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quorum sensing and resistence gene

Xiao Yu Liang, Xiaoyue Yu, Xiayan Pan, Jian Wu, Yabing Duan, Jianxin Wang, Mingguo Zhou
Thiazole, isothiazole, thiadiazole, and their derivatives are widely thought to induce host defenses against plant pathogens. However, this article reports that bismerthiazol, a thiadiazole molecule, reduces disease by inhibiting the histidine utilization (Hut) pathway and quorum sensing (QS). Bismerthiazol provides excellent control of bacterial rice leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) but does not greatly inhibit Xoo growth in vitro. According to RNA-seq analysis, transcription of Hut pathway genes of Xoo ZJ173 was inhibited after 4...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Feifei Cheng, Anzhou Ma, Guoqiang Zhuang, Rupert G Fray
In order to cope with pathogens, plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to sense pathogenic attacks and to induce defence responses. The N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum sensing in bacteria regulates diverse physiological processes including those involved in pathogenicity. In this work, we study the interactions between AHL-producing transgenic tobacco plants and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 11528 (P. syringae 11528). Both a reduced incidence of disease and decrease in the growth of P...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Guopeng Wei, Chieh Lo, Connor Walsh, N Luisa Hiller, Radu Marculescu
As understanding of bacterial regulatory systems and pathogenesis continues to increase, QSI has been a major focus of research. However, recent studies have shown that mechanisms of resistance to quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors (QSIs) exist, calling into question their clinical value. We propose a computational framework that considers bacteria genotypes relative to QS genes and QS-regulated products including private, quasi-public, and public goods according to their impacts on bacterial fitness. Our results show (1) QSI resistance spreads when QS positively regulates the expression of private or quasi-public goods...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Fei Da, Lin Yao, Zhijie Su, Zhen Hou, Zhi Li, Xiaoyan Xue, Jingru Meng, Xiaoxing Luo
AIM: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is commonly associated with non-nosocomial skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) due to its virulence, which is mainly controlled by the accessory gene regulator (agr) quorum sensing (QS) system. In this study (KFF)3 K peptide-conjugated Locked Nucleic Acids (PLNAs) targeting agrA mRNA were developed to inhibit agr activity and arrest the pathogenicity of CA-MRSA. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two PLNAs were designed, and synthesized, after predicting the secondary structure of agrA mRNA...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Rodolfo García-Contreras
Quorum sensing (QS) coordinates the expression of multiple virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa; hence its inhibition has been postulated as a new alternative to treat its infections. In particular, QS interference approaches claim that they attenuate bacterial virulence without directly decreasing bacterial growth and suggest that in vivo the immune system would control the infections. Moreover, since in vitro experiments performed in rich medium demonstrate that interfering with QS decreases the production of virulence factors without affecting bacterial growth it was assumed than in vivo therapies will minimize the selection of resistant strains...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Noam A Cohen
OBJECTIVE: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) refractory to therapeutic intervention may involve a particularly resistant infection known as a bacterial biofilm. Critical to biofilm formation is the microbial process of quorum sensing whereby microbes secrete factors that regulate the expression of microbial genes involved in biofilm formation, persistence, and virulence. Here, we review recent work demonstrating that the bitter taste receptor T2R38, expressed on the apical surface of the sinonasal epithelium, serves a sentinel role in eavesdropping on microbial quorum-sensing communications and regulates localized innate biocidal defenses...
September 21, 2016: Laryngoscope
Munmun Nandi, Chrystal Berry, Ann Karen C Brassinga, Mark F Belmonte, W G Dilantha Fernando, Peter C Loewen, Teresa R de Kievit
: Pseudomonas brassicacearum DF41 is a biocontrol agent that suppresses disease caused by the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum A number of exometabolites are produced by DF41 including the lipopeptide sclerosin, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and degradative enzymes. Production of these compounds is controlled at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional level by quorum sensing (QS) and the Gac-two component regulatory system. In order to be successful, a biocontrol agent must persist in the environment at levels sufficient for pathogen control...
September 16, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Ana M N Botelho, Maiana O C Costa, Cristiana O Beltrame, Fabienne A Ferreira, Nicholas C B Lima, Bruno S S Costa, Guilherme L de Morais, Rangel C Souza, Luiz G P Almeida, Ana T R Vasconcelos, Marisa F Nicolás, Agnes M S Figueiredo
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is still one of the most important hospital pathogen globally. The multiresistant isolates of the ST239-SCCmecIII lineage are spread over large geographic regions, colonizing and infecting hospital patients in virtually all continents. The balance between fitness (adaptability) and virulence potential is likely to represent an important issue in the clonal shift dynamics leading the success of some specific MRSA clones over another. The accessory gene regulator (agr) is the master quorum sensing system of staphylococci playing a role in the global regulation of key virulence factors...
September 15, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Xin Cathy Li, Christopher Wang, Ashok Mulchandani, Xin Ge
Many pathogenic bacteria utilize quorum sensing (QS) systems to regulate the expression of their virulence genes and promote the formation of biofilm, which renders pathogens with extreme resistance to conventional antibiotic treatments. As a novel approach for attenuating antibiotic resistance and in turn fighting chronic infections, enzymatic inactivation of QS signaling molecules, such as N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), holds great promises. Instead of using bacterial lactonases that can evoke immune response when administered, we focus on the human paraoxonase 2 (huPON2)...
September 30, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
Agapi I Doulgeraki, Pierluigi Di Ciccio, Adriana Ianieri, George-John E Nychas
There is increasing concern about the public health impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Food and animal are vectors of transmission, but the contribution of a contaminated environment is not well characterized. With regard to this, staphylococcal biofilms serve as a virulence factor, allowing MRSA strains to adhere to surfaces and other materials used in the food industry. Methicillin resistance and biofilm-forming capacity may contribute to the success of S. aureus as a human pathogen in both health care and community settings and the food production chain...
August 17, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Soha El-Shaer, Mona Shaaban, Rasha Barwa, Ramadan Hassan
The spread of multiple drug resistance Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates constitutes a serious clinical challenge. Bacterial efflux machinery is a crucial mechanism of resistance among P. aeruginosa. Efflux inhibitors such as phenylalanine arginyl -naphthylamide (PAN) promote the bacterial susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. The pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa is co-ordinated via quorum sensing (QS). This study aims to find out the impact of efflux pump inhibitor, PAN, on QS and virulence attributes in clinical isolates of P...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
B Rémy, L Plener, M Elias, D Daudé, E Chabrière
Quorum sensing (QS) is used by bacteria to communicate and synchronize their actions according to the cell density. In this way, they produce and secrete in the surrounding environment small molecules dubbed autoinducers (AIs) that regulate the expression of certain genes. The phenotypic traits regulated by QS are diverse and include pathogenicity, biofilm formation or resistance to anti-microbial treatments. The strategy, aiming at disrupting QS, known as quorum quenching (QQ), has emerged to counteract bacterial virulence and involves QS-inhibitors (QSI) or QQ-enzymes degrading AIs...
July 27, 2016: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
Sisir Nandi
Antibiotic resistance is a growing threat in the treatment of bacterial diseases. Bacterial invasion and its virulence can cause damage to the host cells via quorum sensing mechanism which is responsible for the intercellular communication among bacteria that regulates expression of many genes. Quorum sensing (QS) is one of the reasons for producing resistance to the antibiotic treatment against bacterial virulence. Researchers have been battling to develop promising inhibitors active against quorum sensing mechanism to control bacterial virulence...
July 28, 2016: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
Stephanie Forschner-Dancause, Emily Poulin, Susan Meschwitz
Traditional therapeutics to treat bacterial infections have given rise to multi-drug resistant pathogens, which pose a major threat to human and animal health. In several pathogens, quorum sensing (QS)-a cell-cell communication system in bacteria-controls the expression of genes responsible for pathogenesis, thus representing a novel target in the fight against bacterial infections. Based on the structure of the autoinducers responsible for QS activity and other QS inhibitors, we hypothesize that β-keto esters with aryl functionality could possess anti-QS activity...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Lea M Sommer, Mikkel Christian Alanin, Rasmus L Marvig, Kim Gjerum Nielsen, Niels Høiby, Christian von Buchwald, Søren Molin, Helle Krogh Johansen
Infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa increase morbidity in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Both diseases are associated with a defect of the mucociliary clearance; in PCD caused by non-functional cilia, in CF by changed mucus. Whole genome sequencing of P. aeruginosa isolates from CF patients has shown that persistence of clonal lineages in the airways is facilitated by genetic adaptation. It is unknown whether this also applies to P. aeruginosa airway infections in PCD...
2016: Scientific Reports
Neelam Mangwani, Supriya Kumari, Surajit Das
Increased contamination of the environment with toxic pollutants has paved the way for efficient strategies which can be implemented for environmental restoration. The major problem with conventional methods used for cleaning of pollutants is inefficiency and high economic costs. Bioremediation is a growing technology having advanced potential of cleaning pollutants. Biofilm formed by various micro-organisms potentially provide a suitable microenvironment for efficient bioremediation processes. High cell density and stress resistance properties of the biofilm environment provide opportunities for efficient metabolism of number of hydrophobic and toxic compounds...
June 20, 2016: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Diana Patzelt, Victoria Michael, Orsola Päuker, Matthias Ebert, Petra Tielen, Dieter Jahn, Jürgen Tomasch, Jörn Petersen, Irene Wagner-Döbler
Rhodobacteraceae harbor a conspicuous wealth of extrachromosomal replicons (ECRs) and therefore the exchange of genetic material via horizontal transfer has been supposed to be a major evolutionary driving force. Many plasmids in this group encode type IV secretion systems (T4SS) that are expected to mediate transfer of proteins and/or DNA into host cells, but no experimental evidence of either has yet been provided. Dinoroseobacter shibae, a species of the Roseobacter group within the Rhodobacteraceae family, contains five ECRs that are crucial for anaerobic growth, survival under starvation and the pathogenicity of this model organism...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hackwon Do, Muthiah Kumaraswami
The members of RRNPP family of bacterial regulators sense population density-specific secreted oligopeptides and modulate the expression of genes involved in cellular processes, such as sporulation, competence, virulence, biofilm formation, conjugative plasmid transfer and antibiotic resistance. Signaling by RRNPP regulators include several steps: generation and secretion of the signaling oligopeptides, re-internalization of the signaling molecules into the cytoplasm, signal sensing by the cytosolic RRNPP regulators, signal-specific allosteric structural changes in the regulators, and interaction of the regulators with their respective regulatory target and gene regulation...
July 17, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
Janek Bzdrenga, David Daudé, Benjamin Rémy, Pauline Jacquet, Laure Plener, Mikael Elias, Eric Chabrière
Numerous bacteria use quorum sensing (QS) to synchronize their behavior and monitor their population density. They use signaling molecules known as autoinducers (AI's) that are synthesized and secreted into their local environment to regulate QS-dependent gene expression. Among QS-regulated pathways, biofilm formation and virulence factor secretion are particularly problematic as they are involved in surface-attachment, antimicrobial agent resistance, toxicity, and pathogenicity. Targeting QS represents a promising strategy to inhibit undesirable bacterial traits...
May 22, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Arpan Bandyopadhyay, Sofie O'Brien, Kristi L Frank, Gary M Dunny, Wei-Shou Hu
UNLABELLED: Enterococcus faecalis, a common causative agent of hospital-acquired infections, is resistant to many known antibiotics. Its ability to acquire and transfer resistance genes and virulence determinants through conjugative plasmids poses a serious concern for public health. In some cases, induction of transfer of E. faecalis plasmids results from peptide pheromones produced by plasmid-free recipient cells, which are sensed by the plasmid-bearing donor cells. These plasmids generally encode an inhibitory peptide that competes with the pheromone and suppresses self-induction of donors...
August 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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