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Australia antimicrobial resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761047/a-survey-of-the-views-and-capabilities-of-community-pharmacists-in-western-australia-regarding-the-rescheduling-of-selected-oral-antibiotics-in-a-framework-of-pharmacist-prescribing
#1
Fatima Sinkala, Richard Parsons, Bruce Sunderland, Kreshnik Hoti, Petra Czarniak
Background: Antibiotic misuse in the community contributes to antimicrobial resistance. One way to address this may be by better utilizing community pharmacists' skills in antibiotic prescribing. The aims of this study were to examine the level of support for "down-scheduling" selected antibiotics and to evaluate factors determining the appropriateness of community pharmacist prescribing for a limited range of infections, including their decision to refer to a doctor. Methods: Self-administered questionnaires, including graded case vignette scenarios simulating real practice, were sent to Western Australian community pharmacists...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739319/characterization-of-biofilm-forming-capacity-and-resistance-to-sanitizers-of-a-range-of-e-coli-o26-pathotypes-from-clinical-cases-and-cattle-in-australia
#2
Salma A Lajhar, Jeremy Brownlie, Robert Barlow
BACKGROUND: The formation of biofilms and subsequent encasement of bacterial cells in a complex matrix can enhance resistance to antimicrobials and sterilizing agents making these organisms difficult to eradicate and control. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the capacity of 40 E. coli O26 isolates of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC, n = 27), potential EHEC (pEHEC, n = 3), atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC, n = 8) and non-toxigenic E. coli (NTEC, n = 2) from human and cattle sources to form biofilms on different surfaces, and determine whether extracellular matrix (ECM) components (cellulose, curli), motility, prophage insertion in mlrA and cell surface hydrophobicity could influence biofilm formation...
May 8, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691860/outbreaks-of-diarrhoea-winter-scours-in-weaned-merino-sheep-in-south-eastern-australia
#3
K J Stanger, H McGregor, Jwa Larsen
OBJECTIVE: Identify the cause of outbreaks of diarrhoea during winter that are not attributable to gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned Merino sheep in the high rainfall regions of south-eastern Australia and determine the efficacy of antimicrobials used to treat this syndrome. METHODS: We investigated 45 outbreaks on 24 farms. Faecal samples from affected animals were cultured for Yersinia, Campylobacter and Salmonella spp. Risk factors, including rainfall, temperature and worm egg count (WEC), were assessed...
May 2018: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691852/antimicrobial-labelling-in-australia-a-threat-to-antimicrobial-stewardship
#4
L Y Hardefeldt, J R Gilkerson, H Billman-Jacobe, M A Stevenson, K Thursky, G F Browning, K E Bailey
Antimicrobial resistance is a public health emergency, placing veterinary antimicrobial use under growing scrutiny. Antimicrobial stewardship, through appropriate use of antimicrobials, is a response to this threat. The need for antimicrobial stewardship in Australian veterinary practices has had limited investigation. A 2016 survey undertaken to investigate antimicrobial usage patterns by Australian veterinarians found that antimicrobial dose rates were varied and often inappropriate. Doses of procaine penicillin in horses and cattle were often low, with 68% and 90% of respondents, respectively, reporting doses that were unlikely to result in plasma concentrations above minimum inhibitory concentrations for common equine and bovine pathogens...
May 2018: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614373/pcr-screening-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-faecal-samples-from-australian-and-chinese-children
#5
Joshua T Ravensdale, Darren Ten Wei Xian, Chooi Ming Wei, Quanjun Lv, Xiajian Wen, Jing Guo, Ranil Coorey, Peter LeSouëf, Fengmin Lu, Brad Zhang, Gary A Dykes
OBJECTIVES: Recent public awareness campaigns on the risk of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic microbes has placed pressure on governments to enforce stricter antimicrobial stewardship policies on the hospital and agricultural industry. This study aimed to screen faecal samples from Australian and Chinese children for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes to identify demographics at risk of carriage of these genes and examine antimicrobial stewardship policies from the two countries which may influence carriage...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588851/vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-sequence-type-796-rapid-international-dissemination-of-a-new-epidemic-clone
#6
Andrew A Mahony, Andrew H Buultjens, Susan A Ballard, Elizabeth A Grabsch, Shirley Xie, Torsten Seemann, Rhonda L Stuart, Despina Kotsanas, Allen Cheng, Helen Heffernan, Sally A Roberts, Geoffrey W Coombs, Narin Bak, John K Ferguson, Glen C Carter, Benjamin P Howden, Timothy P Stinear, Paul D R Johnson
Background: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. New, presumably better-adapted strains of VRE appear unpredictably; it is uncertain how they spread despite improved infection control. We aimed to investigate the relatedness of a novel sequence type (ST) of vanB E. faecium - ST796 - very near its time of origin from hospitals in three Australian states and New Zealand. Methods: Following near-simultaneous outbreaks of ST796 in multiple institutions, we gathered then tested colonization and bloodstream infection isolates' antimicrobial resistance (AMR) phenotypes, and phylogenomic relationships using whole genome sequencing (WGS)...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579259/high-rates-of-prescribing-antimicrobials-for-prophylaxis-in-children-and-neonates-results-from-the-antibiotic-resistance-and-prescribing-in-european-children-point-prevalence-survey
#7
Markus Hufnagel, Ann Versporten, Julia Bielicki, Nico Drapier, Mike Sharland, Herman Goossens
Background: This study was conducted to assess the variation in prescription practices for systemic antimicrobial agents used for prophylaxis among pediatric patients hospitalized in 41 countries worldwide. Methods: Using the standardized Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children Point Prevalence Survey protocol, a cross-sectional point-prevalence survey was conducted at 226 pediatric hospitals in 41 countries from October 1 to November 30, 2012...
March 22, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577253/antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-by-australian-veterinary-diagnostic-laboratories
#8
L Y Hardefeldt, M Marenda, H Crabb, M A Stevenson, J R Gilkerson, H Billman-Jacobe, G F Browning
BACKGROUND: The national strategy for tackling antimicrobial resistance highlights the need for antimicrobial stewardship in veterinary practice and for surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility in veterinary pathogens. Diagnostic laboratories have an important role in facilitating both of these processes, but it is unclear whether data from veterinary diagnostic laboratories are similar enough to allow for compilation and if there is consistent promotion of appropriate antimicrobial use embedded in the approaches of different laboratories to susceptibility testing...
April 2018: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573053/barriers-to-and-enablers-of-implementing-antimicrobial-stewardship-programs-in-veterinary-practices
#9
Laura Y Hardefeldt, J R Gilkerson, H Billman-Jacobe, M A Stevenson, K Thursky, K E Bailey, G F Browning
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs are yet to be widely implemented in veterinary practice and medical programs are unlikely to be directly applicable to veterinary settings. OBJECTIVE: To gain an in-depth understanding of the factors that influence effective AMS in veterinary practices in Australia. METHODS: A concurrent explanatory mixed methods design was used. The quantitative phase of the study consisted of an online questionnaire to assess veterinarians' attitudes to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and antimicrobial use in animals, and the extent to which AMS currently is implemented (knowingly or unknowingly)...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553335/cooperative-recognition-of-internationally-disseminated-ceftriaxone-resistant-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-strain
#10
Monica M Lahra, Irene Martin, Walter Demczuk, Amy V Jennison, Ken-Ichi Lee, Shu-Ichi Nakayama, Brigitte Lefebvre, Jean Longtin, Alison Ward, Michael R Mulvey, Teodora Wi, Makoto Ohnishi, David Whiley
Ceftriaxone remains a first-line treatment for patients infected by Neisseria gonorrhoeae in most settings. We investigated the possible spread of a ceftriaxone-resistant FC428 N. gonorrhoeae clone in Japan after recent isolation of similar strains in Denmark (GK124) and Canada (47707). We report 2 instances of the FC428 clone in Australia in heterosexual men traveling from Asia. Our bioinformatic analyses included core single-nucleotide variation phylogeny and in silico molecular typing; phylogenetic analysis showed close genetic relatedness among all 5 isolates...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482499/genomic-epidemiology-and-population-structure-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-from-remote-highly-endemic-western-australian-populations
#11
Barakat A Al Suwayyid, Geoffrey W Coombs, David J Speers, Julie Pearson, Michael J Wise, Charlene M Kahler
BACKGROUND: Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes gonorrhoea, the second most commonly notified sexually transmitted infection in Australia. One of the highest notification rates of gonorrhoea is found in the remote regions of Western Australia (WA). Unlike isolates from the major Australian population centres, the remote community isolates have low rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Population structure and whole-genome comparison of 59 isolates from the Western Australian N. gonorrhoeae collection were used to investigate relatedness of isolates cultured in the metropolitan and remote areas...
February 27, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425131/phenotypic-and-genotypic-analysis-of-antimicrobial-resistance-among-listeria-monocytogenes-isolated-from-australian-food-production-chains
#12
Annaleise Wilson, Jessica Gray, P Scott Chandry, Edward M Fox
The current global crisis of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among important human bacterial pathogens has been amplified by an increased resistance prevalence. In recent years, a number of studies have reported higher resistance levels among Listeria monocytogenes isolates, which may have implications for treatment of listeriosis infection where resistance to key treatment antimicrobials is noted. This study examined the genotypic and phenotypic AMR patterns of 100 L. monocytogenes isolates originating from food production supplies in Australia and examined this in the context of global population trends...
February 9, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340600/development-and-impact-of-a-massive-open-online-course-mooc-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#13
Jacqueline Sneddon, Gavin Barlow, Sally Bradley, Adrian Brink, Sujith J Chandy, Dilip Nathwani
Background: The University of Dundee and the BSAC developed a massive open online course (MOOC) to address the global need for education to support antimicrobial stewardship in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: An interactive course, Antimicrobial Stewardship: Managing Antibiotic Resistance, was developed and delivered via the FutureLearn© platform. The course ran over four 6 week periods during 2015 and 2016 supported by educators and was evaluated via data on uptake and feedback from learners on impact on clinical practice...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338017/comparative-genomics-identifies-distinct-lineages-of-s-enteritidis-from-queensland-australia
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Rikki M A Graham, Lester Hiley, Irani U Rathnayake, Amy V Jennison
Salmonella enterica is a major cause of gastroenteritis and foodborne illness in Australia where notification rates in the state of Queensland are the highest in the country. S. Enteritidis is among the five most common serotypes reported in Queensland and it is a priority for epidemiological surveillance due to concerns regarding its emergence in Australia. Using whole genome sequencing, we have analysed the genomic epidemiology of 217 S. Enteritidis isolates from Queensland, and observed that they fall into three distinct clades, which we have differentiated as Clades A, B and C...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332434/relationship-between-antimicrobial-resistance-programs-and-antibiotic-dispensing-for-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-an-analysis-of-australian-data-between-2004-and-2015
#15
Jianyun Wu, Daniel Taylor, Ludmila Ovchinikova, Aine Heaney, Tessa Morgan, Jonathan Dartnell, Rachel Holbrook, Lauren Humphreys, Lynn Weekes, Suzanne Blogg
Objective NPS MedicineWise aims to ensure that medicines are prescribed and used in a manner consistent with current evidence-based best practice. A series of nationwide educational and advertising interventions for general practitioners and consumers were implemented in Australia between 2009 and 2015 with the aim of reducing antibiotic prescriptions for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). The work described in this paper quantifies the change in antibiotic dispensing following these interventions...
April 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306352/porcine-commensal-escherichia-coli-a-reservoir-for-class-1-integrons-associated-with-is26
#16
Cameron J Reid, Ethan R Wyrsch, Piklu Roy Chowdhury, Tiziana Zingali, Michael Liu, Aaron E Darling, Toni A Chapman, Steven P Djordjevic
Porcine faecal waste is a serious environmental pollutant. Carriage of antimicrobial-resistance genes (ARGs) and virulence-associated genes (VAGs), and the zoonotic potential of commensal Escherichia coli from swine are largely unknown. Furthermore, little is known about the role of commensal E. coli as contributors to the mobilization of ARGs between food animals and the environment. Here, we report whole-genome sequence analysis of 103 class 1 integron-positive E. coli from the faeces of healthy pigs from two commercial production facilities in New South Wales, Australia...
December 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281972/mycoplasma-genitalium-whole-genome-sequence-analysis-recombination-and-population-structure
#17
Maria C Fookes, James Hadfield, Simon Harris, Surendra Parmar, Magnus Unemo, Jørgen S Jensen, Nicholas R Thomson
BACKGROUND: Although Mycoplasma genitalium is a common sexually transmitted pathogen causing clinically distinct diseases both in male and females, few genomes have been sequenced up to now, due mainly to its fastidious nature and slow growth. Hence, we lack a robust phylogenetic framework to provide insights into the population structure of the species. Currently our understanding of the nature and diversity of M. genitalium relies on molecular tests targeting specific genes or regions of the genome and knowledge is limited by a general under-testing internationally...
December 28, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277727/antimicrobial-resistance-in-urine-and-skin-isolates-in-timor-leste
#18
Ian Marr, Nevio Sarmento, Matt O'Brien, Karl Lee, Celia Gusmao, Gloria de Castro, Sonja Janson, Steven Y C Tong, Rob W Baird, Joshua R Francis
OBJECTIVES: High rates of antimicrobial resistance are seen throughout Southeast Asia. Limited antimicrobial resistance data exists for Timor-Leste, which is situated on the south-eastern portion of the Malay Archipelago. The purpose of this study was to identify antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from urine and skin swabs from patients in Dili, Timor-Leste. METHODS: Urine and skin swabs were collected from symptomatic patients and processed for bacterial culture in Timor-Leste...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180525/increasing-antimicrobial-resistance-in-nontyphoidal-salmonella-isolates-in-australia-from-1979-to-2015
#19
Deborah A Williamson, Courtney R Lane, Marion Easton, Mary Valcanis, Janet Strachan, Mark G Veitch, Martyn D Kirk, Benjamin P Howden
Australia has high and increasing rates of salmonellosis. To date, the serovar distribution and associated antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns of nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) in Australia have not been assessed. Such information provides critical knowledge about AMR in the food chain and informs decisions about public health. We reviewed longitudinal data on NTS in two Australian states over a 37-year period, between 1979 and 2015, and antimicrobial resistance since 1984. Overall, 17% of isolates were nonsusceptible to at least one antimicrobial, 4...
February 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102120/antimicrobial-resistance-in-clinical-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-companion-animals-in-australia
#20
Sugiyono Saputra, David Jordan, Tahlia Mitchell, Hui San Wong, Rebecca J Abraham, Amanda Kidsley, John Turnidge, Darren J Trott, Sam Abraham
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli have become a major public health concern to both humans and animal health. While the frequency of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in clinical E. coli is monitored regularly in human medicine, current frequency of AMR in companion animals remains unknown in Australia. In this study we conducted antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) and where possible, determined potential risk factors for MDR infection among 883 clinical Escherichia coli isolated from dogs (n=514), cats (n=341) and horses (n=28)...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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