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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926975/large-for-gestational-age-infants-and-adverse-outcomes-among-uncomplicated-pregnancies-at-term
#1
Hector Mendez-Figueroa, Van Thi Thanh Truong, Claudia Pedroza, Suneet P Chauhan
Background While traumatic delivery with large for gestational age (LGA; birth weight above 90%) is acknowledged, there is paucity of data regarding other morbidity and mortality associated with LGA. Our hypothesis was that compared with appropriate for gestational age (AGA), LGA have a significantly higher rate of composite neonatal morbidity (CNM). Objective Our objective was to compare the CNM among uncomplicated LGA versus AGA at term (37 weeks or more) among all available Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units (MFMU) databases...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926934/public-health-interventions-for-aedes-control-in-the-time-of-zikavirus-a-meta-review-on-effectiveness-of-vector-control-strategies
#2
Maha Bouzid, Julii Brainard, Lee Hooper, Paul R Hunter
BACKGROUND: There is renewed interest in effective measures to control Zika and dengue vectors. A synthesis of published literature with a focus on the quality of evidence is warranted to determine the effectiveness of vector control strategies. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a meta-review assessing the effectiveness of any Aedes control measure. We searched Scopus and Medline for relevant reviews through to May 2016. Titles, abstracts and full texts were assessed independently for inclusion by two authors...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926931/microbial-translocation-and-inflammation-occur-in-hyperacute-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-and-compromise-host-control-of-virus-replication
#3
Adam J Ericsen, Michael Lauck, Mariel S Mohns, Sarah R DiNapoli, James P Mutschler, Justin M Greene, Jason T Weinfurter, Gabrielle Lehrer-Brey, Trent M Prall, Samantha M Gieger, Connor R Buechler, Kristin A Crosno, Eric J Peterson, Matthew R Reynolds, Roger W Wiseman, Benjamin J Burwitz, Jacob D Estes, Jonah B Sacha, Thomas C Friedrich, Jason M Brenchley, David H O'Connor
Within the first three weeks of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, virus replication peaks in peripheral blood. Despite the critical, causal role of virus replication in determining transmissibility and kinetics of progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), there is limited understanding of the conditions required to transform the small localized transmitted founder virus population into a large and heterogeneous systemic infection. Here we show that during the hyperacute "pre-peak" phase of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in macaques, high levels of microbial DNA transiently translocate into peripheral blood...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926925/dengue-in-the-middle-east-and-north-africa-a-systematic-review
#4
John M Humphrey, Natalie B Cleton, Chantal B E M Reusken, Marshall J Glesby, Marion P G Koopmans, Laith J Abu-Raddad
BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DENV) infection is widespread and its disease burden has increased in past decades. However, little is known about the epidemiology of dengue in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). METHODOLOGY / PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Following Cochrane Collaboration guidelines and reporting our findings following PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed available records across MENA describing dengue occurrence in humans (prevalence studies, incidence studies, and outbreak reports), occurrence of suitable vectors (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), and DENV vector infection rates...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926919/plasmodium-falciparum-infection-status-among-children-with-schistosoma-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Abraham Degarege, Dawit Degarege, Emir Veledar, Berhanu Erko, Mathieu Nacher, Consuelo M Beck-Sague, Purnima Madhivanan
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that Schistosoma infection may be associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection or related reduction in haemoglobin level, but the nature of this interaction remains unclear. This systematic review synthesized evidence on the relationship of S. haematobium or S. mansoni infection with the occurrence of P. falciparum malaria, Plasmodium density and related reduction in haemoglobin level among children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A systematic review in according with PRISMA guidelines was conducted...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926852/polar-localization-of-the-serine-chemoreceptor-of-escherichia-coli-is-nucleoid-exclusion-dependent
#6
Ramakanth Neeli-Venkata, Sofia Startceva, Teppo Annila, Andre S Ribeiro
We studied whether nucleoid exclusion contributes to the segregation and retention of Tsr chemoreceptor clusters at the cell poles. Using live time-lapse, single-cell microscopy measurements, we show that the single-cell spatial distributions of Tsr clusters have heterogeneities and asymmetries that are consistent with nucleoid exclusion and cannot be explained by the diffusion-and-capture mechanism supported by Tol-Pal complexes at the poles. Also, in cells subjected to ampicillin, which enhances relative nucleoid lengths, Tsr clusters locate relatively closer to the cell extremities, whereas in anucleated cells (deletion mutants for mukB), the Tsr clusters are closer to midcell...
December 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926632/a-pooled-analysis-of-robotic-versus-laparoscopic-surgery-for-colon-cancer
#7
Bo-Shi Duan, Guo-Hua Zhao, Helen Yang, Yue Wang
OBJECTIVE: An increasing number of studies have been reported since the "Da Vinci" Robotic System was used in gastrointestinal disease. Thus, we conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the safety and efficacy of robotic colectomy (RC) compared with laparoscopic colectomy (LC) in the treatment of colon cancer. METHOD: A systematic search of Medline, Embase databases, and the Cochrane Library was performed to identify studies that compared RC and LC and were published up to February 2015...
December 2016: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926564/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-prophylactic-mesh-during-primary-stoma-formation-to-prevent-parastomal-hernia
#8
Stephen J Chapman, Benjamin Wood, Thomas M Drake, Neville Young, David G Jayne
BACKGROUND: Implantation of mesh at the time of stoma formation may reduce the rate of parastomal hernia. Until recently, the evidence has been limited to only a few small randomized controlled trials. OBJECTIVE: We present an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of mesh prophylaxis on rates of parastomal hernia. We examine ongoing and unpublished trials via online registries and propose recommendations for future research. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched up to March 2016 for published randomized controlled trials...
January 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926559/preoperative-immunonutrition-and-elective-colorectal-resection-outcomes
#9
Lucas W Thornblade, Thomas K Varghese, Xu Shi, Eric K Johnson, Amir Bastawrous, Richard P Billingham, Richard Thirlby, Alessandro Fichera, David R Flum
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials demonstrate the efficacy of arginine-enriched nutritional supplements (immunonutrition) in reducing complications after surgery. The effectiveness of preoperative immunonutrition has not been evaluated in a community setting. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine whether immunonutrition before elective colorectal surgery improves outcomes in the community at large. DESIGN: This is a prospective cohort study with a propensity score-matched comparative effectiveness evaluation...
January 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926544/cognitive-impairment-following-hormone-therapy-current-opinion-of-research-in-breast-and-prostate-cancer-patients
#10
Lisa M Wu, Ali Amidi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hormone therapy is a common cancer treatment that may be associated with numerous side and late effects, and in recent years, has been linked to changes in cognition. Here, we present the most important recent findings from empirical studies and reviews that have focused on the effects of hormone therapy on cognitive functioning in breast and prostate cancer populations, underline some general shortcomings, and propose directions for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research indicates that cognitive impairment may occur in breast and prostate cancer patients following onset of hormone therapy...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926382/prediction-of-anti-cancer-drug-response-by-kernelized-multi-task-learning
#11
Mehmet Tan
MOTIVATION: Chemotherapy or targeted therapy are two of the main treatment options for many types of cancer. Due to the heterogeneous nature of cancer, the success of the therapeutic agents differs among patients. In this sense, determination of chemotherapeutic response of the malign cells is essential for establishing a personalized treatment protocol and designing new drugs. With the recent technological advances in producing large amounts of pharmacogenomic data, in silico methods have become important tools to achieve this aim...
October 2016: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925850/metallic-taste-in-cancer-patients-treated-with-systemic-therapy-a-questionnaire-based-study
#12
Irene IJpma, Erik R Timmermans, Remco J Renken, Gert J Ter Horst, Anna K L Reyners
A metallic taste is reported by cancer patients as a side effect of systemic therapy. Despite the high prevalence, this taste alteration has received limited attention. The present study investigated: 1) the prevalence of metallic taste in cancer patients treated with systemic therapy; 2) possible predictors of metallic taste; and 3) characteristics of metallic taste. A heterogeneous population of 127 cancer patients, who had received systemic treatment in the past year or were still on treatment, completed a questionnaire developed for this study...
December 7, 2016: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925785/accelerating-scientific-advancement-for-pediatric-rare-lung-disease-research-report-from-a-national-institutes-of-health-nhlbi-workshop-september-3-and-4-2015
#13
Lisa R Young, Bruce C Trapnell, Kenneth D Mandl, Daniel T Swarr, Jennifer A Wambach, Carol J Blaisdell
Pediatric rare lung disease (PRLD) is a term that refers to a heterogeneous group of rare disorders in children. In recent years, this field has experienced significant progress marked by scientific discoveries, multicenter and interdisciplinary collaborations, and efforts of patient advocates. Although genetic mechanisms underlie many PRLDs, pathogenesis remains uncertain for many of these disorders. Furthermore, epidemiology and natural history are insufficiently defined, and therapies are limited. To develop strategies to accelerate scientific advancement for PRLD research, the NHLBI of the National Institutes of Health convened a strategic planning workshop on September 3 and 4, 2015...
December 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925738/experimental-evidence-of-the-gardner-phase-in-a-granular-glass
#14
A Seguin, O Dauchot
Analyzing the dynamics of a vibrated bidimensional packing of bidisperse granular disks below jamming, we provide evidence of a Gardner phase deep into the glass phase. To do so, we perform several compression cycles within a given realization of the same glass and show that the particles select different average vibrational positions at each cycle, while the neighborhood structure remains unchanged. The separation between the cages obtained for different compression cycles plateaus with an increasing packing fraction, while the mean square displacement steadily decreases...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925679/value-of-shear-wave-elastography-versus-contrast-enhanced-sonography-for-differentiating-benign-and-malignant-superficial-lymphadenopathy-unexplained-by-conventional-sonography
#15
Shi Tan, Li-Ying Miao, Li-Gang Cui, Peng-Fei Sun, Lin-Xue Qian
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the efficacy of shear wave elastography (SWE) and contrast-enhanced sonography in the differential diagnosis of superficial lymphadenopathy with abnormal imaging findings, which could not be otherwise confirmed by conventional sonography. METHODS: Forty-two enlarged superficial lymph nodes in 42 patients who met the screening criteria for this study were evaluated by both contrast-enhanced sonography and SWE. All lymph nodes underwent both methods using biopsy pathologic findings as a reference standard...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925648/sonographic-evaluation-of-intrathyroid-metastases
#16
J Matthew Debnam, Michael Kwon, Bruno D Fornage, Savitri Krishnamurthy, Gary L Clayman, Beth S Edeiken-Monroe
OBJECTIVES: Intrathyroid metastases from extrathyroid primary tumors are rare. Clinical findings may be subtle, but detection of intrathyroid metastases has improved with sonography. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sonographic appearance of intrathyroid metastases. METHODS: Patients with thyroid masses with cytopathologic features matching those of an extrathyroid primary tumor were retrospectively identified. The appearances of intrathyroid metastases on sonography were reviewed for the following features: size, margin regularity, echogenicity, echotexture, vascularity on power or color Doppler ultrasonography, and the presence or absence of any associated cervical adenopathy...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925499/non-adherence-to-psychotropic-medication-among-adolescents-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#17
Alexander Häge, Lisa Weymann, Lucia Bliznak, Viktoria Märker, Konstantin Mechler, Ralf W Dittmann
INTRODUCTION: Whether patients take their medication as prescribed is of increasing importance in adolescent psychiatry since both the number of efficacious pharmaceutical treatments and the rate of prescriptions of psychotropic compounds are on the rise. Previous research showed high rates of medication nonadherence among both adolescents with medical disorders and adult patients with psychiatric disorders. METHODS: The present review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines and evaluates existing scientific literature concerning adherence to psychotropic medication among adolescents...
December 7, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925480/evaluation-of-background-parenchymal-enhancement-on-breast-mri-a-systematic-review
#18
Bianca Bignotti, Alessio Signori, Francesca Valdora, Federica Rossi, Massimo Calabrese, Manuela Durando, Giovanna Mariscotti, Alberto Tagliafico
OBJECTIVES: To perform a systematic review of the methods used for background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) evaluation on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Studies dealing with BPE assessment on breast MRI were retrieved from major medical libraries independently by four reviewers up to 6 October 2015. The keywords used for database searching are "background parenchymal enhancement', 'parenchymal enhancement', "MRI" and "breast". The studies were included if a qualitative and/or quantitative methods for BPE assessment were described...
December 7, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925477/relevance-of-meniscal-cell-regional-phenotype-to-tissue-engineering
#19
Shawn P Grogan, Chantal Pauli, Martin K Lotz, Darryl D D'Lima
PURPOSE: Meniscus contains heterogeneous populations of cells that have not been fully characterized. Cell phenotype is often lost during culture; however, culture expansion is typically required for tissue engineering. We examined and compared cell surface molecule expression levels on human meniscus cells from the vascular and avascular regions and articular chondrocytes while documenting changes during culture-induced dedifferentiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of 16 different surface molecules were examined by flow cytometry after monolayer culture for 24 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks...
December 7, 2016: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925473/the-role-of-cancer-stem-cells-in-tumor-heterogeneity-and-resistance-to-therapy
#20
Christina Valbirk Konrad, Reshma Murali, Binitha Anu Varghese, Radhika Nair
Cancer is a heterogenous disease displaying marked inter- and intra-tumoral diversity. The existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been experimentally demonstrated in a number of cancer types as a subpopulation of tumor cells that drives the tumorigenic and metastatic properties of the entire cancer. Thus, eradication of the CSC population is critical for the complete ablation of a tumor. This is, however, confounded by the inherent resistance of CSCs to standard anticancer therapies, eventually leading to the outgrowth of resistant tumor cells and relapse in patients...
September 3, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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