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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431498/migrant-workers-in-italy-an-analysis-of-injury-risk-taking-into-account-occupational-characteristics-and-job-tenure
#1
Massimiliano Giraudo, Antonella Bena, Giuseppe Costa
BACKGROUND: Migrants resident in Italy exceeded 5 million in 2015, representing 8.2% of the resident population. The study of the mechanisms that explain the differential health of migrant workers (as a whole and for specific nationalities) has been identified as a priority for research. The international literature has shown that migrant workers have a higher risk of total and fatal injury than natives, but some results are conflicting. The aim of this paper is to study the injury risk differentials between migrants, born in countries with strong migratory pressure (SMPC), and workers born in high income countries (HIC), taking into account individual and firm characteristics and job tenure...
April 22, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427373/a-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-self-help-psycho-education-programme-to-reduce-diagnosis-delay-in-women-with-breast-cancer-symptoms-in-indonesia
#2
Hari Setyowibowo, Marit Sijbrandij, Aulia Iskandarsyah, Joke A M Hunfeld, Sawitri S Sadarjoen, Dharmayanti F Badudu, Drajat R Suardi, Jan Passchier
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent cancer occurring in women across the world. Its mortality rate in low-middle income countries (LMICs) is higher than in high-income countries (HICs), and in Indonesia BC is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Delay in breast cancer diagnosis negatively impacts cancer prognosis. Only about 30% of patients who come to the hospital to check on their breast abnormalities, continue thorough examination to biopsy to get a diagnosis based on the results of anatomical pathology...
April 20, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420405/do-international-health-partnerships-contribute-to-reverse-innovation-a-mixed-methods-study-of-thet-supported-partnerships-in-the-uk
#3
Kavian Kulasabanathan, Hamdi Issa, Yasser Bhatti, Matthew Prime, Jacqueline Del Castillo, Ara Darzi, Matthew Harris
BACKGROUND: International health partnerships (IHPs) are changing, with an increased emphasis on mutual accountability and joint agenda setting for both the high- and the low- or middle-income country (LMIC) partners. There is now an important focus on the bi-directionality of learning however for the UK partners, this typically focuses on learning at the individual level, through personal and professional development. We sought to evaluate whether this learning also takes the shape of 'Reverse Innovation' -when an idea conceived in a low-income country is subsequently adopted in a higher-income country...
April 18, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409537/impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-for-children-in-high-and-non-high-income-countries
#4
Robert Cohen, Jérémie François Cohen, Martin Chalumeau, Corinne Levy
The high level of effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) was demonstrated initially in high-income countries (HICs). However, because the burden of pneumococcal diseases (PDs) is greater in non-high-income countries (NHICs) than HICs, the assessment of these vaccines in this latter setting is crucial. Areas Covered: PubMed was used to search for literature related to the effectiveness of PCVs. Several studies described the effectiveness of PCVs in NHICs, and we compare the impact of PCVs on the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneumonia in HICs and NHICs...
April 14, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389488/secular-trends-in-the-incidence-of-dementia-in-high-income-countries-a-protocol-of-a-systematic-review-and-a-planned-meta-analysis
#5
Susanne Roehr, Alexander Pabst, Tobias Luck, Steffi G Riedel-Heller
INTRODUCTION: A global dementia epidemic is projected for the year 2050 with an ever-rising number of individuals living with the syndrome worldwide. However, increasingly, studies are emerging from high-income countries (HIC) that show a positive trend towards a possible decrease in dementia occurrence. Therefore, we aim to systematically summarise evidence regarding secular trends in the incidence of dementia in HIC. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a systematic review of the literature on secular trends in dementia incidence in HIC according to the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) and the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) statements...
April 7, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388437/the-bet-protein-brd2-cooperates-with-ctcf-to-enforce-transcriptional-and-architectural-boundaries
#6
Sarah C Hsu, Thomas G Gilgenast, Caroline R Bartman, Christopher R Edwards, Aaron J Stonestrom, Peng Huang, Daniel J Emerson, Perry Evans, Michael T Werner, Cheryl A Keller, Belinda Giardine, Ross C Hardison, Arjun Raj, Jennifer E Phillips-Cremins, Gerd A Blobel
Bromodomain and extraterminal motif (BET) proteins are pharmacologic targets for the treatment of diverse diseases, yet the roles of individual BET family members remain unclear. We find that BRD2, but not BRD4, co-localizes with the architectural/insulator protein CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) genome-wide. CTCF recruits BRD2 to co-bound sites whereas BRD2 is dispensable for CTCF occupancy. Disruption of a CTCF/BRD2-occupied element positioned between two unrelated genes enables regulatory influence to spread from one gene to another, suggesting that CTCF and BRD2 form a transcriptional boundary...
April 6, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383545/the-collaborative-african-genomics-network-training-program-a-trainee-perspective-on-training-the-next-generation-of-african-scientists
#7
Busisiwe C Mlotshwa, Savannah Mwesigwa, Gerald Mboowa, Lesedi Williams, Gaone Retshabile, Adeodata Kekitiinwa, Misaki Wayengera, Samuel Kyobe, Chester W Brown, Neil A Hanchard, Graeme Mardon, Moses Joloba, Gabriel Anabwani, Sununguko W Mpoloka
PURPOSE: The Collaborative African Genomics Network (CAfGEN) aims to establish sustainable genomics research programs in Botswana and Uganda through long-term training of PhD students from these countries at Baylor College of Medicine. Here, we present an overview of the CAfGEN PhD training program alongside trainees' perspectives on their involvement. BACKGROUND: Historically, collaborations between high-income countries (HICs) and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), or North-South collaborations, have been criticized for the lack of a mutually beneficial distribution of resources and research findings, often undermining LMICs...
April 6, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381557/glucocorticoid-receptor-binding-to-chromatin-is-selectively-controlled-by-coregulator-hic-5-and-chromatin-remodeling-enzymes
#8
Brian H Lee, Michael R Stallcup
The steroid hormone-activated glucocorticoid receptor (GR) regulates cellular stress pathways by binding to genomic regulatory elements of target genes and recruiting coregulator proteins to remodel chromatin and regulate transcription complex assembly. The coregulator Hydrogen peroxide-inducible clone 5 (Hic-5) is required for glucocorticoid (GC) regulation of some genes, but not others, and blocks regulation of a third gene set by inhibiting GR binding. How Hic-5 exerts these gene-specific effects, and specifically how it blocks GR binding to some genes but not others is unclear...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380038/impact-of-cd4-and-cd8-dynamics-and-viral-rebounds-on-loss-of-virological-control-in-hiv-controllers
#9
Fanny Chereau, Yoann Madec, Caroline Sabin, Niels Obel, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Georgios Chrysos, Sarah Fidler, Clara Lehmann, Robert Zangerle, Linda Wittkop, Peter Reiss, Osamah Hamouda, Vicente Estrada Perez, Manuel Leal, Amanda Mocroft, Patricia Garcia De Olalla, Adriana Ammassari, Antonella D'Arminio Monforte, Cristina Mussini, Ferran Segura, Antonella Castagna, Matthias Cavassini, Sophie Grabar, Philippe Morlat, Stéphane De Wit, Olivier Lambotte, Laurence Meyer
OBJECTIVE: HIV controllers (HICs) spontaneously maintain HIV viral replication at low level without antiretroviral therapy (ART), a small number of whom will eventually lose this ability to control HIV viremia. The objective was to identify factors associated with loss of virological control. METHODS: HICs were identified in COHERE on the basis of ≥5 consecutive viral loads (VL) ≤500 copies/mL over ≥1 year whilst ART-naive, with the last VL ≤500 copies/mL measured ≥5 years after HIV diagnosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377529/catabolism-of-the-last-two-steroid-rings-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-other-bacteria
#10
Adam M Crowe, Israël Casabon, Kirstin L Brown, Jie Liu, Jennifer Lian, Jason C Rogalski, Timothy E Hurst, Victor Snieckus, Leonard J Foster, Lindsay D Eltis
Most mycolic acid-containing actinobacteria and some proteobacteria use steroids as growth substrates, but the catabolism of the last two steroid rings has yet to be elucidated. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, this pathway includes virulence determinants and has been proposed to be encoded by the KstR2-regulated genes, which include a predicted coenzyme A (CoA) transferase gene (ipdAB) and an acyl-CoA reductase gene (ipdC). In the presence of cholesterol, ΔipdC and ΔipdAB mutants of either M. tuberculosis or Rhodococcus jostii strain RHA1 accumulated previously undescribed metabolites: 3aα-H-4α(carboxyl-CoA)-5-hydroxy-7aβ-methylhexahydro-1-indanone (5-OH HIC-CoA) and (R)-2-(2-carboxyethyl)-3-methyl-6-oxocyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxyl-CoA (COCHEA-CoA), respectively...
April 4, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377269/multivitamin-use-and-adverse-birth-outcomes-in-high-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Hanne T Wolf, Hanne K Hegaard, Lene D Huusom, Anja B Pinborg
BACKGROUND: In high-income countries (HIC), a healthy diet is widely accessible. However, a change towards a poor quality diet with a low nutritional value in HIC has led to an inadequate vitamin intake during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association between multivitamin use among women in HIC and the risk of adverse birth outcomes (preterm birth (PTB) (primary outcome), low birth weight, small-for-gestational age (SGA), stillbirth, neonatal death, perinatal mortality and congenital anomalies without further specification)...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369339/hic-spector-a-matrix-library-for-spectral-and-reproducibility-analysis-of-hi-c-contact-maps
#12
Koon-Kiu Yan, Galip Gürkan Yardimci, Chengfei Yan, William S Noble, Mark Gerstein
Summary: Genome-wide proximity ligation based assays like Hi-C have opened a window to the 3D organization of the genome. In so doing, they present data structures that are different from conventional 1D signal tracks. To exploit the 2D nature of Hi-C contact maps, matrix techniques like spectral analysis are particularly useful. Here, we present HiC-spector, a collection of matrix-related functions for analyzing Hi-C contact maps. In particular, we introduce a novel reproducibility metric for quantifying the similarity between contact maps based on spectral decomposition...
March 22, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363924/tobacco-control-environment-cross-sectional-survey-of-policy-implementation-social-unacceptability-knowledge-of-tobacco-health-harms-and-relationship-to-quit-ratio-in-17-low-income-middle-income-and-high-income-countries
#13
Clara K Chow, Daniel J Corsi, Anna B Gilmore, Annamarie Kruger, Ehimario Igumbor, Jephat Chifamba, Wang Yang, Li Wei, Romaina Iqbal, Prem Mony, Rajeev Gupta, Krishnapillai Vijayakumar, V Mohan, Rajesh Kumar, Omar Rahman, Khalid Yusoff, Noorhassim Ismail, Katarzyna Zatonska, Yuksel Altuntas, Annika Rosengren, Ahmad Bahonar, AfzalHussein Yusufali, Gilles Dagenais, Scott Lear, Rafael Diaz, Alvaro Avezum, Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, Fernando Lanas, Sumathy Rangarajan, Koon Teo, Martin McKee, Salim Yusuf
OBJECTIVES: This study examines in a cross-sectional study 'the tobacco control environment' including tobacco policy implementation and its association with quit ratio. SETTING: 545 communities from 17 high-income, upper-middle, low-middle and low-income countries (HIC, UMIC, LMIC, LIC) involved in the Environmental Profile of a Community's Health (EPOCH) study from 2009 to 2014. PARTICIPANTS: Community audits and surveys of adults (35-70 years, n=12 953)...
March 31, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360930/performance-of-new-adjustments-to-the-triss-equation-model-in-developed-and-developing-countries
#14
Cristiane de Alencar Domingues, Raul Coimbra, Renato Sérgio Poggetti, Lilia de Souza Nogueira, Regina Marcia Cardoso Sousa
BACKGROUND: The Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) has been criticized for being based on data from the USA and Canada-high-income countries-and therefore, it may not be applicable to low-income and middle-income countries. The present study evaluated the accuracy of three adjustments to the TRISS equation model (NTRISS-like; TRISS SpO2; NTRISS-like SpO2) in a high-income and a middle-income country to compare their performance when derived and applied to different groups. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of trauma patients admitted to two institutions: a university medical center in São Paulo, Brazil (a middle-income country), and a level 1 university trauma center in San Diego, USA (a high-income country)...
2017: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351292/youth-self-harm-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-systematic-review-of-the-risk-and-protective-factors
#15
Shilpa Aggarwal, George Patton, Nicola Reavley, Shreenivas A Sreenivasan, Michael Berk
BACKGROUND: Self-harm (defined here as an act of intentionally causing harm to own self, irrespective of the type, motive or suicidal intent) is one of the strongest antecedents of suicide in youth. While there have been a number of studies of youth self-harm in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is currently no systematic review of studies of prevalence rates and risk and protective factors. AIM: To systematically review the evidence relating to the prevalence rates and forms of self-harm in youth in LMICs and its relationship to family economic status, family functioning, relationship with the peer group, social relationships and academic performance...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320168/a-systematic-comparison-of-key-features-of-ischemic-stroke-prevention-guidelines-in-low-and-middle-income-vs-high-income-countries
#16
REVIEW
Hernán Bayona, Mayowa Owolabi, Wuwei Feng, Paul Olowoyo, Joseph Yaria, Rufus Akinyemi, James R Sawers, Bruce Ovbiagele
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Implementation of contextually appropriate, evidence-based, expert-recommended stroke prevention guideline is particularly important in Low-Income Countries (LMICs), which bear disproportional larger burden of stroke while possessing fewer resources. However, key quality characteristics of guidelines issued in LMICs compared with those in High-Income Countries (HICs) have not been systematically studied. We aimed to compare important features of stroke prevention guidelines issued in these groups...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297074/cost-effectiveness-of-cervical-cancer-screening-methods-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Alex K Mezei, Heather L Armstrong, Heather N Pedersen, Nicole G Campos, Sheona M Mitchell, Musa Sekikubo, Josaphat K Byamugisha, Jane J Kim, Stirling Bryan, Gina S Ogilvie
The incidence of cervical cancer in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is five times higher than that observed in high-income countries (HICs). This discrepancy is largely attributed to the implementation of cytology-based screening programmes in HICs. However, due to reduced health system infrastructure requirements, HPV testing (self- and provider-collected) and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) have been proposed as alternatives that may be better suited to LMICs. Knowing the relative value of different screening options can inform policy and the development of sustainable prevention programs...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295193/guidelines-in-lower-middle-income-countries
#18
REVIEW
Edeghonghon Olayemi, Eugenia V Asare, Amma A Benneh-Akwasi Kuma
Guidelines include recommendations intended to optimize patient care; used appropriately, they make healthcare consistent and efficient. In most lower-middle income countries (LMICs), there is a paucity of well-designed guidelines; as a result, healthcare workers depend on guidelines developed in Higher Income Countries (HICs). However, local guidelines are more likely to be implemented because they are applicable to the specific environment; and consider factors such as availability of resources, specialized skills and local culture...
March 14, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292367/myofibroblast-mediated-contraction
#19
Wae M Al Kattan, Seham F Alarfaj, Bayan M Alnooh, Hadeel F Alsaif, Hayfa S Alabdul Karim, Noha M Al-Qattan, Mohammad M Al-Qattan, Amel A F El-Sayed
Myofibroblast-mediated contraction is viewed as a cycle of four steps. The first step is stimulation of myofibroblasts by lysophospholipids leading to the activation of G proteins and ending with contraction of the actin-myosin complex. The next step is the transmission of the intracellular contractile force at the focal adhesions of myofibroblasts; a step that involves talin, vinculin, paxillin, Hic-5, and the integrin receptors. In the third step, fibronectin will act as the extracellular link between the integrin receptors and the extracellular collagen...
January 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287543/modified-drop-tower-impact-tests-for-american-football-helmets
#20
G Alston Rush, R Prabhu, Gus A Rush, Lakiesha N Williams, M F Horstemeyer
A modified National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) test method for American football helmet drop impact test standards is presented that would provide better assessment of a helmet's on-field impact performance by including a faceguard on the helmet. In this study, a merger of faceguard and helmet test standards is proposed. The need for a more robust systematic approach to football helmet testing procedures is emphasized by comparing representative results of the Head Injury Criterion (HIC), Severity Index (SI), and peak acceleration values for different helmets at different helmet locations under modified NOCSAE standard drop tower tests...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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