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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755938/effects-of-photoperiod-modulation-and-melatonin-feeding-around-drying-off-on-bovine-mammary-gland-involution
#1
B Ponchon, P Lacasse, S Ollier, X Zhao
The risk for a dairy cow to acquire new intramammary infections is high during the transition from lactation to the dry period, because of udder engorgement and altered immune functions. Once the gland is fully involuted, it becomes much more resistant to intramammary infections. Therefore, strategies to depress milk yield before drying-off and accelerate the involution process after drying-off could be beneficial for udder health. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of photoperiod manipulation and melatonin feeding from 14 d before to 14 d after drying-off on the speed of the involution process...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754274/review-structure-function-and-evolution-of-gnih
#2
REVIEW
Kazuyoshi Tsutsui, Tomohiro Osugi, You Lee Son, Takayoshi Ubuka
Neuropeptides that possess the Arg-Phe-NH2 motif at their C-termini (i.e., RFamide peptides) have been characterized in the nervous system of both invertebrates and vertebrates. In vertebrates, RFamide peptides make a family and consist of the groups of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), neuropeptide FF (NPFF), prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), kisspeptin (kiss1 and kiss2), and pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide/26RFamide peptide (QRFP/26RFa). It now appears that these vertebrate RFamide peptides exert important neuroendocrine, behavioral, sensory, and autonomic functions...
July 25, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744978/the-role-of-prolactin-in-the-suppression-of-crh-mrna-expression-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-in-the-mouse
#3
Papillon Gustafson, Stephen Bunn, David R Grattan
Maternal stress is associated with negative health consequences for both the mother and her offspring. To prevent these adverse outcomes, activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is attenuated during pregnancy and lactation. While the mechanisms generating this adaptive change have not been fully defined, the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin may play a significant role. This study investigated the role of prolactin in regulating the basal activity of the HPA axis during pregnancy and lactation in the mouse, focussing upon the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736102/antipsychotic-drugs-for-the-acute-treatment-of-patients-with-a-first-episode-of-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-with-pairwise-and-network-meta-analyses
#4
Yikang Zhu, Marc Krause, Maximilian Huhn, Philipp Rothe, Johannes Schneider-Thoma, Anna Chaimani, Chunbo Li, John M Davis, Stefan Leucht
BACKGROUND: The first episode of schizophrenia is a pivotal phase of this debilitating illness. Which drug to use remains controversial without a summary of all direct or indirect comparisons of drugs. We did a systematic review with pairwise and network meta-analyses of efficacy and tolerability. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, PubMed, Biosis, and ClinicalTrials.gov for randomised controlled trials of antipsychotics for the acute treatment of first-episode schizophrenia, published up to Nov 17, 2016...
July 20, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710248/microrna-9-regulates-fetal-alcohol-induced-changes-in-d2-receptor-to-promote-prolactin-production
#5
Omkaram Gangisetty, Shaima Jabbar, Olivia Wynne, Dk K Sarkar
Fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) is known to increase prolactin (PRL) secretion from the pituitary lactotropes. In this study we determined whether microRNAs (miRs) are involved in FAE induced alteration in PRL release. We employed a rat animal model of FAE involving feeding pregnant Fisher 344 rats with a liquid diet containing 6.7% alcohol between gestational day 7 to 21 (AF). Both cyclic and estradiol implanted FAE females showed increased levels of plasma PRL and pituitary PRL mRNA but reduced levels of pituitary dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and its short spliced form (D2S)...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690611/insight-into-the-endocrine-system-and-the-immune-system-a-review-of-the-inflammatory-role-of-prolactin-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-psoriatic-arthritis
#6
REVIEW
Man W Tang, Samuel Garcia, Danielle M Gerlag, Paul P Tak, Kris A Reedquist
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects females three times more frequently than males. A potential role for hormones, such as prolactin (PRL), may in part explain this phenomenon. The risk of developing RA is increased in women who are lactating after the first pregnancy, which might be related to breastfeeding and the release of PRL. Other studies found a protective effect of PRL on RA development. Some studies have reported that hyperprolactinemia is more common in RA and serum PRL levels are correlated with several disease parameters, although others could not confirm these findings...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660406/evaluation-of-potentially-prolactin-related-adverse-events-and-sexual-maturation-in-adolescents-with-schizophrenia-treated-with-paliperidone-extended-release-er-for-2-years-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-an-open-label-multicenter-study
#7
Srihari Gopal, Rosanne Lane, Isaac Nuamah, Margaret Copenhaver, Jaskaran Singh, David Hough, Mark Bach, Adam Savitz
BACKGROUND: Elevated prolactin levels (hyperprolactinemia) are a frequent adverse effect of antipsychotic medications, especially in young populations. Prolonged hyperprolactinemia may affect sexual functioning and the onset and progression of puberty. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed potentially prolactin-related treatment-emergent adverse events (PPRL-TEAEs) and sexual maturation during long-term treatment of adolescents with paliperidone extended-release (ER). METHODS: This post hoc analysis of a 2-year open-label multicenter study (NCT00488319) included patients of either sex aged 12-17 years at study enrollment, diagnosed with schizophrenia (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition [DSM-IV]) for ≥1 year, who had received one or more adequate antipsychotic treatment prior to enrollment but had not responded sufficiently...
June 28, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654010/effects-of-pup-separation-on-stress-response-in-postpartum-female-rats
#8
Manu Kalyani, Phyllis Callahan, James M Janik, Haifei Shi
There is a complex collection of neuroendocrine function during the postpartum period. Prolactin (PRL) released by suckling stimulus and its PRL receptors (PRL-R) in the central nervous system (CNS) are involved in hyporesponsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in lactating mammals including rodents and humans. It is not clear how long it takes to reestablish the attenuated HPA axis activity of lactating rats to a pre-pregnancy state after pup separation. We first tested the hypothesis that HPA axis activity in response to an acute stress in postpartum rats would return to a pre-pregnancy state after pup separation...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652133/acute-salinity-tolerance-and-the-control-of-two-prolactins-and-their-receptors-in-the-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-and-mozambique-tilapia-o-mossambicus-a-comparative-study
#9
Yoko Yamaguchi, Jason P Breves, Maria C Haws, Darren T Lerner, E Gordon Grau, Andre P Seale
Osmoregulation in vertebrates is largely controlled by the neuroendocrine system. Prolactin (PRL) is critical for the survival of euryhaline teleosts in fresh water by promoting ion retention. In the euryhaline Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), pituitary PRL cells release two PRL isoforms, PRL188 and PRL177, in response to a fall in extracellular osmolality. Both PRLs function via two PRL receptors (PRLRs) denoted PRLR1 and PRLR2. We conducted a comparative study using the Nile tilapia (O. niloticus), a close relative of Mozambique tilapia that is less tolerant to increases in environmental salinity, to investigate the regulation of PRLs and PRLRs upon acute hyperosmotic challenges in vivo and in vitro...
June 23, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627372/regulatory-role-of-melatonin-and-bmp-4-in-prolactin-production-by-rat-pituitary-lactotrope-gh3-cells
#10
Kanako Ogura-Ochi, Satoshi Fujisawa, Nahoko Iwata, Motoshi Komatsubara, Yuki Nishiyama, Naoko Tsukamoto-Yamauchi, Kenichi Inagaki, Jun Wada, Fumio Otsuka
The effects of melatonin on prolactin production and its regulatory mechanism remain uncertain. We investigated the regulatory role of melatonin in prolactin production using rat pituitary lactotrope GH3 cells by focusing on the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) system. Melatonin receptor activation, induced by melatonin and its receptor agonist ramelteon, significantly suppressed basal and forskolin-induced prolactin secretion and prolactin mRNA expression in GH3 cells. The melatonin MT2 receptor was predominantly expressed in GH3 cells, and the inhibitory effects of melatonin on prolactin production were reversed by treatment with the receptor antagonist luzindole, suggesting functional involvement of MT2 action in the suppression of prolactin release...
June 13, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626863/prolactin-correction-for-adequacy-of-petrosal-sinus-cannulation-may-diminish-diagnostic-accuracy-in-cushing-s-disease
#11
Sunita M C De Sousa, Ann I McCormack, Shaun McGrath, David J Torpy
OBJECTIVE: Petrosal venous prolactin concentrations have been promoted to improve the diagnostic accuracy of inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS), beyond that achieved with ACTH measurement alone, in diagnosing a pituitary ACTH source and determining corticotrophinoma side (L/R). Our objective was to assess the effect of using prolactin to confirm adequacy of petrosal cannulation in a cohort of patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611445/insulin-like-growth-factor-i-and-its-binding-protein-3-are-regulators-of-lactation-and-maternal-responsiveness
#12
András H Lékó, Melinda Cservenák, Éva Rebeka Szabó, János Hanics, Alán Alpár, Árpád Dobolyi
Adaptation to motherhood includes maternal behaviour and lactation during the postpartum period. The major organizing centres of maternal behaviour and lactation are located in the hypothalamic medial preoptic area (MPOA) and the arcuate nucleus, respectively. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is an effector of the growth hormone axis; however, its function in the brain is largely unexplored. We identified increased maternal IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) expression in preoptic rat microarray data and confirmed it by RT-PCR...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585780/the-effects-of-l-dopa-and-sulpiride-on-growth-hormone-secretion-at-different-injection-times-in-holstein-steers
#13
Etsuko Kasuya, Madoka Sutoh, Ken-Ichi Yayou
The effects of l-DOPA, a precursor of dopamine (DA), and sulpiride, a D2 -type DA receptor blocker, on growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) secretion were investigated in steers. Eight Holstein steers (212.8 ± 7.8 kg body weight) were used. Lighting conditions were 12:12 L:D (lights on: 06.00-18.00 hours). Blood samplings were performed during the daytime (11.00-15.00 hours) and nighttime (23.00-03.00 hours). Intravenous injections of drugs or saline were performed at 12.00 hour for the daytime and 00...
June 6, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556305/hypothalamic-dopamine-is-required-for-salsolinol-induced-prolactin-secretion-in-goats
#14
Tsutomu Hashizume, Ryunosuke Watanabe, Yuki Inaba, Ken Sawai, Ferenc Fülöp, György Miklos Nagy
The aim of the present study was to clarify the relationship between hypothalamic dopamine (DA) and salsolinol (SAL) for the secretion of prolactin (PRL) in goats. SAL or thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) was intravenously injected into female goats treated with or without the D2 DA receptor antagonist haloperidol (Hal), which crosses the blood-brain barrier, and the PRL-releasing response to SAL was compared with that to TRH. PRL-releasing responses to SAL, Hal, and Hal plus SAL were also examined after a pretreatment to augment central DA using carbidopa (Carbi) and L-dopa...
May 29, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538378/effects-of-intensive-training-on-menstrual-function-and-certain-serum-hormones-and-peptides-related-to-the-female-reproductive-system
#15
Geum Joon Cho, Sung Won Han, Jung-Ho Shin, Tak Kim
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of intensive training on menstrual function and related serum hormones and peptides.Forty female participants who attended a training course for an officer at the Korea Third Military Academy, and had regular menstrual periods were enrolled. Menstrual questionnaires and fasting blood samples were collected before entry and at 4-week intervals for 8 weeks. The levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), cortisol, prolactin, endorphin-β, neuropeptide Y (NPY), leptin, orexin-A, ghrelin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), thyrotropin (TSH), and thyroxine (T4) were determined...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515460/chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-of-human-endometrial-stromal-cells-induces-defective-decidualisation-and-chemokine-release
#16
Sevi Giakoumelou, Nick Wheelhouse, Jeremy Brown, Jean Wade, Ioannis Simitsidellis, Douglas Gibson, Philippa T K Saunders, Patrick Horner, Gary Entrican, Sarah E M Howie, Andrew W Horne
Miscarriage affects ~20% of pregnancies and maternal infections account for ~15% of early miscarriages. Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) has been associated with miscarriage but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Successful implantation requires endometrial stromal cell (ESC) decidualisation. Maintenance of pregnancy requires angiogenesis, establishment of the correct cellular milieu and trophoblast invasion, all of which involve the action of chemokines. Our objective was to determine whether Ct infection impacts upon ESC decidualisation and chemokine secretion...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501406/effect-of-inhibiting-the-lactogenic-signal-at-calving-on-milk-production-and-metabolic-and-immune-perturbations-in-dairy-cows
#17
N Vanacker, S Ollier, F Beaudoin, R Blouin, P Lacasse
During the periparturient period, the abrupt increase in energy demand for milk production often induces metabolic and immunological disturbances in dairy cows. Our previous work has shown that reducing milk output by milking once a day or incompletely in the first few days of lactation reduces these disturbances. The aim of this study was to reduce metabolic and immunological disturbances by limiting milk production during the first week of lactation by inhibiting the lactogenic signal driven by prolactin...
July 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499525/consecutive-cyproterone-acetate-and-estradiol-treatment-in-late-pubertal-transgender-female-adolescents
#18
Lloyd J W Tack, Robin Heyse, Margarita Craen, Karlien Dhondt, Heidi Vanden Bossche, Jolien Laridaen, Martine Cools
BACKGROUND: Cyproterone acetate (CA) is an antiandrogenic progestin commonly used in adult transwomen to suppress endogenous androgens, often in combination with estrogens to induce feminization. AIM: To assess the (side) effects and biochemical changes of CA alone and in combination with estrogens in adolescent trans-girls. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of clinical and biochemical data from 27 trans-girls who presented at Tanner stage G4 and were treated with CA monotherapy for at least 6 months (mean = 12 months) and then in combination with incremental doses of estrogens (CA + E; mean = 16 months)...
May 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490208/plasma-kisspeptin-levels-in-lactational-amenorrhea
#19
Masato Kotani, Fumihiko Katagiri, Tsuyoshi Hirai, Jiro Kagawa, Issei Tanaka
The kisspeptin is a neuropeptide to play physiological roles in regulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion in the hypothalamus. In human plasma, the kisspeptin concentration is measured, but gonadotropin-releasing hormone is not. This study aims to understand the physiological roles of the circulating kisspeptin in lactational amenorrhea in humans because prolactin reduces the kisspeptin expression and luteinizing hormone secretion resulting in anovulations in rodent brains. Plasma kisspeptin levels were measured in 11 subjects in lactational amenorrhea and in four cases with pathological amenorrhea by different etiologies for comparison using the enzyme immunoassay specific for human kisspeptin...
May 11, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483703/next-generation-sequencing-analysis-of-soy-glyceollins-and-17-%C3%AE-estradiol-effects-on-transcript-abundance-in-the-female-mouse-brain
#20
REVIEW
Sanaya F Bamji, Eric Rouchka, Yan Zhang, Xiaohong Li, Ted Kalbfleisch, Cynthia Corbitt
Glyceollins (Glys) are produced by soy plants in response to stress and are known for their anti-estrogenic activity both in vivo and in vitro in cancer cell lines as well as peripheral tissues. Glys can also exhibit non-estrogen receptor (ER) mediated effects. The effects of Glys on gene expression in the brain are still unclear. For this study, 17-β estradiol (E2) or placebo slow-release pellets were implanted into ovariectomized CFW mice followed by 11 days of exposure to either Glys or vehicle i.p. injections...
May 5, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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