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Australia antimicrobial resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102120/antimicrobial-resistance-in-clinical-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-companion-animals-in-australia
#1
Sugiyono Saputra, David Jordan, Tahlia Mitchell, Hui San Wong, Rebecca J Abraham, Amanda Kidsley, John Turnidge, Darren J Trott, Sam Abraham
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli have become a major public health concern to both humans and animal health. While the frequency of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in clinical E. coli is monitored regularly in human medicine, current frequency of AMR in companion animals remains unknown in Australia. In this study we conducted antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) and where possible, determined potential risk factors for MDR infection among 883 clinical Escherichia coli isolated from dogs (n=514), cats (n=341) and horses (n=28)...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101246/evaluation-of-the-mycoplasma-genitalium-resistance-plus-kit-for-the-detection-of-m-genitalium-and-mutations-associated-with-macrolide-resistance
#2
Rachel Pitt, Michelle Jayne Cole, Helen Fifer, Neil Woodford
OBJECTIVES: To compare performance of the ResistancePlus kit (SpeeDx, Australia) with in-house methods for the detection of Mycoplasma genitalium-specific DNA and mutations associated with resistance to macrolide antimicrobials, directly from clinical specimens. METHODS: Assay specificity and sensitivity was analysed using DNA from 46 non-M. genitalium organisms and standard curve analysis, respectively. A panel of archived DNA extracted from 97 M. genitalium-positive clinical specimens, for which the macrolide susceptibility genotype had been previously determined, were tested on the assay and results compared...
November 3, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062959/evaluation-of-fermentation-conditions-triggering-increased-antibacterial-activity-from-a-near-shore-marine-intertidal-environment-associated-streptomyces-species
#3
A L English, A Boufridi, R J Quinn, D I Kurtböke
A near-shore marine intertidal environment-associated Streptomyces isolate (USC-633) from the Sunshine Coast Region of Queensland, Australia, cultivated under a range of chemically defined and complex media to determine optimal parameters resulting in the secretion of diverse array of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties against various antibiotic resistant bacteria. Following extraction, fractioning and re-testing of active metabolites resulted in persistent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (Migula) (ATCC 13706) and subsequent Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis of the active fractions confirmed the induction of metabolites different than the ones in fractions which did not display activity against the same bacterial species...
March 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047422/mycoplasma-genitalium-infection-in-adults-reporting-sexual-contact-with-infected-partners-australia-2008-2016
#4
Josephine B Slifirski, Lenka A Vodstrcil, Christopher K Fairley, Jason J Ong, Eric P F Chow, Marcus Y Chen, Timothy R H Read, Catriona S Bradshaw
Data on the likelihood of Mycoplasma genitalium infection in sexual contacts, particularly for men who have sex with men (MSM), are needed to form an evidence base for guidelines. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of patients attending a sexual health clinic in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, during 2008-2016. We calculated the proportion of contacts with M. genitalium infection and determined factors associated with infection. Among those patients reporting sexual contact with an M. genitalium-infected person, 48...
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020364/antimicrobial-resistance-in-gram-negative-rods-causing-bacteremia-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-patients-intercontinental-prospective-study-of-infectious-diseases-working-party-of-the-european-bone-marrow-transplantation-group
#5
Diana Averbuch, Gloria Tridello, Jennifer Hoek, Malgorzata Mikulska, Hamdi Akan, Lucrecia Yanez San Segundo, Thomas Pabst, Tülay Özçelik, Galina Klyasova, Irene Donnini, Depei Wu, Zafer Gülbas, Tsila Zuckerman, Aida Botelho de Sousa, Yves Beguin, Aliénor Xhaard, Emmanuel Bachy, Per Ljungman, Rafael de la Camara, Jelena Rascon, Isabel Ruiz Camps, Antonin Vitek, Francesca Patriarca, Laura Cudillo, Radovan Vrhovac, Peter J Shaw, Tom Wolfs, Tracey O'Brien, Batia Avni, Gerda Silling, Firas Al Sabty, Stelios Graphakos, Marja Sankelo, Henrik Sengeloev, Srinivas Pillai, Susanne Matthes, Frederiki Melanthiou, Simona Iacobelli, Jan Styczynski, Dan Engelhard, Simone Cesaro
Background: This intercontinental study aimed to study Gram-negative rods (GNR) resistance in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods: GNR bacteremias occurring during six months post-HSCT (February/2014-May/2015) were prospectively collected, and analysed for rates and risk factors for resistance to fluoroquinolones, non-carbapenem anti-Pseudomonas beta-lactams (non-carbapenems), carbapenems and multidrug-resistance (MDR). Results: Sixty-five HSCT centers from 25 countries (Europe, Australia, Asia) reported data on 655 GNR episodes/704 pathogens in 591 patients (Enterobacteriaceae, 73%; non-fermentatives, 24% and 3% others)...
July 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993143/ceftolozane-tazobactam-activity-against-drug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-causing-health-care-associated-infections-in-the-asia-pacific-region-apac-minus-china-australia-and-new-zealand-report-from-an-antimicrobial-surveillance-program
#6
M A Pfaller, D Shortridge, H S Sader, M Castanheira, R K Flamm
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the in vitro activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam and comparator agents tested against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from patients in the Asia-Pacific region (APAC) with health care associated infections (HAI). Ceftolozane-tazobactam is an antipseudomonal cephalosporin combined with a well-established β-lactamase inhibitor. METHODS: A total of 1,963 gram-negative organisms (489 P. aeruginosa and 1,474 Enterobacteriaceae) were consecutively collected using a prevalence-based approach from 14 medical centers in the APAC region...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969150/patient-demographic-and-clinician-factors-in-antibiotic-prescribing-for-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-australian-capital-territory-from-2006-2015
#7
Hannah Glenn, Justin Friedman, Alexander A Borecki, Camilla Bradshaw, Nicolas Grandjean-Thomsen, Harrison Pickup, Michelle Yue Yin, Catherine Jun, Mohamed E Abdel-Latif
INTRODUCTION: National antibiotic stewardship programs aim to mitigate rising antimicrobial resistance and associated healthcare costs by promoting safe and appropriate antibiotic prescribing. AIM: This study aimed to analyse patient and clinician demographic factors that may influence antibiotic prescribing for Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (URTIs). Trends in antibiotic prescribing patterns were also analysed over the study period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study analysed data from the Australian National University Medical School Clinical Audit Project database, comprising data collected by students during patient encounters over a two week period each April-May between 2006 and 2015 (excluding 2013)...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961759/shigella-species-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-the-implications-of-emerging-azithromycin-resistance-for-guiding-treatment-guidelines-and-breakpoints
#8
Jeremy D Brown, Simon J Willcox, Neil Franklin, Briony Hazelton, Peter Howard, Tracie Reinten, Vicky Sheppeard, Matthew O'Sullivan
Objectives: To examine antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and predictors of resistance among Shigella isolates in New South Wales (NSW), Australia during 2013-14 with emphasis on azithromycin. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of all shigellosis cases (160) notified to public health authorities in NSW, Australia was performed. Results: Among 160 Shigella isolates tested, 139 (86.9%) were susceptible to azithromycin, 104 (65.0%) to ciprofloxacin and 38 (23...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921905/antibiotic-resistant-escherichia-coli-in-southeastern-australian-pig-herds-and-implications-for-surveillance
#9
L K van Breda, O P Dhungyel, M P Ward
To investigate public health implications of antibiotics to control post-weaning scours, we surveyed 22 commercial pig herds in southeastern Australia. Fifty faecal samples per herd were collected from pre- and post-weaned piglets. Presumptive Escherichia coli isolates were confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS. Isolates (n = 325) were screened for susceptibility to 19 veterinary antibiotics using MIC broth microdilution. All 325 E. coli isolates underwent further testing against 27 antibiotics used in human medicine and were screened for ETEC adhesin and enterotoxin genes (F4 (K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P), F18, F41, STa, STb, Stx2e and LT) by multiplex PCR...
September 17, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901726/antimicrobial-stewardship-in-paediatric-oncology-impact-on-optimising-gentamicin-use-in-febrile-neutropenia
#10
Stefanie Hennig, Christine E Staatz, Daniel Natanek, Sabina Bialkowski, Carolina Consuelo Llanos Paez, Rachael Lawson, Julia Clark
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) intervention, involving introduction of new guidelines on the treatment of febrile neutropenia (FN), on improving the use of gentamicin in paediatric oncology patients. DESIGN AND INTERVENTION: Updated guidelines for gentamicin usage in paediatrics with FN were implemented at a tertiary children's teaching hospital, in Brisbane, Australia. Data on gentamicin usage before and after the guideline change were collected retrospectively from children with cancer admitted to hospital with FN between January 2012 and December 2013...
September 13, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820128/molecular-antimicrobial-resistance-surveillance-for-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-northern-territory-australia
#11
David M Whiley, Ella Trembizki, Cameron Buckley, Kevin Freeman, Robert W Baird, Miles Beaman, Marcus Chen, Basil Donovan, Ratan L Kundu, Christopher K Fairley, Rebecca Guy, Tiffany Hogan, John M Kaldor, Mahdad Karimi, Athena Limnios, David G Regan, Nathan Ryder, Jiunn-Yih Su, James Ward, Monica M Lahra
Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a globally recognized health threat; new strategies are needed to enhance AMR surveillance. The Northern Territory of Australia is unique in that 2 different first-line therapies, based primarily on geographic location, are used for gonorrhea treatment. We tested 1,629 N. gonorrhoeae nucleic acid amplification test-positive clinical samples, collected from regions where ceftriaxone plus azithromycin or amoxicillin plus azithromycin are recommended first-line treatments, by using 8 N...
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818900/genome-sequence-of-an-australian-monophasic-salmonella-enterica-subsp-enterica-typhimurium-isolate-tw-stm6-carrying-a-large-plasmid-with-multiple-antimicrobial-resistance-genes
#12
Mike L Dyall-Smith, Yuhong Liu, Helen Billman-Jacobe
We report the genome sequence of a monophasic Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium strain (TW-Stm6) isolated in Australia that is similar to epidemic multidrug-resistant strains from Europe and elsewhere. This strain carries additional antibiotic and heavy-metal resistance genes on a large (275-kb) IncHI2 plasmid.
August 17, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803587/the-rise-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-now-the-dominant-cause-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infection-in-central-australia
#13
E Macmorran, S Harch, E Athan, S Lane, S Tong, L Crawford, S Krishnaswamy, S Hewagama
This study aimed to examine the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of community-onset purulent staphylococcal skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in Central Australia. We performed a prospective observational study of patients hospitalised with community-onset purulent staphylococcal SSTI (n = 160). Indigenous patients accounted for 78% of cases. Patients were predominantly young adults; however, there were high rates of co-morbid disease. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) was the dominant phenotype, accounting for 60% of cases...
October 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771549/antimicrobial-knowledge-and-confidence-amongst-final-year-medical-students-in-australia
#14
Naomi Weier, Karin Thursky, Syed Tabish R Zaidi
INTRODUCTION: Inappropriate use of antimicrobials is one of the major modifiable contributors to antimicrobial resistance. There is currently no validated survey tool available to assess knowledge and confidence of medical students in infectious diseases (ID) compared to other diseases states, and little is known about this topic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of final year medical students attending universities around Australia was conducted between August and September, 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748178/community-based-prescribing-for-impetigo-in-remote-australia-an-opportunity-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#15
Stefanie Jane Oliver, James Cush, Jeanette E Ward
BACKGROUND: To support antibiotic prescribing for both hospital and community-based health professionals working in remote North Western Australia, a multidisciplinary Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) Committee was established in 2013. This Committee is usually focused on hospital-based prescribing. A troubling increase in sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim resistance in Staphylococcus aureus antibiograms from 9 to 18% over 1 year prompted a shift in gaze to community prescribing. WHAT WE DID: Finding a paucity of relevant research, we first investigated contextual factors influencing local prescribing...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735046/ceftolozane-tazobactam-activity-against-drug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-causing-healthcare-associated-infections-in-australia-and-new-zealand-report-from-an-antimicrobial-surveillance-program-2013-2015
#16
M A Pfaller, D Shortridge, H S Sader, R K Flamm, M Castanheira
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the in vitro activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam and comparator agents tested against isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients in Australia and New Zealand with healthcare-associated infection. METHODS: A total of 1459 gram-negative organisms (440 P. aeruginosa and 1019 Enterobacteriaceae) were consecutively collected from 11 medical centers located in Australia and New Zealand. The organisms were tested for susceptibility by broth microdilution methods as described by the CLSI M07-A10 document and the results interpreted according to EUCAST and CLSI breakpoint criteria...
September 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711585/global-outbreak-of-severe-mycobacterium-chimaera-disease-after-cardiac-surgery-a-molecular-epidemiological-study
#17
Jakko van Ingen, Thomas A Kohl, Katharina Kranzer, Barbara Hasse, Peter M Keller, Anna Katarzyna Szafrańska, Doris Hillemann, Meera Chand, Peter Werner Schreiber, Rami Sommerstein, Christoph Berger, Michele Genoni, Christian Rüegg, Nicolas Troillet, Andreas F Widmer, Sören L Becker, Mathias Herrmann, Tim Eckmanns, Sebastian Haller, Christiane Höller, Sylvia B Debast, Maurice J Wolfhagen, Joost Hopman, Jan Kluytmans, Merel Langelaar, Daan W Notermans, Jaap Ten Oever, Peter van den Barselaar, Alexander B A Vonk, Margreet C Vos, Nada Ahmed, Timothy Brown, Derrick Crook, Theresa Lamagni, Nick Phin, E Grace Smith, Maria Zambon, Annerose Serr, Tim Götting, Winfried Ebner, Alexander Thürmer, Christian Utpatel, Cathrin Spröer, Boyke Bunk, Ulrich Nübel, Guido V Bloemberg, Erik C Böttger, Stefan Niemann, Dirk Wagner, Hugo Sax
BACKGROUND: Since 2013, over 100 cases of Mycobacterium chimaera prosthetic valve endocarditis and disseminated disease were notified in Europe and the USA, linked to contaminated heater-cooler units (HCUs) used during cardiac surgery. We did a molecular epidemiological investigation to establish the source of these patients' disease. METHODS: We included 24 M chimaera isolates from 21 cardiac surgery-related patients in Switzerland, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK, 218 M chimaera isolates from various types of HCUs in hospitals, from LivaNova (formerly Sorin; London, UK) and Maquet (Rastatt, Germany) brand HCU production sites, and unrelated environmental sources and patients, as well as eight Mycobacterium intracellulare isolates...
October 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659133/a-multicentre-double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial-evaluating-the-efficacy-of-daily-use-of-antibacterial-mouthwash-against-oropharyngeal-gonorrhoea-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-the-omega-oral-mouthwash-use-to-eradicate-gonorrhoea-study-protocol
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Eric P F Chow, Sandra Walker, Jane S Hocking, Catriona S Bradshaw, Marcus Y Chen, Sepehr N Tabrizi, Benjamin P Howden, Matthew G Law, Kate Maddaford, Tim R H Read, David A Lewis, David M Whiley, Lei Zhang, Andrew E Grulich, John M Kaldor, Vincent J Cornelisse, Samuel Phillips, Basil Donovan, Anna M McNulty, David J Templeton, Norman Roth, Richard Moore, Christopher K Fairley
BACKGROUND: Gonorrhoea is one of the most common sexually transmissible infections in men who have sex with men (MSM). Gonorrhoea rates have increased substantially in recent years. There is concern that increasing gonorrhoea prevalence will increase the likelihood of worsening antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. A recent randomised controlled trial (RCT) demonstrated that a single-dose of mouthwash has an inhibitory effect against oropharyngeal gonorrhoea. We are conducting the first RCT to evaluate whether daily use of mouthwash could reduce the risk of acquiring oropharyngeal gonorrhoea...
June 28, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637576/antimicrobial-use-and-resistance-in-australia-aura-surveillance-system-coordinating-national-data-on-antimicrobial-use-and-resistance-for-australia
#19
John D Turnidge, Kathy T Meleady
Objective The aim of the present study was to describe the process of establishment and coordination of the national Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Australia (AURA) surveillance system.Methods Existing surveillance programs conducted by health organisations at state or multi-jurisdictional levels were reviewed, and gaps and opportunities identified for the development of a national system. In view of the time frame available as part of the Australian Government Department of Health funding agreement, the strategy used by the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care was to commence work with existing surveillance programs, expanding and enhancing them and developing new systems where gaps were identified...
June 22, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598251/molecular-characterization-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-australian-animals-and-veterinarians
#20
Kate A Worthing, Sam Abraham, Stanley Pang, Geoffrey W Coombs, Sugiyono Saputra, David Jordan, Hui S Wong, Rebecca J Abraham, Darren J Trott, Jacqueline M Norris
This study aimed to determine the frequency and molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Australian animals and whether animal-derived MRSA was similar to that from Australian veterinarians. A total of 1,080 clinical coagulase positive Staphylococcus isolates from Australian animals were collected during 2013. Sixteen (4%) of 360 S. aureus isolates were MRSA. Most MRSA came from companion animals, while none came from livestock. MRSA isolates were characterized using whole genome sequencing...
June 9, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
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