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Vestibular testing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665318/assessment-of-vestibular-function-in-patients-with-chronic-middle-ear-disease-using-the-vhit-and-vemp-test
#1
J S Sandhu, M Yung, J Parker-George, B Kearney, J Ray
It is widely accepted that middle ear pathology can cause dizziness and imbalance, however this has been a challenging area to investigate, as the bi-thermal caloric test is difficult to interpret in this cohort. Recently vestibular tests that bypass the middle ear have been developed. These are the Video Head Impulse Test (vHIT) and the Bone Conduction Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (BC-VEMPs). We have successfully carried out pre-operative vHIT and BC-VEMPs on 20 patients awaiting surgery for middle ear pathologies and have shown that complete testing can be done in less than 30 minutes...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664869/vestibular-manifestations-in-subjects-with-enlarged-vestibular-aqueduct
#2
Jae-Jin Song, Sung Kwang Hong, Sang Yeon Lee, Sung Joon Park, Seong Il Kang, Yong-Hwi An, Jeong Hun Jang, Ji Soo Kim, Ja-Won Koo
OBJECTIVE: To describe the results of a thorough evaluation in a large series of patients with an enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA), focusing on vestibular manifestations with etiological considerations. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review of patients with EVA. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: A total of 22 EVA patients with a median age of 8 years (6 mo-35 yr) who underwent both audiovestibular and radiologic examinations...
April 16, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660368/flow-cytometry-for-receptor-analysis-from-ex-vivo-brain-tissue-in-adult-rat
#3
A Benoit, M Guillamin, P Aitken, P F Smith, B Philoxene, B Sola, L Poulain, A Coquerel, S Besnard
BACKGROUND: Flow cytometry allows single-cell analysis of peripheral biological samples and is useful in many fields of research and clinical applications, mainly in hematology, immunology, and oncology. In the neurosciences, the flow cytometry separation method was first applied to stem cell extraction from healthy or cerebral tumour tissue and was more recently tested in order to phenotype brain cells, hippocampal neurogenesis, and to detect prion proteins. However, it remains sparsely applied in quantifying membrane receptors in relation to synaptic plasticity...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658983/subclinical-vestibular-dysfunction-in-migraineurs-without-vertigo-a-clinical-study
#4
L Bernetti, C Pellegrino, I Corbelli, S Caproni, P Eusebi, M Faralli, G Ricci, P Calabresi, P Sarchielli
OBJECTIVES: This observational study aimed to investigate the presence of potential vestibular system subclinical dysfunction among migraineurs without a history of vertigo and dizziness compared with healthy controls. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with episodic migraine with and without aura were enrolled. All patients and healthy controls underwent vestibular examination using the following conventional tests: sitting position, Pagnini-McClure's, Dix-Hallpike's, head hanging, video head impulse, subjective visual vertical, Romberg, Fukuda, and caloric vestibular stimulation by Fitzgerald-Hallpike's tests...
April 16, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658089/electrophysiological-properties-of-rat-vestibular-labyrinth-and-their-effect-on-parameters-of-transmitted-voltage-pulses
#5
V P Demkin, V V Udut, P P Shchetinin, M V Svetlik, S V Mel'nichuk, A P Shchetinina, M O Pleshkov, D N Starkov, O V Demkin, H Kingma
We propose a new approach to optimization of electrical stimulation of the vestibular nerve and improving the transfer function of vestibular implant. A mathematical model of the vestibular organ is developed based on its anatomy, the model premises, 3D-analysis of MRI and CT images, and mathematical description of physical processes underlying propagation of alternating electric current across the tissues of vestibular labyrinth. This approach was tested in vitro on the rat vestibular apparatus and had been examined anatomically prior to the development of its mathematical model and equivalent electrical circuit...
April 16, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656928/benign-paroxysmal-migraine-variants-of-infancy-and-childhood-transitions-and-clinical-features
#6
Jacob Brodsky, Karampreet Kaur, Talia Shoshany, Sophie Lipson, Guangwei Zhou
INTRODUCTION: Migraine variant disorders of childhood include benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy (BPTI) and benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood (BPVC). This study aimed to review our experience with BPTI and BPVC and determine the incidence of children transitioning between each of these disorders and to vestibular migraine (VM). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients seen at the Balance and Vestibular Program at Boston Children's Hospital between January 2012 and December 2016 who were diagnosed with BPTI, BPVC, and/or VM...
March 30, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656497/altered-brain-function-in-persistent-postural-perceptual-dizziness-a-study-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#7
Jin-Ok Lee, Eek-Sung Lee, Ji-Soo Kim, Young-Beom Lee, Yong Jeong, Byung Se Choi, Jae-Hyoung Kim, Jeffrey P Staab
This study used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to investigate whole brain networks in patients with persistent postural perceptual dizziness (PPPD). We compared rsfMRI data from 38 patients with PPPD and 38 healthy controls using whole brain and region of interest analyses. We examined correlations among connectivity and clinical variables and tested the ability of a machine learning algorithm to classify subjects using rsfMRI results. Patients with PPPD showed: (a) increased connectivity of subcallosal cortex with left superior lateral occipital cortex and left middle frontal gyrus, (b) decreased connectivity of left hippocampus with bilateral central opercular cortices, left posterior opercular cortex, right insular cortex and cerebellum, and (c) decreased connectivity between right nucleus accumbens and anterior left temporal fusiform cortex...
April 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655975/vestibular-and-balance-function-is-often-impaired-in-children-with-profound-unilateral-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#8
Meirav Sokolov, Karen A Gordon, Melissa Polonenko, Susan I Blaser, Blake C Papsin, Sharon L Cushing
RATIONALE: Children with unilateral deafness could have concurrent vestibular dysfunction which would be associated with balance deficits and potentially impair overall development. The prevalence of vestibular and balance deficits remains to be defined in these children. METHODS: Twenty children with unilateral deafness underwent comprehensive vestibular and balance evaluation. RESULTS: Retrospective review revealed that more than half of the cohort demonstrated some abnormality of the vestibular end organs (otoliths and horizontal canal), with the prevalence of end organ specific dysfunction ranging from 17 to 48% depending on organ tested and method used...
April 3, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651250/efficacy-of-stochastic-vestibular-stimulation-to-improve-locomotor-performance-during-adaptation-to-visuomotor-and-somatosensory-distortion
#9
David R Temple, Yiri E De Dios, Charles S Layne, Jacob J Bloomberg, Ajitkumar P Mulavara
Astronauts exposed to microgravity face sensorimotor challenges affecting balance control when readapting to Earth's gravity upon return from spaceflight. Small amounts of electrical noise applied to the vestibular system have been shown to improve balance control during standing and walking under discordant sensory conditions in healthy subjects, likely by enhancing information transfer through the phenomenon of stochastic resonance. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that imperceptible levels of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) could improve short-term adaptation to a locomotor task in a novel sensory discordant environment...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629231/internal-auditory-canal-exostosis-a-technical-case-report
#10
Lynn Mubita, Michael Seidman, Jack Rock
Background: Exostoses of the internal auditory canal is a rare finding that may present with disabling symptoms of dizziness, hearing loss, and vestibular dysfunction based on the extent of cranial nerve compression. The purpose of this case report is to discuss the presentation and outcomes in a patient who presented with this disorder. Case Description: A 19-year-old female presented to the neurotologist with left ear discomfort, pain with left lateral gaze, and dizziness...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623865/-stroke-mimicking-acute-peripheral-vertigo-how-to-avoid-misdiagnosis-importance-of-alarm-symptoms-and-assessment-of-eye-movements
#11
R B van Leeuwen, E van Wensen, B R Schudel
Identifying the occurrence of stroke in patients with isolated vertigo is difficult for general practitioners (GPs) as well as for physicians working in the Emergency Department. Three patients with acute vestibular syndrome are presented in this clinical lesson. The importance of an adequate neuro-otological examination is emphasised. However, many GPs lack knowledge of the nystagmus and the head impulse test. Alternative strategies for GPs are discussed.
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620580/do-initial-symptom-factor-scores-predict-subsequent-impairment-following-concussion
#12
Paul E Cohen, Alicia Sufrinko, Robert J Elbin, Michael W Collins, Aaron M Sinnott, Anthony P Kontos
OBJECTIVE: Symptom factors present during the first week following concussion may predict subsequent concussion outcomes and recovery duration. We hypothesized that a high loading on cognitive-fatigue-migraine and somatic factors would be predictive of neurocognitive impairment following concussion. We also hypothesized that the affective factor would be related to vestibular symptoms and impairment. DESIGN: Prospective repeated measures. SETTING: Concussion specialty clinic...
March 28, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619111/intratympanic-gentamicin-for-intractable-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease-a-review-and-analysis-of-audiovestibular-impact
#13
Sertaç Yetişer
Introduction  Intratympanic gentamicin regulates the symptoms in most patients with incapacitating Ménière's disease. The treatment protocols have changed over the years from medical labyrinthectomy to preservation of vestibular function. Objectives  This study aims to review the audiovestibular response related to the effect of the drug in controlling vertigo. Data Synthesis  Articles were identified by means of a search in the PubMed database using the key words Meniere and intratympanic or transtympanic gentamicin ...
April 2018: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614467/trunk-motion-visual-feedback-during-walking-improves-dynamic-balance-in-older-adults-assessor-blinded-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Eric Anson, Lei Ma, Tippawan Meetam, Elizabeth Thompson, Roshita Rathore, Victoria Dean, John Jeka
BACKGROUND: Virtual reality and augmented feedback have become more prevalent as training methods to improve balance. Few reports exist on the benefits of providing trunk motion visual feedback (VFB) during treadmill walking, and most of those reports only describe within session changes. RESEARCH QUESTION: To determine whether trunk motion VFB treadmill walking would improve over-ground balance for older adults with self-reported balance problems. METHODS: 40 adults (75...
March 28, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603737/clinical-presentation-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-11-dogs-with-eosinophilic-meningoencephalitis-of-unknown-aetiology
#15
T J A Cardy, I Cornelis
OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical presentation, MRI findings and outcome in dogs with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis of unknown origin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dogs were included in this retrospective study if they had complete medical records, complete neurological examination, MR imaging, cerebellomedullary cerebrospinal fluid sample consistent with eosinophilic pleocytosis and negative infectious disease testing. RESULTS: Eleven dogs were included with a median age of 22·0 months (range 7·6 to 92·0 months)...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602552/screening-practices-and-associated-anomalies-in-infants-with-anorectal-malformations-results-from-the-midwest-pediatric-surgery-consortium
#16
Peter C Minneci, Rashmi S Kabre, Grace Z Mak, Devin R Halleran, Jennifer N Cooper, Amin Afrazi, Casey M Calkins, Cynthia D Downard, Peter Ehrlich, Jason Fraser, Samir K Gadepalli, Michael A Helmrath, Jonathan E Kohler, Rachel Landisch, Matthew P Landman, Constance Lee, Charles M Leys, Daniel L Lodwick, Rodrigo Mon, Beth McClure, Beth Rymeski, Jacqueline M Saito, Thomas T Sato, Shawn D St Peter, Richard Wood, Marc A Levitt, Katherine J Deans
BACKGROUND: This study evaluates screening practices and the incidence of associated anomalies in infants with anorectal malformations (ARM). METHODS: We performed a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of children born between 2007 and 2011 who underwent surgery for ARM at 10 children's hospitals. ARM type was classified based on the location of the distal rectum, and all screening studies were reviewed. RESULTS: Among 506 patients, the most common ARM subtypes were perineal fistula (40...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599743/a-tool-to-quantify-the-functional-impact-of-oscillopsia
#17
Eric R Anson, Yoav Gimmon, Tim Kiemel, John J Jeka, John P Carey
Background: Individuals with bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) often report symptoms of oscillopsia during walking. Existing assessments of oscillopsia are limited to descriptions of severity and symptom frequency, neither of which provides a description of functional limitations attributed to oscillopsia. A novel questionnaire, the Oscillopsia Functional Impact scale (OFI) was developed to describe the impact of oscillopsia on daily life activities. Questions on the OFI ask how often individuals are able to execute specific activities considered to depend on gaze stability in an effort to link functional mobility impairments to oscillopsia for individuals with vestibular loss...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599742/the-video-head-impulse-test-and-the-influence-of-daily-use-of-spectacles-to-correct-a-refractive-error
#18
T S van Dooren, F M P Lucieer, A M L Janssen, H Kingma, R van de Berg
Objective: To determine the influence of daily use of spectacles to correct a refractive error, on the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain measured with the video head impulse test (vHIT). Study design: This prospective study enrolled subjects between 18 and 80 years old with and without a refractive error. Subjects were classified into three groups: (1) contact lenses, (2) spectacles, and (3) control group without visual impairment. Exclusion criteria comprised ophthalmic pathology, history of vestibular disorders, and alternated use of spectacles and contact lenses in daily life...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596981/the-vestibulomyogenic-balance-response-is-elevated-following-high-intensity-lengthening-contractions-of-the-lower-limb
#19
Emily I McIntosh, Geoffrey A Power, Brian H Dalton
The purpose was to investigate whether induced muscle weakness of the plantar and dorsiflexors through high-intensity lengthening contractions increases the vestibulomyogenic balance response. Nine males (∼25 years) participated in three experimental testing days to evaluate the vestibular control of standing balance and neuromuscular function of the plantar and dorsiflexors pre- and post (30 min, and 1 and 7 days) high-intensity lengthening plantar and dorsiflexions. To evaluate the vestibular-evoked balance response, participants stood quietly on a force plate while exposed to continuous, random electrical vestibular stimulation (EVS) for two 90-s trials...
March 26, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595192/blockade-of-the-swelling-induced-chloride-current-attenuates-the-mouse-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-vivo
#20
Raymond Wong, Ahmed Abussaud, Joseph Wh Leung, Bao-Feng Xu, Fei-Ya Li, Sammen Huang, Nai-Hong Chen, Guan-Lei Wang, Zhong-Ping Feng, Hong-Shuo Sun
Activation of swelling-induced Cl- current (ICl,swell ) during neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) may induce brain damage. Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury causes chronic neurological morbidity in neonates as well as acute mortality. In this study, we investigated the role of ICl,swell in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury using a selective blocker, 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichloro-2-cyclopentylindan-1-on-5-yl) oxybutyric acid (DCPIB). In primary cultured cortical neurons perfusion of a 30% hypotonic solution activated ICl,swell , which was completely blocked by the application of DCPIB (10 μmol/L)...
March 29, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
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