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Australia antimicrobial resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260537/characterisation-of-invasive-clinical-haemophilus-influenzae-isolates-in-queensland-australia-using-whole-genome-sequencing
#1
M Staples, R M A Graham, A V Jennison
Haemophilus influenzae is an important aetiological organism of both adult and child respiratory disease. The number of non-typeable (NTHi) invasive H. influenzae isolates referred to the Queensland (QLD) Public Health Microbiology laboratory has increased notably year-by-year. In this study we used whole-genome sequencing to molecularly characterise 100 referred invasive H. influenzae, including 74 NTHi isolates over a 15-year period, observing the carriage of capsular and putative virulence genes, including the major adhesins, antimicrobial resistance genes and population diversity...
March 6, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253995/policy-making-for-vaccine-use-as-a-driver-of-vaccine-innovation-and-development-in-the-developed-world
#2
REVIEW
Katherine Seib, Andrew J Pollard, Philippe de Wals, Ross M Andrews, Fangjun Zhou, Richard J Hatchett, Larry K Pickering, Walter A Orenstein
In the past 200years, vaccines have had unmistakable impacts on public health including declines in morbidity and mortality, most markedly in economically-developed countries. Highly engineered vaccines including vaccines for conditions other than infectious diseases are expected to dominate future vaccine development. We examine immunization vaccine policy as a driver of vaccine innovation and development. The pathways to recommendation for use of licensed vaccines in the US, UK, Canada and Australia have been similar, including: expert review of disease epidemiology, disease burden and severity; vaccine immunogenicity, efficacy and safety; programmatic feasibility; public demand; and increasingly cost-effectiveness...
March 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249570/survival-capabilities-of-escherichia-coli-o26-isolated-from-cattle-and-clinical-sources-in-australia-to-disinfectants-acids-and-antimicrobials
#3
Salma A Lajhar, Jeremy Brownlie, Robert Barlow
BACKGROUND: After E. coli O157, E. coli O26 is the second most prevalent enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) serotype identified in cases of foodborne illness in Australia and throughout the world. E. coli O26 associated foodborne outbreaks have drawn attention to the survival capabilities of this organism in a range of environments. The aim of the present study was to assess the ability of E. coli O26 to survive the effects of disinfectants, acids and antimicrobials and investigate the possible influence of virulence genes in survival and persistence of E...
March 1, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246426/antimicrobial-use-and-resistance-in-australia
#4
EDITORIAL
John Turnidge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Australian Prescriber
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100229/surveillance-of-life-long-antibiotics-a-review-of-antibiotic-prescribing-practices-in-an-australian-healthcare-network
#5
Jillian S Y Lau, Christopher Kiss, Erika Roberts, Kylie Horne, Tony M Korman, Ian Woolley
BACKGROUND: The rise of antimicrobial use in the twentieth century has significantly reduced morbidity due to infection, however it has also brought with it the rise of increasing resistance. Some patients are on prolonged, if not "life-long" course of antibiotics. The reasons for this are varied, and include non-infectious indications. We aimed to study the characteristics of this potential source of antibiotic resistance, by exploring the antibiotic dispensing practices and describing the population of patients on long-term antibiotic therapy...
January 18, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018320/single-molecule-sequencing-pacbio-of-the-staphylococcus-capitis-nrcs-a-clone-reveals-the-basis-of-multidrug-resistance-and-adaptation-to-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-environment
#6
Patrícia Martins Simões, Hajar Lemriss, Yann Dumont, Sanâa Lemriss, Jean-Philippe Rasigade, Sophie Assant-Trouillet, Azeddine Ibrahimi, Saâd El Kabbaj, Marine Butin, Frédéric Laurent
The multi-resistant Staphylococcus capitis clone NRCS-A has recently been described as a major pathogen causing nosocomial, late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm neonates worldwide. NRCS-A representatives exhibit an atypical antibiotic resistance profile. Here, the complete closed genome (chromosomal and plasmid sequences) of NRCS-A prototype strain CR01 and the draft genomes of three other clinical NRCS-A strains from Australia, Belgium and the United Kingdom are annotated and compared to available non-NRCS-A S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999043/changes-in-the-rates-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-antimicrobial-resistance-are-primarily-driven-by-dynamic-fluctuations-in-common-gonococcal-genotypes
#7
Monica M Lahra, Ella Trembizki, Cameron Buckley, Basil Donovan, Marcus Chen, Rebecca Guy, Ratan L Kundu, David G Regan, David M Whiley
OBJECTIVES: To examine how gonococcal genotypes and associated changes over time influence rates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: All available N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected in New South Wales, Australia in the first half of both 2012 and 2014 were genotyped using the Agena MassARRAY iPLEX platform. Genotypic data were compared with phenotypic antimicrobial resistance profiles over time. We focused on penicillin and ciprofloxacin as significant increases in resistance to both antibiotics were observed over this time period...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942539/nocardiosis-in-the-tropical-northern-territory-of-australia-1997-2014
#8
Sarah L McGuinness, Sarah E Whiting, Rob Baird, Bart J Currie, Anna P Ralph, Nicholas M Anstey, Ric N Price, Joshua S Davis, Steven Y C Tong
BACKGROUND: Nocardia is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause life-threatening disease. We aimed to characterize the epidemiological, microbiological, and clinical features of nocardiosis in the tropical north of Australia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of nocardiosis diagnosed between 1997 and 2014. Population-based incidences were calculated using district population data. RESULTS: Clinically significant nocardiosis was identified in 61 patients...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907102/an-investigation-into-the-etiological-agents-of-swine-dysentery-in-australian-pig-herds
#9
Tom La, Nyree D Phillips, David J Hampson
Swine dysentery (SD) is a mucohemorrhagic colitis, classically seen in grower/finisher pigs and caused by infection with the anaerobic intestinal spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. More recently, however, the newly described species Brachyspira hampsonii and Brachyspira suanatina have been identified as causing SD in North America and/or Europe. Furthermore, there have been occasions where strains of B. hyodysenteriae have been recovered from healthy pigs, including in multiplier herds with high health status...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866945/a-global-call-from-five-countries-to-collaborate-in-antibiotic-stewardship-united-we-succeed-divided-we-might-fail
#10
REVIEW
Debra A Goff, Ravina Kullar, Ellie J C Goldstein, Mark Gilchrist, Dilip Nathwani, Allen C Cheng, Kelly A Cairns, Kevin Escandón-Vargas, Maria Virginia Villegas, Adrian Brink, Dena van den Bergh, Marc Mendelson
In February, 2016, WHO released a report for the development of national action plans to address the threat of antibiotic resistance, the catastrophic consequences of inaction, and the need for antibiotic stewardship. Antibiotic stewardship combined with infection prevention comprises a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach to optimise use of antibiotics. Efforts to mitigate overuse will be unsustainable without learning and coordinating activities globally. In this Personal View, we provide examples of international collaborations to address optimal prescribing, focusing on five countries that have developed different approaches to antibiotic stewardship-the USA, South Africa, Colombia, Australia, and the UK...
February 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842872/first-detection-of-extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-and-fluoroquinolone-resistant-escherichia-coli-in-australian-food-producing-animals
#11
Sam Abraham, David Jordan, Hui S Wong, James R Johnson, Mark A Toleman, David L Wakeham, David M Gordon, John D Turnidge, Joanne L Mollinger, Justine S Gibson, Darren J Trott
This study aimed to define the frequency of resistance to critically important antimicrobials (CIAs) [i.e. extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), fluoroquinolones (FQs) and carbapenems] among Escherichia coli isolates causing clinical disease in Australian food-producing animals. Clinical E. coli isolates (n=324) from Australian food-producing animals [cattle (n=169), porcine (n=114), poultry (n=32) and sheep (n=9)] were compiled from all veterinary diagnostic laboratories across Australia over a 1-year period...
December 2015: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809728/does-lyme-disease-exist-in-australia
#12
Peter J Collignon, Gary D Lum, Jennifer Mb Robson
There is no convincing evidence that classic Lyme disease occurs in Australia, nor is there evidence that the causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, is found in Australian animals or ticks. Lyme disease, however, can be acquired overseas but diagnosed in Australia; most people presenting with laboratory-confirmed Lyme disease in Australia were infected in Europe. Despite the lack of evidence that Lyme disease can be acquired in Australia, growing numbers of patients, their supporters, and some politicians demand diagnoses and treatment according to the protocols of the "chronic Lyme disease" school of thought...
November 7, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804112/carriage-rate-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-coagulase-positive-staphylococci-isolated-from-healthy-dogs-in-victoria-australia
#13
D C Bean, S M Wigmore
BACKGROUND: Studies in Australia and elsewhere have shown high levels of antibiotic resistance in coagulase-positive staphylococci in dogs visiting veterinary clinics with pyoderma and related conditions. Although important, such studies tend to overestimate the burden of resistance. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of coagulase-positive staphylococci in healthy dogs in Central Victoria to assess the level of antibiotic resistance among these isolates. METHODS: We recruited 117 healthy dogs into the study...
December 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711250/five-year-antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-of-urinary-escherichia-coli-at-an-australian-tertiary-hospital-time-series-analyses-of-prevalence-data
#14
Oyebola Fasugba, Brett G Mitchell, George Mnatzaganian, Anindita Das, Peter Collignon, Anne Gardner
This study describes the antimicrobial resistance temporal trends and seasonal variation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) urinary tract infections (UTIs) over five years, from 2009 to 2013, and compares prevalence of resistance in hospital- and community-acquired E. coli UTI. A cross sectional study of E. coli UTIs from patients attending a tertiary referral hospital in Canberra, Australia was undertaken. Time series analysis was performed to illustrate resistance trends. Only the first positive E. coli UTI per patient per year was included in the analysis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707989/mixed-gonococcal-infections-in-a-high-risk-population-sydney-australia-2015-implications-for-antimicrobial-resistance-surveillance
#15
Namraj Goire, Ratan Kundu, Ella Trembizki, Cameron Buckley, Tiffany R Hogan, David A Lewis, James M Branley, David M Whiley, Monica M Lahra
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have shown that mixed-strain gonococcal infections can occur. However, it remains unclear whether such infections impact upon the reliability of Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance. In this study, we aimed to resolve this question by intensively sampling isolates from gonorrhoea-positive specimens in a high-risk population in Sydney, Australia. METHODS: A total of 615 N. gonorrhoeae isolates, originating from 63 clinical samples (31 rectal swabs and 32 throat swabs), were characterized...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686266/optimizing-antibiotic-usage-in-hospitals-a-qualitative-study-of-the-perspectives-of-hospital-managers
#16
A Broom, A F Gibson, J Broom, E Kirby, T Yarwood, J J Post
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic optimization in hospitals is an increasingly critical priority in the context of proliferating resistance. Despite the emphasis on doctors, optimizing antibiotic use within hospitals requires an understanding of how different stakeholders, including non-prescribers, influence practice and practice change. AIM: This study was designed to understand Australian hospital managers' perspectives on antimicrobial resistance, managing antibiotic governance, and negotiating clinical vis-à-vis managerial priorities...
November 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682063/the-molecular-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-in-australia-a-nationwide-cross-sectional-study-2012
#17
Ella Trembizki, Handan Wand, Basil Donovan, Marcus Chen, Christopher K Fairley, Kevin Freeman, Rebecca Guy, John M Kaldor, Monica M Lahra, Andrew Lawrence, Colleen Lau, Julie Pearson, David G Regan, Nathan Ryder, Helen Smith, Kerrie Stevens, Jiunn-Yih Su, James Ward, David M Whiley
BACKGROUND:  Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) by Neisseria gonorrhoeae is considered a serious global threat. METHODS:  In this nationwide study, we used MassARRAY iPLEX genotyping technology to examine the epidemiology of N. gonorrhoeae and associated AMR in the Australian population. All available N. gonorrhoeae isolates (n = 2452) received from Australian reference laboratories from January to June 2012 were included in the study. Genotypic data were combined with phenotypic AMR information to define strain types...
December 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679992/antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-of-recent-cuban-mycoplasma-genitalium-isolates-determined-by-a-modified-cell-culture-based-method
#18
Brian A Mondeja, Nadia M Rodríguez, Brenda Barroto, Orestes Blanco, Jørgen S Jensen
Isolation of Mycoplasma genitalium from clinical specimens remains difficult and few strains are available for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We describe the antimicrobial susceptibility of M. genitalium strains grown in Vero cell culture with first- and second- line antibiotics, using a modified cell-culture-based method. Macrolide- and -fluoroquinolone resistance determinants were detected by sequencing of the 23S and parC genes, respectively. Seven strains were examined, including three new, genetically distinct M...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677280/in-vitro-activity-of-tedizolid-against-staphylococcus-aureus-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-collected-in-2013-and-2014-from-sites-in-latin-american-countries-australia-new-zealand-and-china
#19
D J Biedenbach, S K Bouchillon, B Johnson, J Alder, D F Sahm
Tedizolid is an oxazolidinone with an antimicrobial in vitro potency advantage against Gram-positive bacterial pathogens compared to other currently marketed drugs in this class, including linezolid. Tedizolid was compared to linezolid when tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected from countries in Latin America and the Asia-Pacific. Isolates were tested by broth microdilution susceptibility methods against tedizolid, linezolid, and non-class comparators in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines...
December 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671081/phenotypic-and-genotypic-profiling-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-enteric-escherichia-coli-communities-isolated-from-finisher-pigs-in-australia
#20
M G Smith, D Jordan, J S Gibson, R N Cobbold, T A Chapman, S Abraham, D J Trott
OBJECTIVE: To assess herd-to-herd variation in antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and associated antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in faecal commensal Escherichia coli communities isolated from Australian slaughter-age pigs. METHODS: Hydrophobic grid-membrane filtration (HGMF) was used to screen populations of E. coli isolated from faecal samples obtained from pigs prior to or at slaughter. Multiplex PCRs were applied to the pooled DNA extracted from the samples to identify specific ARGs...
October 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
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