morphological imaging and RECIST 1.1 criteria based on size variation are limited by several critical points. On the other hand the role of functional imaging, in particular by [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), in both staging and response evaluation of locoregional treatments remains unclear because of the heterogeneous nature of available data...
November 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166661/ultraconserved-elements-uces-resolve-the-phylogeny-of-australasian-smurf-weevils
#2
Matthew H Van Dam, Athena W Lam, Katayo Sagata, Bradley Gewa, Raymond Laufa, Michael Balke, Brant C Faircloth, Alexander Riedel
Weevils (Curculionoidea) comprise one of the most diverse groups of organisms on earth. There is hardly a vascular plant or plant part without its own species of weevil feeding on it and weevil species diversity is greater than the number of fishes, birds, reptiles, amphibians and mammals combined. Here, we employ ultraconserved elements (UCEs) designed for beetles and a novel partitioning strategy of loci to help resolve phylogenetic relationships within the radiation of Australasian smurf-weevils (Eupholini)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166620/a-cell-line-specific-atlas-of-parp-mediated-protein-asp-glu-adp-ribosylation-in-breast-cancer
#3
Yuanli Zhen, Yajie Zhang, Yonghao Yu
PARP1 plays a critical role in regulating many biological processes linked to cellular stress responses. Although DNA strand breaks are potent stimuli of PARP1 enzymatic activity, the context-dependent mechanism regulating PARP1 activation and signaling is poorly understood. We performed global characterization of the PARP1-dependent, Asp/Glu-ADP-ribosylated proteome in a panel of cell lines originating from benign breast epithelial cells, as well as common subtypes of breast cancer. From these analyses, we identified 503 specific ADP-ribosylation sites on 322 proteins...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166592/hiv-envelope-glycoform-heterogeneity-and-localized-diversity-govern-the-initiation-and-maturation-of-a-v2-apex-broadly-neutralizing-antibody-lineage
#4
Elise Landais, Ben Murrell, Bryan Briney, Sasha Murrell, Kimmo Rantalainen, Zachary T Berndsen, Alejandra Ramos, Lalinda Wickramasinghe, Melissa Laird Smith, Kemal Eren, Natalia de Val, Mengyu Wu, Audrey Cappelletti, Jeffrey Umotoy, Yolanda Lie, Terri Wrin, Paul Algate, Po-Ying Chan-Hui, Etienne Karita, Andrew B Ward, Ian A Wilson, Dennis R Burton, Davey Smith, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Pascal Poignard
Understanding how broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) to HIV envelope (Env) develop during natural infection can help guide the rational design of an HIV vaccine. Here, we described a bnAb lineage targeting the Env V2 apex and the Ab-Env co-evolution that led to development of neutralization breadth. The lineage Abs bore an anionic heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDRH3) of 25 amino acids, among the shortest known for this class of Abs, and achieved breadth with only 10% nucleotide somatic hypermutation and no insertions or deletions...
November 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166553/botulinum-toxin-injection-versus-topical-nitrates-for-chronic-anal-fissure-an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#5
REVIEW
Shaheel M Sahebally, Babak Meshkat, Stewart R Walsh, David Beddy
BACKGROUND: Chronic anal fissures (CAF) are frequently encountered in coloproctology clinics. Chemical sphincterotomy with pharmacological agents is recommended as first-line therapy. Topical nitrates (TN) heal CAF effectively but recurrences are common. An alternative treatment modality is injection of botulinum toxin (BT) into the anal sphincter. We aimed to perform an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effectiveness of BT and TN in the management of CAF. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched for relevant articles from inception until March 2017...
November 22, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166501/primary-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphoma-experience-from-the-peruvian-national-cancer-institute
#6
Rosana Ruiz, Zaida Morante, Raul Mantilla, Luis Mas, Luis Casanova, Henry L Gomez
BACKGROUND: Primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas constitute a heterogeneous and rare group of diseases with regional particularities in Latin America. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinicopathological features, relative frequency and survival among patients from a Peruvian institution. METHODS: Primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas were defined based on the absence of extracutaneous disease at diagnosis. Classification was performed following the 2008 World Health Organization Classification of Neoplasms of the Hematopoietic and Lymphoid tissues...
September 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166334/gastrointestinal-stromal-tumor-of-the-prostate-staging-and-evaluation-of-response-to-therapy-with-18f-fdg-pet-ct
#7
Yazan Z Alabed
A 49-year-old man presented for routine general physical examination was found with an enlarged prostate gland without associated symptoms. Ultrasound followed by computed tomography (CT) of abdomen and pelvis confirmed a markedly enlarged heterogeneous prostate gland. Subsequently, a staging flourine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET/CT) scan revealed intensely FDG-avid mass involving the prostate, which was biopsied as gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). The patient was treated with imatinib and a follow-up PET/CT scan showed complete metabolic response...
November 22, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166155/drivers-of-diversification-in-individual-life-courses
#8
Raisa Hernández-Pacheco, Ulrich K Steiner
Heterogeneity in life courses among individuals of a population influences the speed of adaptive evolutionary processes, but it is less clear how biotic and abiotic environmental fluctuations influence such heterogeneity. We investigate principal drivers of variability in sequence of stages during an individual's life in a stage-structured population. We quantify heterogeneity by measuring population entropy of a Markov chain, which computes the rate of diversification of individual life courses. Using individual data of a primate population, we show that density regulates the stage composition of the population but that its entropy and the generating moments of heterogeneity are independent of density...
December 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166091/string-like-collective-motion-and-diffusion-in-the-interfacial-region-of-ice
#9
Xinyi Wang, Xuhang Tong, Hao Zhang, Jack F Douglas
We investigate collective molecular motion and the self-diffusion coefficient Ds of water molecules in the mobile interfacial layer of the secondary prismatic plane (112¯0) of hexagonal ice by molecular dynamics simulation based on the TIP4P/2005 water potential and a metrology of collective motion drawn from the field of glass-forming liquids. The width ξ of the mobile interfacial layer varies from a monolayer to a few nm as the temperature is increased towards the melting temperature Tm, in accordance with recent simulations and many experimental studies, although different experimental methods have differed in their precise estimates of the thickness of this layer...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166071/tunability-of-the-co-adsorption-energy-on-a-ni-cu-surface-site-change-and-coverage-effects
#10
Erik Vesselli, Michele Rizzi, Sara Furlan, Xiangmei Duan, Enrico Monachino, Carlo Dri, Angelo Peronio, Cristina Africh, Paolo Lacovig, Alfonso Baldereschi, Giovanni Comelli, Maria Peressi
The adsorption energy of carbon monoxide on Ni ad-islands and ultra-thin films grown on the Cu(110) surface can be finely tuned via a complex interplay among diffusion, site change mechanisms, and coverage effects. The observed features of CO desorption can be explained in terms of migration of CO molecules from Cu to Ni islands, competition between bridge and on-top adsorption sites, and repulsive lateral adsorbate-adsorbate interactions. While the CO adsorption energy on clean Cu(110) is of the order of 0...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166035/direct-visualization-and-control-of-atomic-mobility-at-100-surfaces-of-ceria-in-the-environmental-transmission-electron-microscope
#11
Matthieu Bugnet, Steven H Overbury, Zili Wu, Thierry Epicier
Ceria is one of the world's most prominent material for applications in heterogeneous catalysis, as catalyst support or catalyst itself. Despite an exhaustive literature on the structure of reactive facets of CeO2 in line with its catalytic mechanisms, the temporal evolution of the atomic surface structure exposed to realistic redox conditions remains elusive. Here, we provide a direct visualization of the atomic mobility of cerium atoms on {100} surfaces of CeO2 nanocubes at room temperature in high vacuum, O2 and CO2 atmospheres in an environmental transmission electron microscope...
November 22, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166007/titanium-based-hydrides-as-heterogeneous-catalysts-for-ammonia-synthesis
#12
Yoji Kobayashi, Ya Tang, Toki Kageyama, Hiroki Yamashita, Naoya Masuda, Saburo Hosokawa, Hiroshi Kageyama
The problem of activating N2 and its subsequent hydrogenation to form NH3 has been approached from many directions. One of these approaches involves the use of transition metal hydride complexes. Recently, transition metal hydride complexes of Ti and Ta have been shown to activate N2, but without catalytic formation of NH3. Here, we show that at elevated temperatures (400˚C, 5 MPa), solid-state hydride-containing Ti compounds (TiH2 and BaTiO2.5H0.5) form a nitride-hydride surface similar to those observed with titanium clusters, but continuously (~7 days) form NH3 under H2/N2 flow conditions to achieve a catalytic cycle, with activity (up to 2...
November 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165929/spatial-population-genomics-of-the-brown-rat-rattus-norvegicus-in-new-york-city
#13
Matthew Combs, Emily E Puckett, Jonathan Richardson, Destiny Mims, Jason Munshi-South
Human commensal species such as rodent pests are often widely distributed across cities and threaten both infrastructure and public health. Spatially-explicit population genomic methods provide insights into movements for cryptic pests that drive evolutionary connectivity across multiple spatial scales. We examined spatial patterns of neutral genome-wide variation in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) across Manhattan, New York City (NYC) using 262 samples and 61,401 SNPs to understand: 1) relatedness among nearby individuals and the extent of spatial genetic structure in a discrete urban landscape; 2) the geographic origin of NYC rats, using a large, previously-published dataset of global rat genotypes; and 3) heterogeneity in gene flow across the city, particularly deviations from isolation-by-distance...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165847/breast-lesion-characterization-using-whole-lesion-histogram-analysis-with-stretched-exponential-diffusion-model
#14
Chunling Liu, Kun Wang, Xiaodan Li, Jine Zhang, Jie Ding, Karl Spuhler, Timothy Duong, Changhong Liang, Chuan Huang
BACKGROUND: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been studied in breast imaging and can provide more information about diffusion, perfusion and other physiological interests than standard pulse sequences. The stretched-exponential model has previously been shown to be more reliable than conventional DWI techniques, but different diagnostic sensitivities were found from study to study. PURPOSE: This work investigated the characteristics of whole-lesion histogram parameters derived from the stretched-exponential diffusion model for benign and malignant breast lesions, compared them with conventional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and further determined which histogram metrics can be best used to differentiate malignant from benign lesions...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165784/interventions-for-managing-skeletal-muscle-spasticity-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
REVIEW
Anneliese Synnot, Marisa Chau, Veronica Pitt, Denise O'Connor, Russell L Gruen, Jason Wasiak, Ornella Clavisi, Loyal Pattuwage, Kate Phillips
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle spasticity is a major physical complication resulting from traumatic brain injury (TBI), which can lead to muscle contracture, joint stiffness, reduced range of movement, broken skin and pain. Treatments for spasticity include a range of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, often used in combination. Management of spasticity following TBI varies from other clinical populations because of the added complexity of behavioural and cognitive issues associated with TBI...
November 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165762/recent-perspectives-of-pediatric-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#16
D-L Zhang, S-Z Chen, X-M Liu
The assorted circumstances characterized by malfunctioning in cognition, communication or motor skills lead to abnormal development of the central nervous system (CNS) in young infants. These conditions are collectively termed as neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and are usually diagnosed during childhood or infancy. NDDs occur as frequent as 1-3% in the general population and their diagnostic yield is approximately 15-25% with existing available techniques. So, the majority of affected patients are still undiagnosed due to genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity despite the discovery of 450 genes associated with NDDs...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165744/hypothermia-therapy-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Lige Leng
The purpose of this article was mainly focus on in patients with TBI, does or not hypothermia improved mortality and/or chance of good neurologic outcome compared with standard of care alone. We performed a comprehensive search strategy. Articles were eliminated in a stepwise fashion. Data from each study was entered in Review Manager (RevMan) software version 5.0 when reported. 7 studies, including 1331 patients confirmed to all selection criteria and were identified. This meta-analysis got all data of 7 articles together to come to a conclusion, besides that, it also carried on a detailed analysis of different classification, trying to outline the possible mechanism...
October 29, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165451/optical-magnetic-bifunctional-properties-and-mechanistic-insights-on-upconversion-of-nayf4-yb-ho-tm-nagdf4-with-a-tunable-nanodumbbell-morphology
#18
Zhichao Yu, Haifeng Zhou, Guangjun Zhou, Juan Zhou, Yaqiang Wu, Xingshuang Zhang, Tao Wang, Dapeng Huang, Xinqiang Wang, Jifan Hu
The energy-upconversion of lanthanide-doped nanoparticles with a core-shell structure can be utilized to enhance and tune optical properties and can generate multifunctionality in a single system. Herein, the core-shell nanoparticles NaYF4:Yb,Ho,Tm@NaGdF4 were prepared by thermally decomposing lanthanide acetylacetonate precursors. Through modifying the molar ratio of the core and shell, nanodumbbell-shaped particles with different sizes and morphologies were precisely synthesized. The formation mechanism and the heterogeneous epitaxial growth process of the nanodumbbell-shaped particles were studied...
November 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165440/dynamic-characterization-of-drug-resistance-and-heterogeneity-of-the-gastric-cancer-cell-bgc823-using-single-cell-raman-spectroscopy
#19
Yong Zhang, Ludi Jin, Jingjing Xu, Yuezhou Yu, Lin Shen, Jing Gao, Anpei Ye
Drug resistance and heterogeneous characteristics of human gastric carcinoma cells (BGC823) under the treatment of paclitaxel (PTX) were investigated using single-cell Raman spectroscopy (RS). RS of normal and drug-resistant BGC823 cells (DR-BGC823) were collected and analyzed using arithmetic, statistic and individual spectrum analysis. The dynamic effects of paclitaxel (PTX) in normal and DR-BGC823 cells were evaluated dynamically. The RS intensity changed with PTX over time and produced distinct different results for the two types of cells...
November 22, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165406/-the-significance-of-fibroblasts-in-experimental-modeling-of-proliferative-vitreoretinopathy
#20
I P Khoroshilova-Maslova, N L Leparskaya, E A Vorotelyak, A V Vasiliev
AIM: to investigate the role of heterogeneous fibroblasts in the development of epiretinal membrane in eyes with modeled proliferative vitreoretinopathy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The material for investigation were 6 eyes of 3 Chinchilla rabbits. Suspended fibroblasts (fibroblasts of the human skin - 200000 cells in 0.1 ml) were injected into the vitreous cavity via the pars plana. The animals were followed up for 1 month and then made out of the experiment. The eyes were enucleated and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for routine histological examination...
2017: Vestnik Oftalmologii
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