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prolactine releasing

Manuel Sánchez, Lorena Suárez, Begoña Cantabrana, Javier Bordallo
Estrogens facilitate prolactin (PRL) secretion acting on pituitary cells. In GH3 cells, estradiol induces acute action potentials and oscillations of intracellular Ca(2+) associated with the secretagogue function. Estradiol modulates several ion channels which may affect the action potential rate and the release of PRL in lactotroph cells, which might depend on its concentration. The aims were to characterize the acute effect of supraphysiological concentrations of estradiol on Ca(2+) and noninactivating K(+) currents and measure the effect on the spontaneous action potentials and PRL release in the somatolactotroph cell line, GH3...
October 17, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
S Ollier, F Beaudoin, N Vanacker, P Lacasse
When cows are unable to consume enough feed to support milk production, they often fall into severe negative energy balance. This leads to a weakened immune system and increases their susceptibility to infectious diseases. Reducing the milk production of cows subjected to acute nutritional stress decreases their energy deficit. The aim of this study was to compare the effects on metabolism and immune function of reducing milk production using quinagolide (a prolactin-release inhibitor) or dexamethasone in feed-restricted cows...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Carlos Villegas-Gabutti, Gisela E Pennacchio, Graciela A Jahn, Marta Soaje
Estrogen action is necessary for evidencing the stimulatory action of mifepristone and naloxone on prolactin (PRL) secretion during late pregnancy. Our aim is to determine the mechanism mediating this facilitator action of estrogens. To investigate the hypothalamic mechanisms involved in estrogen actions in PRL secretion at the end of pregnancy, we measured the effect of pretreatment with the estrogen antagonist tamoxifen on the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), hormone receptors (ERα and β, PRs, PRLR(long)), and μ- and κ- opioid receptors (ORs) at mRNA (by semiquantitative RT-PCR) and protein (by western blot for TH, PRLR(long), ERα, PRs, μ- and ORs) levels in extracts of medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) and serum PRL, E2 and P4 levels (by RIA) in mifepristone- and naloxone-treated rats...
October 1, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Genevieve E Becker, Hazel A Smith, Fionnuala Cooney
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is important, however not all infants can feed at the breast and methods of expressing milk need evaluation. OBJECTIVES: To assess acceptability, effectiveness, safety, effect on milk composition, contamination and costs of methods of milk expression. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (21 March 2016), handsearched relevant journals and conference proceedings, and contacted experts in the field to seek additional published or unpublished studies...
September 29, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Haruhiko Kanasaki, Aki Oride, Tomomi Hara, Tselmeg Mijiddorj, Unurjargal Sukhbaatar, Satoru Kyo
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropins are indispensable hormones for maintaining female reproductive functions. In a similar manner to other endocrine hormones, GnRH and gonadotropins are controlled by their principle regulators. Although it has been previously established that GnRH regulates the synthesis and secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-both gonadotropins-from pituitary gonadotrophs, it has recently become clear that hypothalamic GnRH is under the control of hypothalamic kisspeptin...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hasan A Zaidi, David J Cote, Joseph P Castlen, William T Burke, Yong-Hui Liu, Timothy R Smith, Edward R Laws
BACKGROUND: Primary lactotroph disinhibition, or stalk effect, occurs when mechanical compression of the pituitary stalk disrupts the tonic inhibition by dopamine released by the hypothalamus. The resolution of pituitary stalk effect-related hyperprolactinemia post-operatively has not been studied in a large cohort of patients. We performed a retrospective review to investigate the time course of recovery of lactotroph disinhibition after transsphenoidal surgery. METHODS: Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for all patients undergoing transsphenoidal surgery with the senior author from April 2008 to November 2014...
September 23, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Amit Taneja, An Vermeulen, Dymphy R H Huntjens, Meindert Danhof, Elizabeth C M De Lange, Johannes H Proost
We provide the reader with relevant data related to our recently published paper, comparing two mathematical models to describe prolactin turnover in rats following one or two doses of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonists risperidone, paliperidone and remoxipride, "A comparison of two semi-mechanistic models for prolactin release and prediction of receptor occupancy following administration of dopamine D2 receptor antagonists in rats" (Taneja et al., 2016) [1]. All information is tabulated. Summary level data on the in vitro potencies and the physicochemical properties is presented in Table 1...
September 2016: Data in Brief
Rosemary S E Brown, Ilona C Kokay, Hollian R Phillipps, Siew Hoong Yip, Papillon Gustafson, Amanda Wyatt, Caroline M Larsen, Penelope Knowles, Sharon R Ladyman, Paul LeTissier, David R Grattan
UNLABELLED: Tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons, known as neuroendocrine regulators of prolactin secretion from the pituitary gland, also release GABA within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. As these neurons express prolactin receptors (Prlr), prolactin may regulate GABA secretion from TIDA neurons, potentially mediating actions of prolactin on hypothalamic function. To investigate whether GABA is involved in feedback regulation of TIDA neurons, we examined the physiological consequences of conditional deletion of Prlr in GABAergic neurons...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Nam-In Kang, Bon-Hoon Koo, Sung-Wan Kim, Jong-Hoon Kim, Beomwoo Nam, Bong-Ju Lee, Sang-Hyuk Lee, Seung Jae Lee, Seung-Hwan Lee, Myung Hun Jung, Sang Woo Hahn, Young-Chul Chung
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone extended-release (ER) tablets in patients with first-episode psychosis (n=75). METHODS: This was an 8-week, open-label, multicenter trial. The primary outcome variable was scores on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS); secondary measures included the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), the Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI), and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)...
August 31, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Manuel D Gahete, Mari C Vázquez-Borrego, Antonio J Martínez-Fuentes, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Justo P Castaño, Raúl M Luque
Kisspeptin (Kiss1) is an amidated neurohormone that belongs to the RF-amide peptide family, which has a key role in the control of reproduction. Specifically, kisspeptin regulates reproductive events, including puberty and ovulation, primarily by activating the surface receptor Kiss1R (aka GPR54), at hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. More recently, it has been found that kisspeptin peptide is present in the hypophyseal portal circulation and that the Kiss1/Kiss1R system is expressed in pituitary cells, which suggest that kisspeptin could exert an endocrine, paracrine or even autocrine role at the pituitary gland level...
July 28, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
B Mikulášková, L Maletínská, J Zicha, J Kuneš
Obesity is a risk factor that worsens cardiovascular events leading to higher morbidity and mortality. However, the exact mechanisms of relation between obesity and cardiovascular events are unclear. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that pharmacological therapy for obesity has great potential to improve some cardiovascular problems. Therefore, it is important to determine the common mechanisms regulating both food intake and blood pressure. Several hormones produced by peripheral tissues work together with neuropeptides involved in the regulation of both food intake and blood pressure...
November 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Bennett Levitan, Michael Markowitz, Ibrahim Turkoz, Dong-Jing Fu, Srihari Gopal, Larry Alphs
The purpose of this study was to conduct a post-hoc benefit-risk assessment of paliperidone palmitate once-monthly (PP1M) injectable versus oral paliperidone extended-release (ER) in schizophrenia maintenance treatment. The Benefit-Risk Action Team framework was used to structure the analysis based on patient-level data from two similar, double-blind, placebo-controlled relapse studies. Efficacy outcomes were relapse, psychiatric hospitalization, Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale, Personal and Social Performance (PSP) scale, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)...
November 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Jaroslav Kuneš, Veronika Pražienková, Andrea Popelová, Barbora Mikulášková, Jana Zemenová, Lenka Maletínská
Obesity is an escalating epidemic, but an effective noninvasive therapy is still scarce. For obesity treatment, anorexigenic neuropeptides are promising tools, but their delivery from the periphery to the brain is complicated because peptides have a low stability and limited ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. In this review, we summarize results of several studies with our newly designed lipidized analogs of prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP). PrRP is involved in feeding and energy balance regulation as demonstrated by obesity phenotypes of both PrRP- and PrRP-receptor-knockout mice...
August 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
David J Lyons, Rachida Ammari, Arash Hellysaz, Christian Broberger
UNLABELLED: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly prescribed for depression, but sexual side effects often compromise compliance. These reproductive dysfunctions are likely mediated by elevations of the hormone prolactin. Yet, how serotonin (5-HT) and SSRIs cause changes in prolactin secretion is not known. Here, using in vitro whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we show that 5-HT hyperpolarizes and abolishes phasic discharge in rat neuroendocrine tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons, the main inhibitor of prolactin secretion...
July 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Amit Taneja, An Vermeulen, Dymphy R H Huntjens, Meindert Danhof, Elizabeth C M De Lange, Johannes H Proost
We compared the model performance of two semi-mechanistic pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models, the precursor pool model and the agonist-antagonist interaction model, to describe prolactin response following the administration of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonists risperidone, paliperidone or remoxipride in rats. The time course of pituitary dopamine D2 receptor occupancy was also predicted. Male Wistar rats received a single dose (risperidone, paliperidone, remoxipride) or two consecutive doses (remoxipride)...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
A S Thakur, G P Littaru, I Funahashi, U S Painkara, N S Dange, P Chauhan
In neuroendocrine system the increase in oxidative status is produced by a glucocorticoid-dependent and transcriptional increase in pro-oxidative drive, with concurrent inhibition of the antioxidant defense system, ultimately leading to increased neuronal cell death. Functional hypothalamic disturbances and neuroendocirne aberrations have both short and long term consequences for reproductive health. Understandably, an impaired or diminished hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis leads to anovulation and hypoestrogenism...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Yoko Yamaguchi, Shunsuke Moriyama, Darren T Lerner, E Gordon Grau, Andre P Seale
Prolactin (PRL) is a vertebrate hormone with diverse actions in osmoregulation, metabolism, reproduction, and in growth and development. Osmoregulation is fundamental to maintaining the functional structure of the macromolecules that conduct the business of life. In teleost fish, PRL plays a critical role in osmoregulation in fresh water. Appropriately, PRL cells of the tilapia are directly osmosensitive, with PRL secretion increasing as extracellular osmolality falls. Using a model system that employs dispersed PRL cells from the euryhaline teleost fish, Oreochromis mossambicus, we investigated the autocrine regulation of PRL cell function...
September 2016: Endocrinology
Anthony C Hackney, Hope C Davis, Amy R Lane
This chapter addresses what is known about the endocrine system components growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis, thyroid axis, and prolactin relative to exercise and exercise training. Each one of these hormone axes contributes to the maintenance of homeostasis in the body through impact on a multitude of physiological systems. The homeostatic disruption of exercise causes differing responses in each hormone axis. GH levels increase with sufficient stimulation, and IGFs are released in response to GH from the anterior pituitary providing multiple roles including anabolic properties...
2016: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Barbara Woodside
Successfully rearing young places multiple demands on the mammalian female. These are met by a wide array of alterations in maternal physiology and behavior that are coordinated with the needs of the developing young, and include adaptations in neuroendocrine systems not directly involved in maternal behavior or lactation. In this article, attenuations in the behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stressors, the alterations in metabolic pathways facilitating both increased food intake and conservation of energy, and the changes in fertility that occur postpartum are described...
2016: Comprehensive Physiology
C Farmer
Prolactin has a multiplicity of actions, but it is of particular importance in gestating and lactating animals. In sows, it is involved in the control of mammary development and also holds essential roles in the lactogenic and galactopoietic processes. Furthermore, low circulating concentrations of prolactin are associated with the agalactia syndrome. The crucial role of prolactin makes it important to understand the various factors that can alter its secretion. Regulation of prolactin secretion is largely under the negative control of dopamine, and dopamine agonists consistently decrease prolactin concentrations in sows...
July 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
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