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Nadine Oppermann, Jürgen Weitz, Christoph Reißfelder, Sören Torge Mees
In Germany, medical students in their final year will work in hospitals or medical offices to gain clinical experience. The final year is designed to prepare medical students for their work as junior doctors. It is divided into three parts and includes internal medicine and general surgery as mandatory parts. Many students develop enthusiasm or lack of enthusiasm while working in specific disciplines and often apply for jobs based on their experience in their final year. Despite the importance of this educational phase, the 36 medical faculties have implemented several different curricula and there is significant heterogeneity...
March 16, 2018: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
Elizabeth R Gerstner, Kristian W Pajtler
Ependymoma can arise throughout the whole neuraxis. In children, tumors predominantly occur intracranially, whereas the spine is the most prevalent location in adults. Significant variance in the grade II versus grade III distinction of ependymomas has led to the acknowledgment that the clinical utility of histopathological classification is limited. Epigenomic profiling efforts have identified molecularly distinct groups of ependymomas that adequately reflect the biological, clinical, and histopathological heterogeneities across anatomical compartments, age groups, and grades...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Zachary J Reitman, Frank Winkler, Andrew E H Elia
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the central nervous system. The current standard of care for GBM is maximal resection followed by postoperative radiation with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. Despite this multimodality treatment, the median survival for GBM remains marginally better than 1 year. In the past decade, genome-wide analyses have uncovered new molecular features of GBM that have refined its classification and provided new insights into the molecular basis for GBM pathogenesis...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
P D Tar, N A Thacker, M Babur, Y Watson, S Cheung, R A Little, R G Gieling, K J Williams, J P B O'Connor
Motivation: Imaging demonstrates that preclinical and human tumors are heterogeneous, i.e. a single tumor can exhibit multiple regions that behave differently during both normal development and also in response to treatment. The large variations observed in control group tumors can obscure detection of significant therapeutic effects due to the ambiguity in attributing causes of change. This can hinder development of effective therapies due to limitations in experimental design, rather than due to therapeutic failure...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Christos Dimitrakopoulos, Sravanth Kumar Hindupur, Luca Häfliger, Jonas Behr, Hesam Montazeri, Michael N Hall, Niko Beerenwinkel
Motivation: Several molecular events are known to be cancer-related, including genomic aberrations, hypermethylation of gene promoter regions, and differential expression of microRNAs. These aberration events are very heterogeneous across tumors and it is poorly understood how they affect the molecular makeup of the cell, including the transcriptome and proteome. Protein interaction networks can help decode the functional relationship between aberration events and changes in gene and protein expression...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Fengxia Deng, Hugo Olvera-Vargas, Orlando Garcia-Rodriguez, Shan Qiu, Jixian Yang, Olivier Lefebvre
A composite nickel-iron-foam (Ni-Fe-F) electrode was used as a cathode in the electro-Fenton (EF) process at circum-neutral pH in the presence of sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) as supporting electrolyte. It was found that phenol degradation was dramatically improved by the synergistic effect of Ni-Fe-F and TPP, reaching 100% removal in 40 min, with kapp  = (8.90 ± 0.12) × 10-2 min-1 , which was about 18 times higher than that of Ni-Fe-F with sulfate as conventional electrolyte at pH 3.00 (kapp  = (5...
March 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Laura Jayne Broome, Cristina Izura, Nuria Lorenzo-Dus
Within the literature individuals who use the internet to facilitate the sexual abuse of a minor are generally classified as being fantasy or contact driven. Classification is based upon the intended location for sexual climax: fantasy driven individuals aim to reach sexual climax online, whereas contact driven individuals target minors to achieve physical sex offline. This review systematically investigates whether there is an empirical basis for the distinction between these two proposed discrete types. Comparison of tactics and behaviour are considered to examine whether the contact vs...
March 12, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
X Bai, B Tie, J-H Schmitt, D Aubry
The correlation between ultrasonic wave propagation and polycrystalline microstructures has significant implications in nondestructive evaluation. An original numerical approach using the finite element method to quantify in both time and frequency domains the ultrasonic noise scattering due to the elastic heterogeneity of polycrystalline microstructures is presented. Based on the reciprocity theorem, it allows the scattering evaluation using mechanical data recorded only on the boundary of polycrystal instead of within its volume and is applicable to any polycrystalline aggregate regardless of its crystallographic or morphological characteristics...
February 14, 2018: Ultrasonics
Evgenii Tcyganov, Jerome Mastio, Eric Chen, Dmitry I Gabrilovich
In recent years, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have emerged as one of the major inhibitors of immune effector cell function in cancer. MDSC represent a heterogeneous population of largely immature myeloid cells that are characterized by a pathological state of activation and display potent immune suppressive activity. Two major subsets of MDSC have been identified: monocytic (M-MDSC) and polymorphonuclear (PMN-MDSC). PMN-MSDC share phenotypic and morphologic features with neutrophils, whereas M-MDSC are similar to monocytes and are characterized by high plasticity...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
Shushan He, Lutz Maibaum
Understanding the (de)mixing behavior of multicomponent lipid bilayers is an important step towards unraveling the nature of spatial composition heterogeneities in cellular membranes and their role in biological function. We use coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to study the composition phase diagram of a quaternary mixture of phospholipids and cholesterol. This mixture is known to exhibit both uniform and coexisting phases. We compare and combine different statistical measures of membrane structure to identify the onset of phase coexistence in composition space...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Charalampos S Siristatidis, Eleni Sertedaki, Dennis Vaidakis, Christos Varounis, Marialena Trivella
BACKGROUND: In order to overcome the low effectiveness of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and the high incidence of multiple births, metabolomics is proposed as a non-invasive method to assess oocyte quality, embryo viability, and endometrial receptivity, and facilitate a targeted subfertility treatment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of metabolomic assessment of oocyte quality, embryo viability, and endometrial receptivity for improving live birth or ongoing pregnancy rates in women undergoing ART, compared to conventional methods of assessment...
March 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Yongjian Xu, Jie Ma, Na Wu, Xiaojing Fan, Tao Zhang, Zhongliang Zhou, Jianmin Gao, Jianping Ren, Gang Chen
INTRODUCTION: In 2009, China officially launched the New Health Care Reform (NHCR). One important purpose of the reform was to reduce financial burden of health care through health insurance expansion and health care provider regulations. This study aimed to provide evidence on the effect of the NHCR reform on catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) by comparing the occurrence and inequality of CHE among households with chronic diseases patients before and after the reform. METHODS: This study used the subset of data from the 2008 and 2013 National Health Services Survey conducted in Shaanxi Province...
2018: PloS One
James R Smith, Jaboury Ghazoul, David F R P Burslem, Akira Itoh, Eyen Khoo, Soon Leong Lee, Colin R Maycock, Satoshi Nanami, Kevin Kit Siong Ng, Chris J Kettle
Documenting the scale and intensity of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (FSGS), and the processes that shape it, is relevant to the sustainable management of genetic resources in timber tree species, particularly where logging or fragmentation might disrupt gene flow. In this study we assessed patterns of FSGS in three species of Dipterocarpaceae (Parashorea tomentella, Shorea leprosula and Shorea parvifolia) across four different tropical rain forests in Malaysia using nuclear microsatellite markers. Topographic heterogeneity varied across the sites...
2018: PloS One
Wishal D Ramdas, Jan S A G Schouten, Carroll A B Webers
BACKGROUND: The aim of is to determine the association of vitamins with glaucoma by performing a systematic review and meta-analyses. METHODS: Studies on the relation of vitamins and glaucoma published up to December 2017 were identified in the PubMed and Embase database. Data on vitamins (method of assessment), glaucoma (type and method of assessment), study characteristics and quality were recorded. In case of multiple studies for one nutrient a meta-analysis was performed...
March 16, 2018: Nutrients
Maribel González-Del-Hoyo, Germán Cediel, Anna Carrasquer, Gil Bonet, Luciano Consuegra-Sánchez, Alfredo Bardají
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the prognostic implications of the absence of chest pain in emergency department patients with elevated troponin I levels. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Observational retrospective study of patients for whom troponin I level was analyzed at least once between January 2012 and December 2013. Patient characteristics were recorded and survival was modeled. RESULTS: A total of 3629 patients were distributed in 4 groups according to troponin I level and chest pain as follows: chest pain without troponin I elevation (n = 1379), no chest pain and no troponin I elevation (n = 1196), chest pain with troponin I elevation (n = 517), and troponin I elevation but no chest pain (n = 537)...
2018: Emergencias: revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
Neil E O'Connell, Louise Marston, Sally Spencer, Lorraine H DeSouza, Benedict M Wand
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in 2010, Issue 9, and last updated in 2014, Issue 4. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques aim to induce an electrical stimulation of the brain in an attempt to reduce chronic pain by directly altering brain activity. They include repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) and reduced impedance non-invasive cortical electrostimulation (RINCE)...
March 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lesley W Chan, Daniel E Morse, Michael J Gordon
Near- and sub-wavelength photonic structures are used by numerous organisms (e.g., insects, cephalopods, fish, birds) to create vivid and often dynamically-tunable colors, as well as create, manipulate, or capture light for vision, communication, crypsis, photosynthesis, and defense. This review introduces the physics of moth eye (ME)-like, biomimetic nanostructures and discusses their application to reduce optical losses and improve efficiency of various optoelectronic devices, including photodetectors, photovoltaics, imagers, and light emitting diodes...
March 16, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Nicola Schieda, Robert S Lim, Satheesh Krishna, Matthew D F McInnes, Trevor A Flood, Rebecca E Thornhill
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate tumor attenuation and texture on unenhanced CT for potential differentiation of low-grade from high-grade chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of 37 consecutive patients with chromophobe RCC (high-grade, n = 13; low-grade, n = 24) who underwent preoperative unenhanced CT between 2011 and 2016 was performed. Two radiologists (readers 1 and 2) blinded to the histologic grade of the tumor and outcome of the patients subjectively evaluated tumor homogeneity (3-point scale: completely homogeneous, mildly heterogeneous, or mostly heterogeneous)...
March 16, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Tony G Walsh, Alastair W Poole
Our understanding of platelet function has traditionally focused on their roles in physiological hemostasis and pathological thrombosis, the latter being causative of vessel occlusion and subsequent ischemic damage to various tissues. In particular, numerous in vivo studies have implicated causative roles for platelets in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury to the myocardium. However, platelets clearly have more complex pathophysiological roles particularly as a result of the heterogeneous nature of biologically active cargo secreted from their granules, or contained within released microparticles or exosomes...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Philip Gc Chan, Gerard S Goh
PURPOSE: The AngioJet Hemolytic Thrombectomy Device "AngioJet" (Boston Scientific, Malborough, MA, USA) is a rheolytic thrombectomy device that can be used in the treatment of hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula and graft thrombosis. We aim to appraise the current evidence on AngioJet thrombectomy in hemodialysis vascular access thrombosis, and to determine its safety, including complications and efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic literature search was performed on the MEDLINE and Embase databases...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
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