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prolactine releasing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425631/restraint-stress-increases-prolactin-mediated-phosphorylation-of-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-5-in-the-hypothalamus-and-adrenal-cortex-in-the-male-mouse
#1
S E Kirk, T Y Xie, F J Steyn, D R Grattan, S J Bunn
Prolactin is a pleiotropic peptide hormone produced by the lactotrophs in the anterior pituitary. Its rate of secretion is primarily regulated by a negative feedback mechanism whereby prolactin stimulates the activity of the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons, increasing their release of dopamine which accesses the pituitary via the median eminence to suppress further prolactin secretion. In addition to its well established role in lactation, circulating prolactin is secreted in response to stress, although the mechanism by which this is achieved or its cellular targets are unknown...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418929/plurihormonal-cells-of-normal-anterior-pituitary-facts-and-conclusions
#2
Lubov B Mitrofanova, Petr V Konovalov, Julia S Krylova, Victoria O Polyakova, Igor M Kvetnoy
INTRODUCTION: plurihormonality of pituitary adenomas is an ability of adenoma cells to produce more than one hormone. After the immunohistochemical analysis had become a routine part of the morphological study, a great number of adenomas appeared to be multihormonal in actual practice. We hypothesize that the same cells of a normal pituitary gland releases several hormones simultaneously. OBJECTIVE: To analyse a possible co-expression of hormones by the cells of the normal anterior pituitary of adult humans in autopsy material...
March 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412388/prolactin-modulates-luteal-activity-in-the-short-nosed-fruit-bat-cynopterus-sphinx-during-delayed-embryonic-development
#3
Anuradha, Amitabh Krishna
The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of prolactin as a modulator of luteal steroidogenesis during the period of delayed embryonic development in Cynopterus sphinx. A marked decline in circulating prolactin levels was noted during the months of November through December coinciding with the period of decreased serum progesterone and delayed embryonic development. The seasonal changes in serum prolactin levels correlated positively with circulating progesterone (P) level, but inversely with circulating melatonin level during first pregnancy showing delayed development in Cynopterus sphinx...
April 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404690/pharmacologic-characterization-of-valbenazine-nbi-98854-and-its-metabolites
#4
Dimitri E Grigoriadis, Evan Smith, Sam R J Hoare, Ajay Madan, Haig Bozigian
The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) is an integral presynaptic protein that regulates the packaging and subsequent release of dopamine and other monoamines from neuronal vesicles into the synapse. Valbenazine (NBI-98854), a novel compound that selectively inhibits VMAT2, is being developed for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia. Valbenazine is converted to two significant circulating metabolites in vivo, namely, (+)-α-dihydrotetrabenazine (R,R,R-DHTBZ) and a mono-oxy metabolite, NBI-136110. Radioligand binding studies were conducted to assess and compare valbenazine, tetrabenazine and their respective metabolites in their abilities to selectively and potently inhibit [(3)H]-DHTBZ binding to VMAT2 in rat striatal, rat forebrain, and human platelet homogenates...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387824/alpha-estrogen-and-progesterone-receptors-modulate-kisspeptin-effects-on-prolactin-role-in-estradiol-induced-prolactin-surge-in-female-rats
#5
Nayara S S Aquino, Roberta Araujo-Lopes, Patricia C Henriques, Felipe E F Lopes, Daniela O Gusmao, Candido C Coimbra, Celso R Franci, Adelina M Reis, Raphael E Szawka
Kisspeptin regulates prolactin (PRL) in an estradiol-dependent manner. We investigated the interaction between ovarian-steroid receptors and kisspeptin in the control of PRL secretion. Intracerebroventricular injections of kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10) or kisspeptin-234 (Kp-234) were performed in ovariectomized (OVX) rats under different hormonal treatments. Kp-10 increased PRL release and decreased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacet acid (DOPAC) levels in the median eminence (ME) of OVX rats treated with estradiol (OVX+E), which was prevented by tamoxifen...
April 6, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339753/in-ovo-monochromatic-green-light-photostimulation-enhances-embryonic-somatotropic-axis-activity
#6
L Dishon, N Avital-Cohen, D Malamud, R Heiblum, S Druyan, T E Porter, M Gumulka, I Rozenboim
Previous studies demonstrated that in ovo photostimulation with monochromatic green light increases body weight and accelerates muscle development in broilers. The mechanism in which in ovo photostimulation accelerates growth and muscle development is not clearly understood. The objective of the current study was to define development of the somatotropic axis in the broiler embryo associated with in ovo green light photostimulation. Two-hundred-forty fertile broiler eggs were divided into 2 groups. The first group was incubated under intermittent monochromatic green light using light-emitting diode (LED) lamps with an intensity of 0...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338740/the-role-of-vip-in-social-behavior-neural-hotspots-for-the-modulation-of-affiliation-aggression-and-parental-care
#7
Marcy A Kingsbury, Leah C Wilson
Although the modulation of social behaviors by most major neurochemical systems has been explored, there are still standouts, including the study of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). VIP is a modulator of circadian, reproductive, and seasonal rhythms and is well known for its role in reproductive behavior, as it is the main vertebrate prolactin-releasing hormone. Originally isolated as a gut peptide, VIP and its cognate receptors are present in virtually every brain area that is important for social behavior, including all nodes of the core "social behavior network" (SBN)...
December 16, 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337596/prolactin-regulation-of-the-hpa-axis-is-not-mediated-by-a-direct-action-upon-crh-neurons-evidence-from-the-rat-and-mouse
#8
Papillon Gustafson, Ilona Kokay, Tony Sapsford, Stephen Bunn, David Grattan
Centrally acting prolactin has been shown to have anti-stress effects by modulating the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We tested the hypothesis that prolactin directly targets hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons. In situ hybridisation confirmed expression of mRNA encoding the long, but not the short, isoform of the prolactin receptor (PRLR) within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the virgin rat; however, only 6% of CRH neurons expressed long-form Prlr mRNA. Examination of the functional response of CRH neurons to intracerebroventricular prolactin (500 ng) showed that these neurons did not respond with activation of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5), a marker of long-form PRLR activation...
March 23, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336493/the-central-mechanism-of-risperidone-induced-hyperprolactinemia
#9
Wei-Wei Sun, Lin-Yu Li, Xu-Feng Huang, Yan-Chuan Shi, He-Qin Yang, Zhi-Yuan Song, Shu Lin
Risperidone is known to increase prolactin secretion in treating mental illness patients. This side-effect is thought to be mediated via central signaling pathway. However, the exact pathway involved between risperidone and hyperprolactinemia are still unknown. Therefore, we have treated mice with risperidone and investigated the central mechanisms. The present study showed that in risperidone treated group, the level of the serum prolactin significantly increased, which was consistent with increased positive prolactin staining in pituitary gland...
March 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323939/tac1-gene-products-regulate-pituitary-hormone-secretion-and-gene-expression-in-prepubertal-grass-carp-pituitary-cells
#10
Guangfu Hu, Mulan He, Wendy K W Ko, Anderson O L Wong
Tachykinin 1 (TAC1) is known to have diverse functions in mammals but similar information is scarce in lower vertebrates including fish species. Using grass carp as a model, the pituitary actions, receptor specificity and post-receptor signaling of TAC1 gene products, namely substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA), were examined. As a first step, TAC1 encoding carp SP and NKA as well as tachykinin receptors NK1R and NK2R were cloned in carp pituitary. Expression studies revealed that the newly cloned receptors were functional and with pharmacological properties similar to mammalian counterparts...
March 13, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302567/alpha2-adrenoceptor-agonists-trigger-prolactin-signaling-in-breast-cancer-cells
#11
Lilian Fedra Castillo, Ezequiel M Rivero, Vincent Goffin, Isabel Alicia Lüthy
Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy among women worldwide. We have described the expression of α2-adrenoceptors in breast cancer cell lines, associated with increased cell proliferation and tumor growth. A mitogenic autocrine/paracrine loop of prolactin (Prl) has been described in breast cancer cells. We hypothesized that the α2-adrenergic enhancement of proliferation could be mediated, at least in part, by this Prl loop. In both T47D and MCF-7 cell lines, the incubation with the α2-adrenergic agonist dexmedetomidine significantly increased Prl release into the culture medium (measured by the Nb2 bioassay), this effect being reversed by the α2-adrenergic antagonist rauwolscine...
March 14, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270617/mechanisms-regulating-angiogenesis-underlie-seasonal-control-of-pituitary-function
#12
Jennifer Castle-Miller, David O Bates, Domingo J Tortonese
Seasonal changes in mammalian physiology, such as those affecting reproduction, hibernation, and metabolism, are controlled by pituitary hormones released in response to annual environmental changes. In temperate zones, the primary environmental cue driving seasonal reproductive cycles is the change in day length (i.e., photoperiod), encoded by the pattern of melatonin secretion from the pineal gland. However, although reproduction relies on hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone output, and most cells producing reproductive hormones are in the pars distalis (PD) of the pituitary, melatonin receptors are localized in the pars tuberalis (PT), a physically and functionally separate part of the gland...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251049/low-dose-bisphenol-a-exposure-a-seemingly-instigating-carcinogenic-effect-on-breast-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Zhe Wang, Huiyu Liu, Sijin Liu
Breast cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer death in the world and the second most common fatal cancer in women. Epidemiological studies and clinical data have indicated that hormones, including estrogen, progesterone, and prolactin, play important roles in the initiation and progression of breast cancer. Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most commonly used and thoroughly studied endocrine disruptors. It can be released from consumer products and deposited in the environment, thus creating potential for human exposure through oral, inhaled, and dermal routes...
February 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250798/reproductiveaxis-gene-regulation-during-photostimulation-and-photorefractoriness-in-yangzhou-goose-ganders
#14
Huanxi Zhu, Zhe Chen, Xibin Shao, Jianning Yu, Chuankun Wei, Zichun Dai, Zhendan Shi
BACKGROUND: The Yangzhou goose is a long-day breeding bird that has been increasingly produced in China. Artificial lighting programs are used for controlling its reproductive activities. This study investigated the regulations of photostimulation and photorefractoriness that govern the onset and cessation of the breeding period. RESULTS: Increasing the daily photoperiod from 8 to 12 h rapidly stimulated testis development and increased plasma testosterone concentrations, with peak levels being reached 2 months after the photoperiod increase...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245460/endocrine-immunology-of-chagas-disease
#15
Wilson Savino
The concept of immunoendocrine interactions, existing in normal and pathological conditions, is relatively recent. Accordingly, cells from the immune system and from endocrine glands share common receptors for cytokines and hormones, allowing systemic and local regulatory mechanisms. In this context, lymphoid organs are under physiological hormonal control. Disturbances in these systems, as those caused by pathogens changes the physiological profile of these interactions, with the release of proinflammatory cytokines and hormones, and one example is the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
2017: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223031/effects-of-aripiprazole-quetiapine-and-ziprasidone-on-plasma-prolactin-levels-in-individuals-with-first-episode-nonaffective-psychosis-analysis-of-a-randomized-open-label-1year-study
#16
Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Victor Ortiz-Garcia de la Foz, Paula Suarez-Pinilla, Elsa M Valdizan, Rocío Pérez-Iglesias, Jose Antonio Amado-Señaris, M Teresa Garcia-Unzueta, Javier Labad, Christopher Correll, Rosa Ayesa-Arriola
RATIONALE: Hyperprolactinemia is considered a troubling adverse effect of antipsychotics. Direct comparisons among second generation antipsychotics are scant in clinical practice. We hypothesize prolactin-sparing second-generation antipsychotics may have differential effects on prolactin levels and that they may be influenced by sex. OBJECTIVES: To explore the differential effect of three widely used prolactin-sparing antipsychotics, aripiprazole, quetiapine and ziprasidone, on prolactin plasma levels in first episode non-affective psychosis during a 1year of treatment...
February 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208955/high-serum-estradiol-and-heavy-metals-responsible-for-human-spermiation-defect-a-pilot-study
#17
Manish Jain, Amanpreet Kaur Kalsi, Amita Srivastava, Yogendra Kumar Gupta, Ashutosh Halder
INTRODUCTION: Spermiation is a process of releasing sperm into the lumen of seminiferous tubules. Failure in releasing sperm into the lumen is designated as spermiation defect. Spermiation defect cases present as oligo-azoospermia or azoospermia despite normal gonadotropins and testicular histology/cytology. Human spermiation defect never got attention to investigate infertility practice. Most of the information on spermiation defect, so far is from animal experiments. We assume some cases of non-obstructive azoospermia with normal gonadotropins and testicular histology/cytology could be due to spermiation defect...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193889/multiple-scale-neuroendocrine-signals-connect-brain-and-pituitary-hormone-rhythms
#18
Nicola Romanò, Anne Guillou, David J Hodson, Agnès O Martin, Patrice Mollard
Small assemblies of hypothalamic "parvocellular" neurons release their neuroendocrine signals at the median eminence (ME) to control long-lasting pituitary hormone rhythms essential for homeostasis. How such rapid hypothalamic neurotransmission leads to slowly evolving hormonal signals remains unknown. Here, we show that the temporal organization of dopamine (DA) release events in freely behaving animals relies on a set of characteristic features that are adapted to the dynamic dopaminergic control of pituitary prolactin secretion, a key reproductive hormone...
February 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145492/hypocretin-orexin-peptides-excite-rat-neuroendocrine-dopamine-neurons-through-orexin-2-receptor-mediated-activation-of-a-mixed-cation-current
#19
David J Lyons, Arash Hellysaz, Rachida Ammari, Christian Broberger
Hypocretin/Orexin (H/O) neurons of the lateral hypothalamus are compelling modulator candidates for the chronobiology of neuroendocrine output and, as a consequence, hormone release from the anterior pituitary. Here we investigate the effects of H/O peptides upon tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons - cells which control, via inhibition, the pituitary secretion of prolactin. In whole cell recordings performed in male rat hypothalamic slices, application of H/O-A, as well as H/O-B, excited oscillating TIDA neurons, inducing a reversible depolarising switch from phasic to tonic discharge...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123085/seasonal-and-photoperiodic-regulation-of-reproductive-hormones-and-related-genes-in-yangzhou-geese
#20
H M Yang, Y Wang, Z Y Wang, X X Wang
This study aimed at the reproductive endocrine profile under a natural photoperiod in Yangzhou female geese. Geese in the breeding industry were exposed to a natural photoperiod and the results showed the breeding season of Yangzhou geese initiated in autumn, reached peak in February and March, and terminated in June. Fifteen female geese were randomly selected for blood collection samples monthly. The results showed serum luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations in female geese were higher in the breeding season than in the non-breeding season...
February 1, 2017: Poultry Science
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