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Australia antimicrobial resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340600/development-and-impact-of-a-massive-open-online-course-mooc-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#1
Jacqueline Sneddon, Gavin Barlow, Sally Bradley, Adrian Brink, Sujith J Chandy, Dilip Nathwani
Background: The University of Dundee and the BSAC developed a massive open online course (MOOC) to address the global need for education to support antimicrobial stewardship in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: An interactive course, Antimicrobial Stewardship: Managing Antibiotic Resistance, was developed and delivered via the FutureLearn© platform. The course ran over four 6 week periods during 2015 and 2016 supported by educators and was evaluated via data on uptake and feedback from learners on impact on clinical practice...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338017/comparative-genomics-identifies-distinct-lineages-of-s-enteritidis-from-queensland-australia
#2
Rikki M A Graham, Lester Hiley, Irani U Rathnayake, Amy V Jennison
Salmonella enterica is a major cause of gastroenteritis and foodborne illness in Australia where notification rates in the state of Queensland are the highest in the country. S. Enteritidis is among the five most common serotypes reported in Queensland and it is a priority for epidemiological surveillance due to concerns regarding its emergence in Australia. Using whole genome sequencing, we have analysed the genomic epidemiology of 217 S. Enteritidis isolates from Queensland, and observed that they fall into three distinct clades, which we have differentiated as Clades A, B and C...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332434/relationship-between-antimicrobial-resistance-programs-and-antibiotic-dispensing-for-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-an-analysis-of-australian-data-between-2004-and-2015
#3
Jianyun Wu, Daniel Taylor, Ludmila Ovchinikova, Aine Heaney, Tessa Morgan, Jonathan Dartnell, Rachel Holbrook, Lauren Humphreys, Lynn Weekes, Suzanne Blogg
Objective NPS MedicineWise aims to ensure that medicines are prescribed and used in a manner consistent with current evidence-based best practice. A series of nationwide educational and advertising interventions for general practitioners and consumers were implemented in Australia between 2009 and 2015 with the aim of reducing antibiotic prescriptions for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). The work described in this paper quantifies the change in antibiotic dispensing following these interventions...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306352/porcine-commensal-escherichia-coli-a-reservoir-for-class-1-integrons-associated-with-is26
#4
Cameron J Reid, Ethan R Wyrsch, Piklu Roy Chowdhury, Tiziana Zingali, Michael Liu, Aaron E Darling, Toni A Chapman, Steven P Djordjevic
Porcine faecal waste is a serious environmental pollutant. Carriage of antimicrobial-resistance genes (ARGs) and virulence-associated genes (VAGs), and the zoonotic potential of commensal Escherichia coli from swine are largely unknown. Furthermore, little is known about the role of commensal E. coli as contributors to the mobilization of ARGs between food animals and the environment. Here, we report whole-genome sequence analysis of 103 class 1 integron-positive E. coli from the faeces of healthy pigs from two commercial production facilities in New South Wales, Australia...
December 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281972/mycoplasma-genitalium-whole-genome-sequence-analysis-recombination-and-population-structure
#5
Maria C Fookes, James Hadfield, Simon Harris, Surendra Parmar, Magnus Unemo, Jørgen S Jensen, Nicholas R Thomson
BACKGROUND: Although Mycoplasma genitalium is a common sexually transmitted pathogen causing clinically distinct diseases both in male and females, few genomes have been sequenced up to now, due mainly to its fastidious nature and slow growth. Hence, we lack a robust phylogenetic framework to provide insights into the population structure of the species. Currently our understanding of the nature and diversity of M. genitalium relies on molecular tests targeting specific genes or regions of the genome and knowledge is limited by a general under-testing internationally...
December 28, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277727/antimicrobial-resistance-in-urine-and-skin-isolates-in-timor-leste
#6
Ian Marr, Nevio Sarmento, Matt O'Brien, Karl Lee, Celia Gusmao, Gloria de Castro, Sonja Janson, Steven Y C Tong, Rob W Baird, Joshua R Francis
OBJECTIVES: High rates of antimicrobial resistance are seen throughout Southeast Asia. Limited antimicrobial resistance data exists for Timor-Leste, which is situated on the south-eastern portion of the Malay Archipelago. The purpose of this study was to identify antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from urine and skin swabs from patients in Dili, Timor-Leste. METHODS: Urine and skin swabs were collected from symptomatic patients and processed for bacterial culture in Timor-Leste...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180525/increasing-antimicrobial-resistance-in-non-typhoidal-salmonella-in-australia-1979-2015
#7
Deborah A Williamson, Courtney R Lane, Marion Easton, Mary Valcanis, Janet Strachan, Mark G Veitch, Martyn D Kirk, Benjamin P Howden
Australia has high and increasing rates of salmonellosis. To date, the serovar distribution and associated antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) in Australia have not been assessed. Such information provides critical knowledge about AMR in the food chain, and informs decisions about public health. We reviewed longitudinal data on NTS in two Australian states over a thirty-seven-year period, between 1979 and 2015, and antimicrobial resistance since 1984. Overall, 17% of isolates were non-susceptible to at least one antimicrobial, 4...
November 27, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102120/antimicrobial-resistance-in-clinical-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-companion-animals-in-australia
#8
Sugiyono Saputra, David Jordan, Tahlia Mitchell, Hui San Wong, Rebecca J Abraham, Amanda Kidsley, John Turnidge, Darren J Trott, Sam Abraham
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli have become a major public health concern to both humans and animal health. While the frequency of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in clinical E. coli is monitored regularly in human medicine, current frequency of AMR in companion animals remains unknown in Australia. In this study we conducted antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) and where possible, determined potential risk factors for MDR infection among 883 clinical Escherichia coli isolated from dogs (n=514), cats (n=341) and horses (n=28)...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101246/evaluation-of-the-mycoplasma-genitalium-resistance-plus-kit-for-the-detection-of-m-genitalium-and-mutations-associated-with-macrolide-resistance
#9
Rachel Pitt, Michelle Jayne Cole, Helen Fifer, Neil Woodford
OBJECTIVES: To compare performance of the ResistancePlus kit (SpeeDx, Australia) with in-house methods for the detection of Mycoplasma genitalium-specific DNA and mutations associated with resistance to macrolide antimicrobials, directly from clinical specimens. METHODS: Assay specificity and sensitivity was analysed using DNA from 46 non-M. genitalium organisms and standard curve analysis, respectively. A panel of archived DNA extracted from 97 M. genitalium-positive clinical specimens, for which the macrolide susceptibility genotype had been previously determined, were tested on the assay and results compared...
November 3, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062959/evaluation-of-fermentation-conditions-triggering-increased-antibacterial-activity-from-a-near-shore-marine-intertidal-environment-associated-streptomyces-species
#10
A L English, A Boufridi, R J Quinn, D I Kurtböke
A near-shore marine intertidal environment-associated Streptomyces isolate (USC-633) from the Sunshine Coast Region of Queensland, Australia, cultivated under a range of chemically defined and complex media to determine optimal parameters resulting in the secretion of diverse array of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties against various antibiotic resistant bacteria. Following extraction, fractioning and re-testing of active metabolites resulted in persistent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (Migula) (ATCC 13706) and subsequent Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis of the active fractions confirmed the induction of metabolites different than the ones in fractions which did not display activity against the same bacterial species...
March 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047422/mycoplasma-genitalium-infection-in-adults-reporting-sexual-contact-with-infected-partners-australia-2008-2016
#11
Josephine B Slifirski, Lenka A Vodstrcil, Christopher K Fairley, Jason J Ong, Eric P F Chow, Marcus Y Chen, Timothy R H Read, Catriona S Bradshaw
Data on the likelihood of Mycoplasma genitalium infection in sexual contacts, particularly for men who have sex with men (MSM), are needed to form an evidence base for guidelines. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of patients attending a sexual health clinic in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, during 2008-2016. We calculated the proportion of contacts with M. genitalium infection and determined factors associated with infection. Among those patients reporting sexual contact with an M. genitalium-infected person, 48...
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020364/antimicrobial-resistance-in-gram-negative-rods-causing-bacteremia-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-intercontinental-prospective-study-of-the-infectious-diseases-working-party-of-the-european-bone-marrow-transplantation-group
#12
Diana Averbuch, Gloria Tridello, Jennifer Hoek, Malgorzata Mikulska, Hamdi Akan, Lucrecia Yanez San Segundo, Thomas Pabst, Tülay Özçelik, Galina Klyasova, Irene Donnini, Depei Wu, Zafer Gülbas, Tsila Zuckerman, Aida Botelho de Sousa, Yves Beguin, Aliénor Xhaard, Emmanuel Bachy, Per Ljungman, Rafael de la Camara, Jelena Rascon, Isabel Ruiz Camps, Antonin Vitek, Francesca Patriarca, Laura Cudillo, Radovan Vrhovac, Peter J Shaw, Tom Wolfs, Tracey O'Brien, Batia Avni, Gerda Silling, Firas Al Sabty, Stelios Graphakos, Marja Sankelo, Henrik Sengeloev, Srinivas Pillai, Susanne Matthes, Frederiki Melanthiou, Simona Iacobelli, Jan Styczynski, Dan Engelhard, Simone Cesaro
Background: This intercontinental study aimed to study gram-negative rod (GNR) resistance in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods: GNR bacteremias occurring during 6 months post-HSCT (February 2014-May 2015) were prospectively collected, and analyzed for rates and risk factors for resistance to fluoroquinolones, noncarbapenem anti-Pseudomonas β-lactams (noncarbapenems), carbapenems, and multidrug resistance. Results: Sixty-five HSCT centers from 25 countries in Europe, Australia, and Asia reported data on 655 GNR episodes and 704 pathogens in 591 patients (Enterobacteriaceae, 73%; nonfermentative rods, 24%; and 3% others)...
November 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993143/ceftolozane-tazobactam-activity-against-drug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-causing-health-care-associated-infections-in-the-asia-pacific-region-apac-minus-china-australia-and-new-zealand-report-from-an-antimicrobial-surveillance-program
#13
M A Pfaller, D Shortridge, H S Sader, M Castanheira, R K Flamm
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the in vitro activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam and comparator agents tested against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from patients in the Asia-Pacific region (APAC) with health care associated infections (HAI). Ceftolozane-tazobactam is an antipseudomonal cephalosporin combined with a well-established β-lactamase inhibitor. METHODS: A total of 1,963 gram-negative organisms (489 P. aeruginosa and 1,474 Enterobacteriaceae) were consecutively collected using a prevalence-based approach from 14 medical centers in the APAC region...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969150/patient-demographic-and-clinician-factors-in-antibiotic-prescribing-for-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-australian-capital-territory-from-2006-2015
#14
Hannah Glenn, Justin Friedman, Alexander A Borecki, Camilla Bradshaw, Nicolas Grandjean-Thomsen, Harrison Pickup, Michelle Yue Yin, Catherine Jun, Mohamed E Abdel-Latif
INTRODUCTION: National antibiotic stewardship programs aim to mitigate rising antimicrobial resistance and associated healthcare costs by promoting safe and appropriate antibiotic prescribing. AIM: This study aimed to analyse patient and clinician demographic factors that may influence antibiotic prescribing for Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (URTIs). Trends in antibiotic prescribing patterns were also analysed over the study period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study analysed data from the Australian National University Medical School Clinical Audit Project database, comprising data collected by students during patient encounters over a two week period each April-May between 2006 and 2015 (excluding 2013)...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961759/shigella-species-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-the-implications-of-emerging-azithromycin-resistance-for-guiding-treatment-guidelines-and-breakpoints
#15
Jeremy D Brown, Simon J Willcox, Neil Franklin, Briony Hazelton, Peter Howard, Tracie Reinten, Vicky Sheppeard, Matthew O'Sullivan
Objectives: To examine antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and predictors of resistance among Shigella isolates in New South Wales (NSW), Australia during 2013-14 with emphasis on azithromycin. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of all shigellosis cases (160) notified to public health authorities in NSW, Australia was performed. Results: Among 160 Shigella isolates tested, 139 (86.9%) were susceptible to azithromycin, 104 (65.0%) to ciprofloxacin and 38 (23...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921905/antibiotic-resistant-escherichia-coli-in-southeastern-australian-pig-herds-and-implications-for-surveillance
#16
L K van Breda, O P Dhungyel, M P Ward
To investigate public health implications of antibiotics to control post-weaning scours, we surveyed 22 commercial pig herds in southeastern Australia. Fifty faecal samples per herd were collected from pre- and post-weaned piglets. Presumptive Escherichia coli isolates were confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS. Isolates (n = 325) were screened for susceptibility to 19 veterinary antibiotics using MIC broth microdilution. All 325 E. coli isolates underwent further testing against 27 antibiotics used in human medicine and were screened for ETEC adhesin and enterotoxin genes (F4 (K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P), F18, F41, STa, STb, Stx2e and LT) by multiplex PCR...
September 17, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901726/antimicrobial-stewardship-in-paediatric-oncology-impact-on-optimising-gentamicin-use-in-febrile-neutropenia
#17
Stefanie Hennig, Christine E Staatz, Daniel Natanek, Sabina Bialkowski, Carolina Consuelo Llanos Paez, Rachael Lawson, Julia Clark
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) intervention, involving introduction of new guidelines on the treatment of febrile neutropenia (FN), on improving the use of gentamicin in paediatric oncology patients. DESIGN AND INTERVENTION: Updated guidelines for gentamicin usage in paediatrics with FN were implemented at a tertiary children's teaching hospital, in Brisbane, Australia. Data on gentamicin usage before and after the guideline change were collected retrospectively from children with cancer admitted to hospital with FN between January 2012 and December 2013...
September 13, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820128/molecular-antimicrobial-resistance-surveillance-for-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-northern-territory-australia
#18
David M Whiley, Ella Trembizki, Cameron Buckley, Kevin Freeman, Robert W Baird, Miles Beaman, Marcus Chen, Basil Donovan, Ratan L Kundu, Christopher K Fairley, Rebecca Guy, Tiffany Hogan, John M Kaldor, Mahdad Karimi, Athena Limnios, David G Regan, Nathan Ryder, Jiunn-Yih Su, James Ward, Monica M Lahra
Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a globally recognized health threat; new strategies are needed to enhance AMR surveillance. The Northern Territory of Australia is unique in that 2 different first-line therapies, based primarily on geographic location, are used for gonorrhea treatment. We tested 1,629 N. gonorrhoeae nucleic acid amplification test-positive clinical samples, collected from regions where ceftriaxone plus azithromycin or amoxicillin plus azithromycin are recommended first-line treatments, by using 8 N...
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818900/genome-sequence-of-an-australian-monophasic-salmonella-enterica-subsp-enterica-typhimurium-isolate-tw-stm6-carrying-a-large-plasmid-with-multiple-antimicrobial-resistance-genes
#19
Mike L Dyall-Smith, Yuhong Liu, Helen Billman-Jacobe
We report the genome sequence of a monophasic Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium strain (TW-Stm6) isolated in Australia that is similar to epidemic multidrug-resistant strains from Europe and elsewhere. This strain carries additional antibiotic and heavy-metal resistance genes on a large (275-kb) IncHI2 plasmid.
August 17, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803587/the-rise-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-now-the-dominant-cause-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infection-in-central-australia
#20
E Macmorran, S Harch, E Athan, S Lane, S Tong, L Crawford, S Krishnaswamy, S Hewagama
This study aimed to examine the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of community-onset purulent staphylococcal skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in Central Australia. We performed a prospective observational study of patients hospitalised with community-onset purulent staphylococcal SSTI (n = 160). Indigenous patients accounted for 78% of cases. Patients were predominantly young adults; however, there were high rates of co-morbid disease. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) was the dominant phenotype, accounting for 60% of cases...
October 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
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