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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679300/quantitative-microbial-risk-assessment-and-infectious-disease-transmission-modeling-of-waterborne-enteric-pathogens
#1
REVIEW
Andrew F Brouwer, Nina B Masters, Joseph N S Eisenberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Waterborne enteric pathogens remain a global health threat. Increasingly, quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) and infectious disease transmission modeling (IDTM) are used to assess waterborne pathogen risks and evaluate mitigation. These modeling efforts, however, have largely been conducted independently for different purposes and in different settings. In this review, we examine the settings where each modeling strategy is employed. RECENT FINDINGS: QMRA research has focused on food contamination and recreational water in high-income countries (HICs) and drinking water and wastewater in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)...
April 20, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678866/gaps-in-guidelines-for-the-management-of-diabetes-in-low-and-middle-income-versus-high-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Mayowa O Owolabi, Joseph O Yaria, Meena Daivadanam, Akintomiwa I Makanjuola, Gary Parker, Brian Oldenburg, Rajesh Vedanthan, Shane Norris, Ayodele R Oguntoye, Morenike A Osundina, Omarys Herasme, Sulaiman Lakoh, Luqman O Ogunjimi, Sarah E Abraham, Paul Olowoyo, Carolyn Jenkins, Wuwei Feng, Hernán Bayona, Sailesh Mohan, Rohina Joshi, Ruth Webster, Andre P Kengne, Antigona Trofor, Lucia Maria Lotrean, Devarsetty Praveen, Jessica H Zafra-Tanaka, Maria Lazo-Porras, Kirsten Bobrow, Michaela A Riddell, Konstantinos Makrilakis, Yannis Manios, Bruce Ovbiagele
OBJECTIVE: The extent to which diabetes (DM) practice guidelines, often based on evidence from high-income countries (HIC), can be implemented to improve outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is a critical challenge. We carried out a systematic review to compare type 2 DM guidelines in individual LMIC versus HIC over the past decade to identify aspects that could be improved to facilitate implementation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Eligible guidelines were sought from online databases and websites of diabetes associations and ministries of health...
May 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669550/cardiorespiratory-health-effects-of-gaseous-ambient-air-pollution-exposure-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Katherine Newell, Christiana Kartsonaki, Kin Bong Hubert Lam, Om Kurmi
BACKGROUND: Lack of research on the effects of gaseous pollutants (nitrogen oxides [NOx ], sulfur dioxide [SO2 ], carbon monoxide [CO] and ozone [O3 ]) in the ambient environment on health outcomes from within low and middle income countries (LMICs) is leading to reliance on results from studies performed within high income countries (HICs). This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the cardiorespiratory health effects of gaseous pollutants in LMICs exclusively. METHODS: Systematic searching was carried out and estimates pooled by pollutant, lag and outcome, and presented as excess relative risk per 10 μg/m3 (NOx , SO2 , O3 ) or 1 ppm (CO) increase pollutant...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660515/aspergillus-fumigatus-viability-drives-allergic-responses-to-inhaled-conidia
#4
Ajay P Nayak, Tara L Croston, Angela R Lemons, W T Goldsmith, Nikki B Marshall, Michael L Kashon, Dori R Germolec, Donald H Beezhold, Brett J Green
BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus induced allergic airway disease has been shown to involve conidial germination in vivo but the immunological mechanisms remain uncharacterized. OBJECTIVE: A subchronic murine exposure model was used to examine the immunological mediators that are regulated in response to either culturable or non-culturable A. fumigatus conidia. METHODS: Female B6C3F1/N mice were repeatedly dosed via inhalation with 1 x 105 viable or heat inactivated conidia (HIC), twice a week for 13 weeks (26 exposures)...
April 13, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653163/epstein-barr-virus-presence-as-a-potential-etiology-of-persistent-bladder-inflammation-in-human-interstitial-cystitis-bladder-pain-syndrome
#5
Jia-Fong Jhang, Yung-Hsiang Hsu, Chih-Wen Peng, Yuan-Hong Jiang, Han-Chen Ho, Hann-Chorng Kuo
PURPOSE: Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome is characterized by bladder inflammation without a bacterial infection. Although viral infection is a potential etiologic cause, few studies are reported. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bladder specimens were obtained from patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and patients with stress urinary incontinence (control). Bladder specimens were tested for Epstein-Barr-encoded RNAs by in situ hybridization, Epstein-Barr DNA by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), serology, and immunohistochemical staining...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626082/diplos-hic-an-updated-approach-to-classifying-selective-sweeps
#6
Andrew D Kern, Daniel R Schrider
Identifying selective sweeps in populations that have complex demographic histories remains a difficult problem in population genetics. We previously introduced a supervised machine learning approach, S/HIC, for finding both hard and soft selective sweeps in genomes on the basis of patterns of genetic variation surrounding a window of the genome. While S/HIC was shown to be both powerful and precise, the utility of S/HIC was limited by the use of phased genomic data as input. In this report we describe a deep learning variant of our method, diploS/HIC, that uses unphased genotypes to accurately classify genomic windows...
April 6, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619637/assessing-links-between-energy-consumption-freight-transport-and-economic-growth-evidence-from-dynamic-simultaneous-equation-models
#7
Samia Nasreen, Samir Saidi, Ilhan Ozturk
We investigate this study to examine the relationship between economic growth, freight transport, and energy consumption for 63 developing countries over the period of 1990-2016. In order to make the panel data analysis more homogeneous, we apply the income level of countries to divide the global panel into three sub-panels, namely, lower-middle income countries (LMIC), upper-middle income countries (UMIC), and high-income countries (HIC). Using the generalized method of moments (GMM), the results prove evidence of bidirectional causal relationship between economic growth and freight transport for all selected panels and between economic growth and energy consumption for the high- and upper-middle income panels...
April 4, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606128/epidemiology-of-heart-failure-in-pediatric-populations-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#8
Aurélie T Sibetcheu, Valirie Ndip Agbor, Ulrich Flore Nyaga, Jean Joël Bigna, Jean Jacques Noubiap
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) in pediatric populations is a major public health concern. It is associated with high rates of hospital admissions, disability, and mortality in high-income countries (HIC), but its burden is poorly documented in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We present a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize available data on the prevalence, incidence, etiologies, treatment, and outcomes including hospital admission and mortality and economic burden of HF in neonates, infants, children, and adolescents in LMICs...
April 2, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584768/global-nutrition-1990-2015-a-shrinking-hungry-and-expanding-fat-world
#9
Wen Peng, Elliot M Berry
OBJECTIVES: Following its publication in 2008, the Global Nutritional Index (GNI) which captures the triple burden of malnutrition, has been updated to assess the overall nutritional status and nutritional trends of countries, regions and the world, including both under-nutrition and over-nutrition. METHODS: The GNI was modeled on the Human Development Index, using geometric means of three normalized indicators: protein-energy malnutrition (PEM, measured by Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) from PEM), micronutrient deficiency (MID, measured by DALYs from MID), and penalizing obesity (percent female obesity)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584492/differences-in-the-protective-capabilities-of-bicycle-helmets-in-real-world-and-standard-specified-impact-scenarios
#10
Megan L Bland, David S Zuby, Becky C Mueller, Steven Rowson
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate relative differences in impact attenuation capabilities of bicycle helmets under real-world impact conditions and safety standard-specified conditions using a standard rig. METHODS: A Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) test rig was used to impact 10 helmet models of varied design. Impact configurations included 2 locations and 2 velocities. A frontal rim location (inferior to the standard-defined test area) and a temporal location were selected to reflect common cyclist impacts...
February 28, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581252/global-increase-and-geographic-convergence-in-antibiotic-consumption-between-2000-and-2015
#11
Eili Y Klein, Thomas P Van Boeckel, Elena M Martinez, Suraj Pant, Sumanth Gandra, Simon A Levin, Herman Goossens, Ramanan Laxminarayan
Tracking antibiotic consumption patterns over time and across countries could inform policies to optimize antibiotic prescribing and minimize antibiotic resistance, such as setting and enforcing per capita consumption targets or aiding investments in alternatives to antibiotics. In this study, we analyzed the trends and drivers of antibiotic consumption from 2000 to 2015 in 76 countries and projected total global antibiotic consumption through 2030. Between 2000 and 2015, antibiotic consumption, expressed in defined daily doses (DDD), increased 65% (21...
March 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577814/a-two-step-markov-processes-approach-for-parameterization-of-cancer-state-transition-models-for-low-and-middle-income-countries
#12
Chaitra Gopalappa, Jiachen Guo, Prashant Meckoni, Buyannemekh Munkhbat, Carel Pretorius, Jeremy Lauer, André Ilbawi, Melanie Bertram
Implementation of organized cancer screening and prevention programs in high-income countries (HICs) has considerably decreased cancer-related incidence and mortality. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), screening and early diagnosis programs are generally unavailable, and most cancers are diagnosed in late stages when survival is very low. Analyzing the cost-effectiveness of alternative cancer control programs and estimating resource needs will help prioritize interventions in LMICs. However, mathematical models of natural cancer onset and progression needed to conduct the economic analyses are predominantly based on populations in HICs because the longitudinal data on screening and diagnoses required for parameterization are unavailable in LMICs...
March 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564575/tobacco-smoking-and-antisocial-deviance-among-vietnamese-vietnamese-american-and-european-american-adolescents
#13
Bahr Weiss, Tam Nguyen, Lam Trung, Victoria Ngo, Anna Lau
Tobacco smoking is one of the most significant modifiable behavioral health risk factors worldwide. Although smoking rates in some high-income countries (HIC) have declined, rates in many low-and-middle-income countries (LMIC) remain high. Adolescence is a key developmental risk period for smoking initiation. Research indicates that a major adolescent risk factor for tobacco smoking is antisocial deviance, which includes such behaviors as aggression, risk-taking, and rule-breaking. The linkages between antisocial deviance and smoking suggest that these behaviors and their underlying attitudes can be important targets for smoking prevention programs, but for public health efficiency it is important to target the components of antisocial deviance most closely linked smoking...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562877/experiences-of-icu-survivors-in-a-low-middle-income-country-a-multicenter-study
#14
Lalitha Pieris, Ponsuge Chathurani Sigera, Ambepitiyawaduge Pubudu De Silva, Sithum Munasinghe, Aasiyah Rashan, Priyantha Lakmini Athapattu, Kosala Saroj Amarasiri Jayasinghe, Kerstein Samarasinghe, Abi Beane, Arjen M Dondorp, Rashan Haniffa
BACKGROUND: Stressful patient experiences during the intensive care unit (ICU) stay is associated with reduced satisfaction in High Income Countries (HICs) but has not been explored in Lower and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). This study describes the recalled experiences, stress and satisfaction as perceived by survivors of ICUs in a LMIC. METHODS: This follow-up study was carried out in 32 state ICUs in Sri Lanka between July and December 2015.ICU survivors' experiences, stress factors encountered and level of satisfaction were collected 30 days after ICU discharge by a telephone questionnaire adapted from Granja and Wright...
March 21, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542121/report-of-a-workshop-on-ensuring-sustainable-access-to-safe-blood-in-developing-countries-international-blood-safety-forum-march-24-2017
#15
REVIEW
Louis M Katz, John J Donnelly, Christopher J Gresens, Jerry A Holmberg, James MacPherson, Peter J K Zacharias, Jean Stanley, Christine Bales
On March 24, 2017, more than 90 experts in blood safety and international development from blood centers, industry, government, and international and nongovernmental organizations gathered in Arlington, Virginia, for the Third International Blood Safety Forum, cosponsored by America's Blood Centers and Global Healing. This report summarizes presentations and major conclusions. The meeting explored ways to increase access to affordable, safe blood for low- and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs) in an era when funding from the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund has been redirected from preventing the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to diagnosing and treating the 25 million-plus people living with HIV in LMICs...
March 14, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540230/carbon-load-in-airway-macrophages-as-a-biomarker-of-exposure-to-particulate-air-pollution-a-longitudinal-study-of-an-international-panel
#16
Yang Bai, Hannelore Bové, Tim S Nawrot, Benoit Nemery
BACKGROUND: Carbon load in airway macrophages (AM) has been proposed as an internal marker to assess long-term exposure to combustion-derived pollutant particles. However, it is not known how this biomarker is affected by changes in exposure. We studied the clearance kinetics of black carbon (BC) in AM, obtained by sputum induction, in a one-year panel study. METHODS: AM BC was measured 8 times with 6 weeks intervals in healthy young subjects: 15 long-term residents in Leuven, Belgium (BE, mean annual PM10 20-30 μg/m3 ) and 30 newcomers having arrived recently (< 3 weeks) in Leuven from highly polluted cities (mean annual PM10  > 50 μg/m3 ) in low and middle-income countries (LMIC, n = 15), or from low to moderately polluted cities in high-income countries (HIC, n = 15)...
March 14, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540161/death-at-no-cost-persons-with-no-health-insurance-claims-in-the-last-year-of-life-in-switzerland
#17
Radoslaw Panczak, Viktor von Wyl, Oliver Reich, Xhyljeta Luta, Maud Maessen, Andreas E Stuck, Claudia Berlin, Kurt Schmidlin, David C Goodman, Matthias Egger, Kerri Clough-Gorr, Marcel Zwahlen
BACKGROUND: Lack of health insurance claims (HIC) in the last year of life might indicate suboptimal end-of-life care, but reasons for no HIC are not fully understood because information on causes of death is often missing. We investigated association of no HIC with characteristics of individuals and their place of residence. METHODS: We analysed HIC of persons who died between 2008 and 2010, which were obtained from six providers of mandatory Swiss health insurance...
March 14, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528851/adolescent-transition-among-young-people-with-perinatal-hiv-in-high-income-and-low-income-settings
#18
Ali Judd, Mary-Ann Davies
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize evidence for health outcomes among adolescents and young people living with HIV (AYLHIV) who have transitioned to adult care/adulthood, views of AYLHIV and providers on the transition process, and the effect of adolescent and youth friendly services (AYFS) on outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: A total of 43 studies were identified [n = 13 high-income countries (HICs), n = 30 low-/middle-income countries (LMICs)]. In HICs, around 75% of patients were retained in care at approximately 4 years posttransition...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511741/evaluating-healthcare-priority-setting-at-the-meso-level-a-thematic-review-of-empirical-literature
#19
Dennis Waithaka, Benjamin Tsofa, Edwine Barasa
Background : Decentralization of health systems has made sub-national/regional healthcare systems the backbone of healthcare delivery. These regions are tasked with the difficult responsibility of determining healthcare priorities and resource allocation amidst scarce resources. We aimed to review empirical literature that evaluated priority setting practice at the meso level of health systems. Methods : We systematically searched PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google scholar databases and supplemented these with manual searching for relevant studies, based on the reference list of selected papers...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499679/phytochemical-profiling-and-in-vitro-screening-for-anticholinesterase-antioxidant-antiglucosidase-and-neuroprotective-effect-of-three-traditional-medicinal-plants-for-alzheimer-s-disease-and-diabetes-mellitus-dual-therapy
#20
Mohan Penumala, Raveendra Babu Zinka, Jeelan Basha Shaik, Suresh Kumar Reddy Mallepalli, Ramakrishna Vadde, Damu Gangaiah Amooru
BACKGROUND: Extensive epidemiological and clinical studies revealed that Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D) are most likely to appear simultaneously in aged people as T2D is a major risk factor for AD. Therefore, development of potential multifunctional agents for dual therapy of AD and T2D has received much attention. Buchanania axillaris, Hemidesmus indicus and Rhus mysorensis have been used extensively in popular medicine. The present study was aimed at phytochemical profiling and evaluating multifunctional ability of titled plants in the AD and T2D dual therapy...
March 2, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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