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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538378/effects-of-intensive-training-on-menstrual-function-and-certain-serum-hormones-and-peptides-related-to-the-female-reproductive-system
#1
Geum Joon Cho, Sung Won Han, Jung-Ho Shin, Tak Kim
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of intensive training on menstrual function and related serum hormones and peptides.Forty female participants who attended a training course for an officer at the Korea Third Military Academy, and had regular menstrual periods were enrolled. Menstrual questionnaires and fasting blood samples were collected before entry and at 4-week intervals for 8 weeks. The levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), cortisol, prolactin, endorphin-β, neuropeptide Y (NPY), leptin, orexin-A, ghrelin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), thyrotropin (TSH), and thyroxine (T4) were determined...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515460/chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-of-human-endometrial-stromal-cells-induces-defective-decidualisation-and-chemokine-release
#2
Sevi Giakoumelou, Nick Wheelhouse, Jeremy Brown, Jean Wade, Ioannis Simitsidellis, Douglas Gibson, Philippa T K Saunders, Patrick Horner, Gary Entrican, Sarah E M Howie, Andrew W Horne
Miscarriage affects ~20% of pregnancies and maternal infections account for ~15% of early miscarriages. Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) has been associated with miscarriage but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Successful implantation requires endometrial stromal cell (ESC) decidualisation. Maintenance of pregnancy requires angiogenesis, establishment of the correct cellular milieu and trophoblast invasion, all of which involve the action of chemokines. Our objective was to determine whether Ct infection impacts upon ESC decidualisation and chemokine secretion...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501406/effect-of-inhibiting-the-lactogenic-signal-at-calving-on-milk-production-and-metabolic-and-immune-perturbations-in-dairy-cows
#3
N Vanacker, S Ollier, F Beaudoin, R Blouin, P Lacasse
During the periparturient period, the abrupt increase in energy demand for milk production often induces metabolic and immunological disturbances in dairy cows. Our previous work has shown that reducing milk output by milking once a day or incompletely in the first few days of lactation reduces these disturbances. The aim of this study was to reduce metabolic and immunological disturbances by limiting milk production during the first week of lactation by inhibiting the lactogenic signal driven by prolactin...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499525/consecutive-cyproterone-acetate-and-estradiol-treatment-in-late-pubertal-transgender-female-adolescents
#4
Lloyd J W Tack, Robin Heyse, Margarita Craen, Karlien Dhondt, Heidi Vanden Bossche, Jolien Laridaen, Martine Cools
BACKGROUND: Cyproterone acetate (CA) is an antiandrogenic progestin commonly used in adult transwomen to suppress endogenous androgens, often in combination with estrogens to induce feminization. AIM: To assess the (side) effects and biochemical changes of CA alone and in combination with estrogens in adolescent trans-girls. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of clinical and biochemical data from 27 trans-girls who presented at Tanner stage G4 and were treated with CA monotherapy for at least 6 months (mean = 12 months) and then in combination with incremental doses of estrogens (CA + E; mean = 16 months)...
May 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490208/plasma-kisspeptin-levels-in-lactational-amenorrhea
#5
Masato Kotani, Fumihiko Katagiri, Tsuyoshi Hirai, Jiro Kagawa, Issei Tanaka
The kisspeptin is a neuropeptide to play physiological roles in regulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion in the hypothalamus. In human plasma, the kisspeptin concentration is measured, but gonadotropin-releasing hormone is not. This study aims to understand the physiological roles of the circulating kisspeptin in lactational amenorrhea in humans because prolactin reduces the kisspeptin expression and luteinizing hormone secretion resulting in anovulations in rodent brains. Plasma kisspeptin levels were measured in 11 subjects in lactational amenorrhea and in four cases with pathological amenorrhea by different etiologies for comparison using the enzyme immunoassay specific for human kisspeptin...
May 11, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483703/next-generation-sequencing-analysis-of-soy-glyceollins-and-17-%C3%AE-estradiol-effects-on-transcript-abundance-in-the-female-mouse-brain
#6
REVIEW
Sanaya F Bamji, Eric Rouchka, Yan Zhang, Xiaohong Li, Ted Kalbfleisch, Cynthia Corbitt
Glyceollins (Glys) are produced by soy plants in response to stress and are known for their anti-estrogenic activity both in vivo and in vitro in cancer cell lines as well as peripheral tissues. Glys can also exhibit non-estrogen receptor (ER) mediated effects. The effects of Glys on gene expression in the brain are still unclear. For this study, 17-β estradiol (E2) or placebo slow-release pellets were implanted into ovariectomized CFW mice followed by 11 days of exposure to either Glys or vehicle i.p. injections...
May 5, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474562/stress-neuropeptides-and-gastric-mucosa
#7
Klara Gyires, Ágnes Fehér
Exposure of the organism to a hostile stimulus results in a series of coordinated reactions that aim to avoid the aversive effect and maintain or restore homeostasis of the organism. In response to noxious stimuli corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), the primary mediator of stress responses is released from the paraventricular nucleus resulting in activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and coordination of the endocrine, autonomic, behavioral and immune responses to stress. Several other neuropeptides, released in a coordinated way are also involved in the regulation of the stress response...
November 18, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460583/subchronic-low-level-intraperitoneal-injections-of-manganese-iv-oxide-and-manganese-ii-chloride-affect-rat-brain-neurochemistry
#8
Brian S Nielsen, Erik H Larsen, Ole Ladefoged, Henrik R Lam
Manganese (Mn) is neurotoxic and can induce manganism, a Parkinson-like disease categorized as being a serious central nervous system irreversible neurodegenerative disease. An increased risk of developing symptoms of Parkinson disease has been linked to work-related exposure, for example, for workers in agriculture, horticulture, and people living near areas with frequent use of Mn-containing pesticides. In this study, the focus was placed on neurochemical effects of Mn. Rats were dosed intraperitoneally with 0...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442048/expression-of-17%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-and-the-effects-of-lh-fsh-and-prolactin-on-oestrone-and-17%C3%AE-oestradiol-secretion-in-the-endometrium-of-pigs-during-early-pregnancy-and-the-oestrous-cycle
#9
B Wojciechowicz, G Kotwica, K Zglejc, E Waszkiewicz, A Franczak
The endometrium of pregnant and cyclic pigs is a source of oestrone (E1) and 17β-oestradiol (E2). However, the roles of LH, FSH and prolactin (PRL) as regulators of endometrial steroidogenesis, and the presence of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) in the porcine endometrium, remain unknown. Therefore, in the present study we examined 17β-HSD expression and the effects of LH, FSH and PRL on E1 and E2 release in vitro in endometrial explants harvested from gravid pigs on Days 10-11 (embryo migration within the uterus), 12-13 (maternal recognition of pregnancy) and 15-16 (beginning of implantation) and compared them with results obtained in non-gravid pigs...
April 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425631/restraint-stress-increases-prolactin-mediated-phosphorylation-of-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-5-in-the-hypothalamus-and-adrenal-cortex-in-the-male-mouse
#10
S E Kirk, T Y Xie, F J Steyn, D R Grattan, S J Bunn
Prolactin is a pleiotropic peptide hormone produced by the lactotrophs in the anterior pituitary. Its rate of secretion is primarily regulated by a negative feedback mechanism whereby prolactin stimulates the activity of the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons, increasing their release of dopamine which accesses the pituitary via the median eminence to suppress further prolactin secretion. In addition to its well established role in lactation, circulating prolactin is secreted in response to stress, although the mechanism by which this is achieved or its cellular targets are unknown...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418929/plurihormonal-cells-of-normal-anterior-pituitary-facts-and-conclusions
#11
Lubov B Mitrofanova, Petr V Konovalov, Julia S Krylova, Victoria O Polyakova, Igor M Kvetnoy
INTRODUCTION: plurihormonality of pituitary adenomas is an ability of adenoma cells to produce more than one hormone. After the immunohistochemical analysis had become a routine part of the morphological study, a great number of adenomas appeared to be multihormonal in actual practice. We hypothesize that the same cells of a normal pituitary gland releases several hormones simultaneously. OBJECTIVE: To analyse a possible co-expression of hormones by the cells of the normal anterior pituitary of adult humans in autopsy material...
April 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412388/prolactin-modulates-luteal-activity-in-the-short-nosed-fruit-bat-cynopterus-sphinx-during-delayed-embryonic-development
#12
Anuradha, Amitabh Krishna
The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of prolactin as a modulator of luteal steroidogenesis during the period of delayed embryonic development in Cynopterus sphinx. A marked decline in circulating prolactin levels was noted during the months of November through December coinciding with the period of decreased serum progesterone and delayed embryonic development. The seasonal changes in serum prolactin levels correlated positively with circulating progesterone (P) level, but inversely with circulating melatonin level during first pregnancy showing delayed development in Cynopterus sphinx...
April 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404690/pharmacologic-characterization-of-valbenazine-nbi-98854-and-its-metabolites
#13
Dimitri E Grigoriadis, Evan Smith, Sam R J Hoare, Ajay Madan, Haig Bozigian
The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) is an integral presynaptic protein that regulates the packaging and subsequent release of dopamine and other monoamines from neuronal vesicles into the synapse. Valbenazine (NBI-98854), a novel compound that selectively inhibits VMAT2, is approved for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia. Valbenazine is converted to two significant circulating metabolites in vivo, namely, (+)-α-dihydrotetrabenazine (R,R,R-HTBZ) and a mono-oxy metabolite, NBI-136110. Radioligand-binding studies were conducted to assess and compare valbenazine, tetrabenazine, and their respective metabolites in their abilities to selectively and potently inhibit [(3)H]-HTBZ binding to VMAT2 in rat striatal, rat forebrain, and human platelet homogenates...
June 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387824/alpha-estrogen-and-progesterone-receptors-modulate-kisspeptin-effects-on-prolactin-role-in-estradiol-induced-prolactin-surge-in-female-rats
#14
Nayara S S Aquino, Roberta Araujo-Lopes, Patricia C Henriques, Felipe E F Lopes, Daniela O Gusmao, Candido C Coimbra, Celso R Franci, Adelina M Reis, Raphael E Szawka
Kisspeptin regulates prolactin (PRL) in an estradiol-dependent manner. We investigated the interaction between ovarian-steroid receptors and kisspeptin in the control of PRL secretion. Intracerebroventricular injections of kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10) or kisspeptin-234 (Kp-234) were performed in ovariectomized (OVX) rats under different hormonal treatments. Kp-10 increased PRL release and decreased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacet acid (DOPAC) levels in the median eminence (ME) of OVX rats treated with estradiol (OVX+E), which was prevented by tamoxifen...
April 6, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339753/in-ovo-monochromatic-green-light-photostimulation-enhances-embryonic-somatotropic-axis-activity
#15
L Dishon, N Avital-Cohen, D Malamud, R Heiblum, S Druyan, T E Porter, M Gumulka, I Rozenboim
Previous studies demonstrated that in ovo photostimulation with monochromatic green light increases body weight and accelerates muscle development in broilers. The mechanism in which in ovo photostimulation accelerates growth and muscle development is not clearly understood. The objective of the current study was to define development of the somatotropic axis in the broiler embryo associated with in ovo green light photostimulation. Two-hundred-forty fertile broiler eggs were divided into 2 groups. The first group was incubated under intermittent monochromatic green light using light-emitting diode (LED) lamps with an intensity of 0...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338740/the-role-of-vip-in-social-behavior-neural-hotspots-for-the-modulation-of-affiliation-aggression-and-parental-care
#16
Marcy A Kingsbury, Leah C Wilson
Although the modulation of social behaviors by most major neurochemical systems has been explored, there are still standouts, including the study of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). VIP is a modulator of circadian, reproductive, and seasonal rhythms and is well known for its role in reproductive behavior, as it is the main vertebrate prolactin-releasing hormone. Originally isolated as a gut peptide, VIP and its cognate receptors are present in virtually every brain area that is important for social behavior, including all nodes of the core "social behavior network" (SBN)...
December 16, 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337596/prolactin-regulation-of-the-hpa-axis-is-not-mediated-by-a-direct-action-upon-crh-neurons-evidence-from-the-rat-and-mouse
#17
Papillon Gustafson, Ilona Kokay, Tony Sapsford, Stephen Bunn, David Grattan
Centrally acting prolactin has been shown to have anti-stress effects by modulating the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We tested the hypothesis that prolactin directly targets hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons. In situ hybridisation confirmed expression of mRNA encoding the long, but not the short, isoform of the prolactin receptor (PRLR) within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the virgin rat; however, only 6% of CRH neurons expressed long-form Prlr mRNA. Examination of the functional response of CRH neurons to intracerebroventricular prolactin (500 ng) showed that these neurons did not respond with activation of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5), a marker of long-form PRLR activation...
March 23, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336493/the-central-mechanism-of-risperidone-induced-hyperprolactinemia
#18
Wei-Wei Sun, Lin-Yu Li, Xu-Feng Huang, Yan-Chuan Shi, He-Qin Yang, Zhi-Yuan Song, Shu Lin
Risperidone is known to increase prolactin secretion in treating mental illness patients. This side-effect is thought to be mediated via central signaling pathway. However, the exact pathway involved between risperidone and hyperprolactinemia are still unknown. Therefore, we have treated mice with risperidone and investigated the central mechanisms. The present study showed that in risperidone treated group, the level of the serum prolactin significantly increased, which was consistent with increased positive prolactin staining in pituitary gland...
March 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323939/tac1-gene-products-regulate-pituitary-hormone-secretion-and-gene-expression-in-prepubertal-grass-carp-pituitary-cells
#19
Guangfu Hu, Mulan He, Wendy K W Ko, Anderson O L Wong
Tachykinin 1 (TAC1) is known to have diverse functions in mammals but similar information is scarce in lower vertebrates including fish species. Using grass carp as a model, the pituitary actions, receptor specificity and post-receptor signaling of TAC1 gene products, namely substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA), were examined. As a first step, TAC1 encoding carp SP and NKA as well as tachykinin receptors NK1R and NK2R were cloned in carp pituitary. Expression studies revealed that the newly cloned receptors were functional and with pharmacological properties similar to mammalian counterparts...
March 13, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302567/alpha2-adrenoceptor-agonists-trigger-prolactin-signaling-in-breast-cancer-cells
#20
Lilian Fedra Castillo, Ezequiel M Rivero, Vincent Goffin, Isabel Alicia Lüthy
Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy among women worldwide. We have described the expression of α2-adrenoceptors in breast cancer cell lines, associated with increased cell proliferation and tumor growth. A mitogenic autocrine/paracrine loop of prolactin (Prl) has been described in breast cancer cells. We hypothesized that the α2-adrenergic enhancement of proliferation could be mediated, at least in part, by this Prl loop. In both T47D and MCF-7 cell lines, the incubation with the α2-adrenergic agonist dexmedetomidine significantly increased Prl release into the culture medium (measured by the Nb2 bioassay), this effect being reversed by the α2-adrenergic antagonist rauwolscine...
March 14, 2017: Cellular Signalling
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