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Australia antimicrobial resistance

Oyebola Fasugba, Brett G Mitchell, George Mnatzaganian, Anindita Das, Peter Collignon, Anne Gardner
This study describes the antimicrobial resistance temporal trends and seasonal variation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) urinary tract infections (UTIs) over five years, from 2009 to 2013, and compares prevalence of resistance in hospital- and community-acquired E. coli UTI. A cross sectional study of E. coli UTIs from patients attending a tertiary referral hospital in Canberra, Australia was undertaken. Time series analysis was performed to illustrate resistance trends. Only the first positive E. coli UTI per patient per year was included in the analysis...
2016: PloS One
Namraj Goire, Ratan Kundu, Ella Trembizki, Cameron Buckley, Tiffany R Hogan, David A Lewis, James M Branley, David M Whiley, Monica M Lahra
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have shown that mixed-strain gonococcal infections can occur. However, it remains unclear whether such infections impact upon the reliability of Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance. In this study, we aimed to resolve this question by intensively sampling isolates from gonorrhoea-positive specimens in a high-risk population in Sydney, Australia. METHODS: A total of 615 N. gonorrhoeae isolates, originating from 63 clinical samples (31 rectal swabs and 32 throat swabs), were characterized...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
A Broom, A F Gibson, J Broom, E Kirby, T Yarwood, J J Post
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic optimization in hospitals is an increasingly critical priority in the context of proliferating resistance. Despite the emphasis on doctors, optimizing antibiotic use within hospitals requires an understanding of how different stakeholders, including non-prescribers, influence practice and practice change. AIM: This study was designed to understand Australian hospital managers' perspectives on antimicrobial resistance, managing antibiotic governance, and negotiating clinical vis-à-vis managerial priorities...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Ella Trembizki, Handan Wand, Basil Donovan, Marcus Chen, Christopher K Fairley, Kevin Freeman, Rebecca Guy, John M Kaldor, Monica M Lahra, Andrew Lawrence, Colleen Lau, Julie Pearson, David G Regan, Nathan Ryder, Helen Smith, Kerrie Stevens, Jiunn-Yih Su, James Ward, David M Whiley
BACKGROUND:  Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) by Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) is considered a serious global threat. METHODS:  In this nationwide study, we used MassARRAY iPLEX genotyping technology to examine the epidemiology of NG and associated AMR in the Australian population. All available NG isolates (n=2,452) received from Australian reference laboratories from January to June 2012 were included in the study. Genotypic data were combined with phenotypic AMR information to define strain-types...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Brian A Mondeja, Nadia M Rodríguez, Brenda Barroto, Orestes Blanco, Jørgen S Jensen
Isolation of Mycoplasma genitalium from clinical specimens remains difficult and few strains are available for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We describe the antimicrobial susceptibility of M. genitalium strains grown in Vero cell culture with first- and second- line antibiotics, using a modified cell-culture-based method. Macrolide- and -fluoroquinolone resistance determinants were detected by sequencing of the 23S and parC genes, respectively. Seven strains were examined, including three new, genetically distinct M...
2016: PloS One
D J Biedenbach, S K Bouchillon, B Johnson, J Alder, D F Sahm
Tedizolid is an oxazolidinone with an antimicrobial in vitro potency advantage against Gram-positive bacterial pathogens compared to other currently marketed drugs in this class, including linezolid. Tedizolid was compared to linezolid when tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected from countries in Latin America and the Asia-Pacific. Isolates were tested by broth microdilution susceptibility methods against tedizolid, linezolid, and non-class comparators in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines...
September 27, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
M G Smith, D Jordan, J S Gibson, R N Cobbold, T A Chapman, S Abraham, D J Trott
OBJECTIVE: To assess herd-to-herd variation in antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and associated antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in faecal commensal Escherichia coli communities isolated from Australian slaughter-age pigs. METHODS: Hydrophobic grid-membrane filtration (HGMF) was used to screen populations of E. coli isolated from faecal samples obtained from pigs prior to or at slaughter. Multiplex PCRs were applied to the pooled DNA extracted from the samples to identify specific ARGs...
October 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
Belinda Vangchhia, Sam Abraham, Jan M Bell, Peter Collignon, Justine S Gibson, Paul R Ingram, James R Johnson, Karina Kennedy, Darren J Trott, John D Turnidge, David M Gordon
Unlike Escherichia coli strains belonging to phylogroup B2, the clinical significance of strains belonging to phylogroup F is not well understood. Here we report on a collection of phylogroup F strains recovered in Australia from faeces and extra-intestinal sites from humans, companion animals, and native animals, as well as from poultry meat and water samples. The distribution of sequence types was clearly non-random with respect to isolate source. The antimicrobial resistance and virulence trait profiles also varied with the sequence type of the isolate...
September 22, 2016: Microbiology
Direk Limmathurotsakul, Nick Golding, David A B Dance, Jane P Messina, David M Pigott, Catherine L Moyes, Dionne B Rolim, Eric Bertherat, Nicholas P J Day, Sharon J Peacock, Simon I Hay
Burkholderia pseudomallei, a highly pathogenic bacterium that causes melioidosis, is commonly found in soil in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia(1,2). Melioidosis can be difficult to diagnose due to its diverse clinical manifestations and the inadequacy of conventional bacterial identification methods(3). The bacterium is intrinsically resistant to a wide range of antimicrobials, and treatment with ineffective antimicrobials may result in case fatality rates (CFRs) exceeding 70%(4,5). The importation of infected animals has, in the past, spread melioidosis to non-endemic areas(6,7)...
2016: Nature Microbiology
L K Wilson, G W Coombs, K Christiansen, W B Grubb, F G O'Brien
BACKGROUND: In Western Australia (WA), clonal complex 5, ST835, community-associated (CA) MRSA is isolated almost exclusively from aged care facilities. In WA four different staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec (SCCmec) elements have been identified in this ST, indicating high genetic activity in the SCCmec region. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the SCC region of ST835 CA-MRSA WA MRSA-40 and determine the distribution of an SCCsorbitol element found within the region...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Kaisarun Akter, Emma C Barnes, Joseph J Brophy, David Harrington, Yaegl Community Elders, Subramanyam R Vemulpad, Joanne F Jamie
Aboriginal people of Australia possess a rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of sores, wounds, and skin infections, ailments which impose a high global disease burden and require effective treatments. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities and phytochemical contents of extracts, obtained from eight medicinal plants used by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia, for the treatment of skin related ailments, were assessed to add value to and provide an evidence-base for their traditional uses...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Geoffrey W Coombs, Denise A Daley, Yung Thin Lee, Julie C Pearson, J Owen Robinson, Graeme R Nimmo, Peter Collignon, Benjamin P Howden, Jan M Bell, John D Turnidge
From 1 January to 31 December 2014, 27 institutions around Australia participated in the Australian Staphylococcal Sepsis Outcome Programme (ASSOP). The aim of ASSOP 2014 was to determine the proportion of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) isolates in Australia that are antimicrobial resistant, with particular emphasis on susceptibility to methicillin and to characterise the molecular epidemiology of the isolates. Overall, 18.8% of the 2,206 SAB episodes were methicillin resistant, which was significantly higher than that reported in most European countries...
2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
Geoffrey W Coombs, Denise A Daley, Yung Thin Lee, Stanley Pang, Julie C Pearson, J Owen Robinson, Paul Dr Johnson, Despina Kotsanas, Jan M Bell, John D Turnidge
From 1 January to 31 December 2014, 27 institutions around Australia participated in the Australian Enterococcal Sepsis Outcome Programme (AESOP). The aim of AESOP 2014 was to determine the proportion of enterococcal bacteraemia isolates in Australia that were antimicrobial resistant, and to characterise the molecular epidemiology of the Enterococcus faecium isolates. Of the 952 unique episodes of bacteraemia investigated, 94.4% were caused by either E. faecalis (54.9%) or E. faecium (39.9%). Ampicillin resistance was detected in 0...
2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
D Ipek Kurtböke, A Palk, A Marker, C Neuman, L Moss, K Streeter, M Katouli
Strawberry is a significantly consumed fruit worldwide, mostly without being subjected to disinfection processes. During the harvest and transfer from farm to consumers as well as where organic farming practises have been employed, the surface of the fruit may become contaminated by pathogenic bacteria. Post-harvest strawberry fruits in punnets available for public consumption were thus screened for the presence of enteric bacteria in the Sunshine Coast region of Queensland, Australia. Some of the tested samples (13 %) were found to carry such bacteria and even in greater numbers if organic amendments were used (69 %)...
October 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Hazel Mitchell, Peter Katelaris
Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. More than 50% of the global population is estimated to be infected. Differences in prevalence exist within and between countries, with higher prevalence seen among people with lower socio-economic status. Most transmission of infection occurs early in life, predominantly from person to person in the family setting. H. pylori is the cause of most peptic ulcer disease, gastric cancer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and causes symptoms in a subset of patients with functional dyspepsia...
June 6, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
Daniel R Knight, Thomas V Riley
OBJECTIVES: Increasing reports of genetic overlap between animal and human sources of Clostridium difficile necessitate an understanding of antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance in these populations. In this study, we sought to investigate the in vitro activities of 13 antimicrobials against a unique collection of clade 5 C. difficile isolates of Australian animal and human origin. METHODS: The collection comprised 171 C. difficile strains of human (n = 91) and animal (n = 80) origin in Australia in the last decade...
August 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Pauline J Ford, Christopher Saladine, Kathy Zhang, Samantha A Hollingworth
BACKGROUND: The development of antibiotic resistance by bacteria is of global concern. Inappropriate prescribing has the potential to exacerbate this issue. We aimed to examine the patterns of prescribing of antimicrobial medicines by dental practitioners in Australia from 2001 to 2012. METHODS: Data were collected from Medicare Australia on prescriptions from dental practitioners dispensed to concessional beneficiaries between 2001 and 2012. We examined patterns of use over time...
April 28, 2016: Australian Dental Journal
Minyon L Avent, Malene Plejdrup Hansen, Charles Gilks, Chris Del Mar, Kate Halton, Hanna Sidjabat, Lisa Hall, Annette Dobson, David L Paterson, Mieke L van Driel
BACKGROUND: There is a strong link between antibiotic consumption and the rate of antibiotic resistance. In Australia, the vast majority of antibiotics are prescribed by general practitioners, and the most common indication is for acute respiratory infections. The aim of this study is to assess if implementing a package of integrated, multifaceted interventions reduces antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory infections in general practice. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a cluster randomised trial comparing two parallel groups of general practitioners in 28 urban general practices in Queensland, Australia: 14 intervention and 14 control practices...
2016: BMC Family Practice
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