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Australia antimicrobial resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637576/antimicrobial-use-and-resistance-in-australia-aura-surveillance-system-coordinating-national-data-on-antimicrobial-use-and-resistance-for-australia
#1
John D Turnidge, Kathy T Meleady
Objective The aim of the present study was to describe the process of establishment and coordination of the national Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Australia (AURA) surveillance system.Methods Existing surveillance programs conducted by health organisations at state or multi-jurisdictional levels were reviewed, and gaps and opportunities identified for the development of a national system. In view of the time frame available as part of the Australian Government Department of Health funding agreement, the strategy used by the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care was to commence work with existing surveillance programs, expanding and enhancing them and developing new systems where gaps were identified...
June 22, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598251/molecular-characterization-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-australian-animals-and-veterinarians
#2
Kate A Worthing, Sam Abraham, Stanley Pang, Geoffrey W Coombs, Sugiyono Saputra, David Jordan, Hui S Wong, Rebecca J Abraham, Darren J Trott, Jacqueline M Norris
This study aimed to determine the frequency and molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Australian animals and whether animal-derived MRSA was similar to that from Australian veterinarians. A total of 1,080 clinical coagulase positive Staphylococcus isolates from Australian animals were collected during 2013. Sixteen (4%) of 360 S. aureus isolates were MRSA. Most MRSA came from companion animals, while none came from livestock. MRSA isolates were characterized using whole genome sequencing...
June 9, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592231/high-burden-of-complicated-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-the-indigenous-population-of-central-australia-due-to-dominant-panton-valentine-leucocidin-clones-st93-mrsa-and-cc121-mssa
#3
Susan A J Harch, Eleanor MacMorran, Steven Y C Tong, Deborah C Holt, Judith Wilson, Eugene Athan, Saliya Hewagama
BACKGROUND: Superficial skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are common among the Indigenous population of the desert regions of Central Australia. However, the overall burden of disease and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus complicated SSTIs has yet to be described in this unique population. METHODS: Alice Springs Hospital (ASH) admission data was interrogated to establish the population incidence of SSTIs. A prospective observational study was conducted on a subset of S...
June 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542602/antimicrobial-resistance-status-of-enterococcus-from-australian-cattle-populations-at-slaughter
#4
Robert S Barlow, Kate E McMillan, Lesley L Duffy, Narelle Fegan, David Jordan, Glen E Mellor
Antimicrobial agents are used in cattle production systems for the prevention and control of bacterial associated diseases. A consequence of their use is the potential development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis that are resistant to antimicrobials are of increased concern to public health officials throughout the world as they may compromise the ability of various treatment regimens to control disease and infection in human medicine. Australia is a major exporter of beef; however it does not have an ongoing surveillance system for AMR in cattle or foods derived from these animals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493905/melioidosis-clinical-impact-and-public-health-threat-in-the-tropics
#5
REVIEW
Ramar Perumal Samy, Bradley G Stiles, Gautam Sethi, Lina H K Lim
This review briefly summarizes the geographical distribution and clinical impact of melioidosis, especially in the tropics. Burkholderia pseudomallei (a gram-negative bacterium) is the major causative agent for melioidosis, which is prevalent in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, and Northern Australia. Melioidosis patients are increasingly being recognized in other parts of the world. The bacteria are intrinsically resistant to many antimicrobial agents, but prolonged treatment, especially with combinations of antibiotics, may be effective...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476613/emergence-of-multidrug-resistance-in-locally-acquired-human-infections-with-salmonella-typhimurium-in-australia-owing-to-a-new-clade-harbouring-blactx-m-9
#6
Sarah J Sparham, Jason C Kwong, Mary Valcanis, Marion Easton, Darren J Trott, Torsten Seemann, Timothy P Stinear, Benjamin P Howden
Antimicrobial resistance in non-typhoidal Salmonella is a critical problem globally, with the emergence of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) a particular concern. The aim of this study was to use whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to characterise recently identified human and non-human isolates of 3GC-resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium from Australia. The Illumina NextSeq sequencing platform was used to determine the genome sequences of 78 S. Typhimurium definitive type 44 isolated in Australia between 1992 and 2016, including 31 3GC-resistant isolates...
May 2, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432206/identifying-factors-that-lead-to-the-persistence-of-imported-gonorrhoeae-strains-a-modelling-study
#7
Ben B Hui, David M Whiley, Basil Donovan, Matthew G Law, David G Regan
OBJECTIVE: The importation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) strains from overseas is believed to be the main source of antimicrobial resistance in Australia. With recent sporadic cases of ceftriaxone-resistant gonorrhoea reported in Australia and elsewhere, we sought to model the potential for imported NG strains to persist in the men who have sex with men (MSM) population in Australia. METHODS: We developed an individual-based model to simulate the transmission of NG in a population of urban MSM, and used this model to investigate factors contributing to the probability that an imported NG strain will persist...
May 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430811/antimicrobial-resistance-in-coagulase-positive-staphylococci-isolated-from-companion-animals-in-australia-a-one-year-study
#8
Sugiyono Saputra, David Jordan, Kate A Worthing, Jacqueline M Norris, Hui S Wong, Rebecca Abraham, Darren J Trott, Sam Abraham
Methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS) have become increasingly recognised as opportunistic pathogens that limit therapeutic options in companion animals. The frequency of methicillin resistance amongst clinical isolates on an Australia-wide level is unknown. This study determined antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for CoPS isolated from clinical infections in companion animals (dogs, cats and horses) as part of the first nation-wide survey on antimicrobial resistance in animal pathogens in Australia for a one-year period (January 2013 to January 2014)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421643/empiric-antibiotic-regimens-for-neonatal-sepsis-in-australian-and-new-zealand-neonatal-intensive-care-units
#9
Jeremy P Carr, David P Burgner, Rohan S Hardikar, Jim P Buttery
AIM: Neonatal sepsis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality, and requires prompt empiric treatment. However, only a minority of babies who receive antibiotics for suspected sepsis have an infection. Antimicrobial exposure in infancy has important short- and long-term consequences. There is no consensus regarding empirical antimicrobial regimens. METHODS: The study included a survey of empiric antimicrobial regimens in all tertiary neonatal intensive care units in Australia and New Zealand in 2013-2014...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385139/australian-gonococcal-surveillance-programme-annual-report-2015
#10
Monica M Lahra, Rodney P Enriquez
The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme (AGSP) has continuously monitored antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from all Australian states and territories since 1981. In 2015, there were 5,411 clinical isolates of gonococci from public and private sector sources tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility by standardised methods. Current treatment recommendations for the majority of Australian states and territories is a dual therapeutic strategy of ceftriaxone and azithromycin...
March 31, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260537/characterisation-of-invasive-clinical-haemophilus-influenzae-isolates-in-queensland-australia-using-whole-genome-sequencing
#11
M Staples, R M A Graham, A V Jennison
Haemophilus influenzae is an important aetiological organism of both adult and child respiratory disease. The number of non-typeable (NTHi) invasive H. influenzae isolates referred to the Queensland (QLD) Public Health Microbiology laboratory has increased notably year-by-year. In this study we used whole-genome sequencing to molecularly characterise 100 referred invasive H. influenzae, including 74 NTHi isolates over a 15-year period, observing the carriage of capsular and putative virulence genes, including the major adhesins, antimicrobial resistance genes and population diversity...
June 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253995/policy-making-for-vaccine-use-as-a-driver-of-vaccine-innovation-and-development-in-the-developed-world
#12
REVIEW
Katherine Seib, Andrew J Pollard, Philippe de Wals, Ross M Andrews, Fangjun Zhou, Richard J Hatchett, Larry K Pickering, Walter A Orenstein
In the past 200years, vaccines have had unmistakable impacts on public health including declines in morbidity and mortality, most markedly in economically-developed countries. Highly engineered vaccines including vaccines for conditions other than infectious diseases are expected to dominate future vaccine development. We examine immunization vaccine policy as a driver of vaccine innovation and development. The pathways to recommendation for use of licensed vaccines in the US, UK, Canada and Australia have been similar, including: expert review of disease epidemiology, disease burden and severity; vaccine immunogenicity, efficacy and safety; programmatic feasibility; public demand; and increasingly cost-effectiveness...
March 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249570/survival-capabilities-of-escherichia-coli-o26-isolated-from-cattle-and-clinical-sources-in-australia-to-disinfectants-acids-and-antimicrobials
#13
Salma A Lajhar, Jeremy Brownlie, Robert Barlow
BACKGROUND: After E. coli O157, E. coli O26 is the second most prevalent enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) serotype identified in cases of foodborne illness in Australia and throughout the world. E. coli O26 associated foodborne outbreaks have drawn attention to the survival capabilities of this organism in a range of environments. The aim of the present study was to assess the ability of E. coli O26 to survive the effects of disinfectants, acids and antimicrobials and investigate the possible influence of virulence genes in survival and persistence of E...
March 1, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246426/antimicrobial-use-and-resistance-in-australia
#14
EDITORIAL
John Turnidge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Australian Prescriber
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100229/surveillance-of-life-long-antibiotics-a-review-of-antibiotic-prescribing-practices-in-an-australian-healthcare-network
#15
Jillian S Y Lau, Christopher Kiss, Erika Roberts, Kylie Horne, Tony M Korman, Ian Woolley
BACKGROUND: The rise of antimicrobial use in the twentieth century has significantly reduced morbidity due to infection, however it has also brought with it the rise of increasing resistance. Some patients are on prolonged, if not "life-long" course of antibiotics. The reasons for this are varied, and include non-infectious indications. We aimed to study the characteristics of this potential source of antibiotic resistance, by exploring the antibiotic dispensing practices and describing the population of patients on long-term antibiotic therapy...
January 18, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018320/single-molecule-sequencing-pacbio-of-the-staphylococcus-capitis-nrcs-a-clone-reveals-the-basis-of-multidrug-resistance-and-adaptation-to-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-environment
#16
Patrícia Martins Simões, Hajar Lemriss, Yann Dumont, Sanâa Lemriss, Jean-Philippe Rasigade, Sophie Assant-Trouillet, Azeddine Ibrahimi, Saâd El Kabbaj, Marine Butin, Frédéric Laurent
The multi-resistant Staphylococcus capitis clone NRCS-A has recently been described as a major pathogen causing nosocomial, late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm neonates worldwide. NRCS-A representatives exhibit an atypical antibiotic resistance profile. Here, the complete closed genome (chromosomal and plasmid sequences) of NRCS-A prototype strain CR01 and the draft genomes of three other clinical NRCS-A strains from Australia, Belgium and the United Kingdom are annotated and compared to available non-NRCS-A S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999043/changes-in-the-rates-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-antimicrobial-resistance-are-primarily-driven-by-dynamic-fluctuations-in-common-gonococcal-genotypes
#17
Monica M Lahra, Ella Trembizki, Cameron Buckley, Basil Donovan, Marcus Chen, Rebecca Guy, Ratan L Kundu, David G Regan, David M Whiley
Objectives: To examine how gonococcal genotypes and associated changes over time influence rates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance. Methods: All available N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected in New South Wales, Australia in the first half of both 2012 and 2014 were genotyped using the Agena MassARRAY iPLEX platform. Genotypic data were compared with phenotypic antimicrobial resistance profiles over time. We focused on penicillin and ciprofloxacin as significant increases in resistance to both antibiotics were observed over this time period...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942539/nocardiosis-in-the-tropical-northern-territory-of-australia-1997-2014
#18
Sarah L McGuinness, Sarah E Whiting, Rob Baird, Bart J Currie, Anna P Ralph, Nicholas M Anstey, Ric N Price, Joshua S Davis, Steven Y C Tong
BACKGROUND: Nocardia is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause life-threatening disease. We aimed to characterize the epidemiological, microbiological, and clinical features of nocardiosis in the tropical north of Australia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of nocardiosis diagnosed between 1997 and 2014. Population-based incidences were calculated using district population data. RESULTS: Clinically significant nocardiosis was identified in 61 patients...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907102/an-investigation-into-the-etiological-agents-of-swine-dysentery-in-australian-pig-herds
#19
Tom La, Nyree D Phillips, David J Hampson
Swine dysentery (SD) is a mucohemorrhagic colitis, classically seen in grower/finisher pigs and caused by infection with the anaerobic intestinal spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. More recently, however, the newly described species Brachyspira hampsonii and Brachyspira suanatina have been identified as causing SD in North America and/or Europe. Furthermore, there have been occasions where strains of B. hyodysenteriae have been recovered from healthy pigs, including in multiplier herds with high health status...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866945/a-global-call-from-five-countries-to-collaborate-in-antibiotic-stewardship-united-we-succeed-divided-we-might-fail
#20
REVIEW
Debra A Goff, Ravina Kullar, Ellie J C Goldstein, Mark Gilchrist, Dilip Nathwani, Allen C Cheng, Kelly A Cairns, Kevin Escandón-Vargas, Maria Virginia Villegas, Adrian Brink, Dena van den Bergh, Marc Mendelson
In February, 2016, WHO released a report for the development of national action plans to address the threat of antibiotic resistance, the catastrophic consequences of inaction, and the need for antibiotic stewardship. Antibiotic stewardship combined with infection prevention comprises a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach to optimise use of antibiotics. Efforts to mitigate overuse will be unsustainable without learning and coordinating activities globally. In this Personal View, we provide examples of international collaborations to address optimal prescribing, focusing on five countries that have developed different approaches to antibiotic stewardship-the USA, South Africa, Colombia, Australia, and the UK...
February 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
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