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Tiffany H Kung, Eugene T Richardson, Tarub S Mabud, Catherine A Heaney, Evaleen Jones, Jessica Evert
CONTEXT: High-income country (HIC) trainees are undertaking global health experiences in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) host communities in increasing numbers. Although the benefits for HIC trainees are well described, the benefits and drawbacks for LMIC host communities are not well captured. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the perspectives of supervising physicians and local programme coordinators from LMIC host communities who engaged with HIC trainees in the context of the latter's short-term experiences in global health...
November 2016: Medical Education
Ralf B Loeffler, M Beth McCarville, Anne W Wagstaff, Matthew P Smeltzer, Axel J Krafft, Ruitian Song, Jane S Hankins, Claudia M Hillenbrand
BACKGROUND: Liver R2* values calculated from multi-gradient echo (mGRE) magnetic resonance images (MRI) are strongly correlated with hepatic iron concentration (HIC) as shown in several independently derived biopsy calibration studies. These calibrations were established for axial single-slice breath-hold imaging at the location of the portal vein. Scanning in multi-slice mode makes the exam more efficient, since whole-liver coverage can be achieved with two breath-holds and the optimal slice can be selected afterward...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
José María Moreno-Navarrete, María Moreno, Josep Puig, Gerard Blasco, Francisco Ortega, Gemma Xifra, Wifredo Ricart, José Manuel Fernández-Real
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Serum hepcidin concentration is known to increase in parallel to circulating markers of iron stores. We aimed to investigate whether this is reflected at the tissue level in subjects with obesity. METHODS: Serum hepcidin and ferritin levels (ELISA) and hepatic iron content (using magnetic resonance imaging) were analyzed longitudinally in 44 participants (19 without obesity and 25 with obesity). In a subgroup of 16 participants with obesity, a weight loss intervention was performed...
September 29, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Lars T Fadnes, Kathy Ainul Møen, Esperanza Diaz
OBJECTIVES: Health status, disease spectrum and use of healthcare have been reported to vary across groups of migrants and according to the different phases of migration. However, most studies are conducted among adults. This study assesses usage of primary healthcare (PHC) by children with immigrant background compared with non-immigrant children in Norway and describes their relative morbidity burden. DESIGN: Population-based retrospective cohort study. SETTING: This study used 3 linked population-based registers in Norway for children under 18 years of age in 2008...
October 13, 2016: BMJ Open
Paola Friedrich, Catherine G Lam, Geetinder Kaur, Elena Itriago, Raul C Ribeiro, Ramandeep S Arora
BACKGROUND: Understanding and addressing treatment abandonment (TxA) is crucial for bridging the pediatric cancer survival gap between high-income (HIC) and low-and middle-income countries (LMC). In childhood cancer, TxA is defined as failure to start or complete curative cancer therapy and known to be a complex phenomenon. With rising interest on causes and consequences of TxA in LMC, this study aimed to establish the lay-of-the-land regarding determinants of TxA globally, perform and promote comparative research, and raise awareness on this subject...
2016: PloS One
Brendan F O'Connor, Philip M Cummins
Most proteins and large polypeptides have hydrophobic regions at their surface. These hydrophobic "patches" are due to the presence of the side chains of hydrophobic or nonpolar amino acids such as phenylalanine, tryptophan, alanine, and methionine. These surface hydrophobic regions are interspersed between more hydrophilic or polar regions and the number, size, and distribution of them is a specific characteristic of each individual protein. Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography (HIC) is a commonly used technique that exploits these hydrophobic features of proteins as a basis for their separation even in complex biological mixtures (Queiroz et al...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Helen M Ryan, Sumedha Sharma, Laura A Magee, J Mark Ansermino, Karen MacDonell, Beth A Payne, Keith R Walley, Peter von Dadelszen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) mortality prediction model in pregnant and recently pregnant women receiving critical care in low-, middle-, and high-income countries during the study period (1985-2015), using a structured literature review. DATA SOURCES: Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews, searched for articles published between 1985 and 2015. STUDY SELECTION: Twenty-five studies (24 publications), of which two were prospective, were included in the analyses...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Allison J Carroll, Darwin R Labarthe, Mark D Huffman, Brian Hitsman
The purpose of this review is to emphasize the role of tobacco prevention and control in cardiovascular health (CVH) promotion and cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, including the importance of these endpoints for measuring the full impact of tobacco-related policies, programs, and practices. In this review, we describe an overview of tobacco control interventions that have led to substantial declines in tobacco use and the relationship between these declines with CVH and CVD. We review interventions that have had success in high-income countries (HICs) as well as those that are gaining traction in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)...
October 4, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Anna Skoczyńska, Elżbieta Budzisz, Kasjana Podgórna, Helena Rotsztejn
Morphology of senescent cells is constantly changing at the molecular level, which in turn leads to disruption of their function. It is connected with reduced ability to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) and leads to the dysfunction of integrin adhesion molecules and adhesion clusters. In skin, these factors cause a loss of communication between the extracellular matrix and fibroblasts. This contributes to the appearance of signs of aging. The aim of this study is to draw attention to the very important molecule such as paxillin, which is an adaptor protein with mass of 68 kDa...
October 6, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Mehmet Kurt, Kaveh Laksari, Calvin Kuo, Gerald A Grant, David B Camarillo
Bicycling is the leading cause of sports-related traumatic brain injury. Most of the current bike helmets are made of expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam and ultimately designed to prevent blunt trauma, e.g., skull fracture. However, these helmets have limited effectiveness in preventing brain injuries. With the availability of high-rate micro-electrical-mechanical systems sensors and high energy density batteries, a new class of helmets, i.e., expandable helmets, can sense an impending collision and expand to protect the head...
September 27, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Tao Zhang, Yun-Long Zhao, Jian-Hua Zhao, Sheng Wang, Yun Jin, Zhong-Qi Chen, Yuan-Yuan Fang, Chen-Lei Hua, Shou-Wei Ding, Hui-Shan Guo
Plant pathogenic fungi represent the largest group of disease-causing agents on crop plants, and are a constant and major threat to agriculture worldwide. Recent studies have shown that engineered production of RNA interference (RNAi)-inducing dsRNA in host plants can trigger specific fungal gene silencing and confer resistance to fungal pathogens(1-7). Although these findings illustrate efficient uptake of host RNAi triggers by pathogenic fungi, it is unknown whether or not such an uptake mechanism has been evolved for a natural biological function in fungus-host interactions...
2016: Nature Plants
Charles Amoatey Odonkor, William Addison, Sean Smith, Ernest Osei-Bonsu, Teresa Tang, Michael Erdek
OBJECTIVE: [Formula: see text]The goal of this study was to elucidate the attitudes, beliefs, and barriers interfering with cancer pain management, the degree of barrier interference with trainees' care of patients, and the relationships among prohibitive factors to pain management for physicians in a low-middle-income countries (LMICs) vs high-income countries (HICs). DESIGN AND SETTING:  A multi-institutional cross-sectional survey of physicians in specialties with a focus in pain management training was performed...
September 20, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Wei-Chieh Huang, Der-Yen Lee, Geen-Dong Chang
To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the action of bioactive compounds such as metabolites, identification of their binding targets is essential. However, available techniques for enriching metabolite-binding proteins are practically restrained by special equipment requirements and laborious efforts. Here we have developed a novel method, affinity elution in tandem hydrophobic interaction chromatography (AETHIC), which enables enrichment of metabolite-binding proteins from a crude tissue extract...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Zhiye Chen, Mengqi Liu, Mengyu Liu, Jinfeng Li, Han Shan, Shuangfeng Liu, Xin Lou, Siyun Shu, Lin Ma
PURPOSE: To investigate the structural changes of marginal division (MrD) which is the high intensity zone between globus pallidus and putamen on phase image in the human brain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The structural changes of MrD were investigated based on MR phase imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data at 3.0 Tesla (T) MR scanner in 72 volunteers. Phase value, including high iron components (HIC), low iron components (LIC), LIC ratio, and average iron components (AIC), were obtained using histogram analysis about the head of caudate nucleus (CA), globus pallidus (GP), putamen (PU), and MrD...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Quentin Eichbaum
Many health professions education programs in high-income countries (HICs) have adopted a competency-based approach to learning. Although global health programs have followed this trend, defining and assessing competencies has proven problematic, particularly in resource-constrained settings of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where HIC students and trainees perform elective work. In part, this is due to programs failing to take sufficient account of local learning, cultural, and health contexts.A major divide between HIC and LMIC settings is that the learning contexts of HICs are predominantly individualist, whereas those of LMICs are generally collectivist...
September 6, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Kento Takahashi, Takeo Tomita, Tomohisa Kuzuyama, Makoto Nishiyama
HICDH (Homoisocitrate dehydrogenase) is a member of the β-decarboxylating dehydrogenase family that catalyzes the conversion of homoisocitrate to α-ketoadipate using NAD(+) as a coenzyme, which is the fourth reaction involved in lysine biosynthesis through the α-aminoadipate pathway. Although typical HICDHs from fungi and yeast exhibit strict substrate specificities toward homoisocitrate (HIC), HICDH from a thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus (TtHICDH) catalyzes the reactions using both HIC and isocitrate (IC) as substrates at similar efficiencies...
September 30, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
F Auriault, L Thollon, J Pérès, M Behr
This study documents the development of adverse fetal outcome predictors dedicated to the analysis of road accidents involving pregnant women. To do so, a pre-existing whole body finite element model representative of a 50th percentile 26 weeks pregnant woman was used. A total of 8 accident scenarios were simulated with the model positioned on a sled. Each of these scenarios was associated to a risk of adverse fetal outcome based on results from real car crash investigations involving pregnant women from the literature...
September 2, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Balázs Bobaly, Alain Beck, Jean-Luc Veuthey, Davy Guillarme, Szabolcs Fekete
The goal of this study was to better understand the chromatographic conditions in which monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) of broad hydrophobicity scale and a cysteine conjugated antibody-drug conjugate (ADCs), namely brentuximab-vedotin, could denaturate. For this purpose, some experiments were carried out in HIC conditions using various organic modifier in natures and proportions, different mobile phase temperatures and also different pHs. Indeed, improper analytical conditions in hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) may create reversed-phase (RP) like harsh conditions and therefore protein denaturation...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Hans W Hauschild, John R Humm, Frank A Pintar, Narayan Yoganandan, Bruce Kaufman, Jinyong Kim, Matthew R Maltese, Kristy B Arbogast
OBJECTIVE: Testing was conducted to quantify the kinematics, potential for head impact, and influence on head injury metrics for a center-seated Q3s in a forward-facing child restraint system (FFCRS) in oblique impacts. The influences of a tether and intruded door on these measures were explored. METHODS: Nine lateral oblique sled tests were conducted on a convertible forward-facing child restraint seat (FFCRS). The FFCRSs were secured to a bench seat from a popular production small SUV at the center seating position utilizing the lower anchor and tether for children (LATCH)...
September 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Anjni Patel, Mateus Mazorra Coelho Vieira, John Abraham, Nick Reid, Tu Tran, Kevin Tomecsek, João Ricardo N Vissoci, Stephanie Eucker, Charles J Gerardo, Catherine A Staton
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death worldwide and is increasing exponentially particularly in low and middle income countries (LMIC). To inform the development of a standard Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) for the acute management of TBI that can be implemented specifically for limited resource settings, we conducted a systematic review to identify and assess the quality of all currently available CPGs on acute TBI using the AGREE II instrument. In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, from April 2013 to December 2015 we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar and the Duke University Medical Center Library Guidelines for peer-reviewed published Clinical Practice Guidelines on the acute management of TBI (less than 24 hours), for any level of traumatic brain injury in both high and low income settings...
2016: PloS One
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