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Aya Niimi, Yasuhiko Igawa, Naoki Aizawa, Toshiki Honma, Akira Nomiya, Yoshiyuki Akiyama, Jun Kamei, Tetsuya Fujimura, Hiroshi Fukuhara, Yukio Homma
AIM: To investigate the feasibility of chemokines and cytokines potentially elevated in the bladder tissue of Hunner type interstitial cystitis (HIC) as urinary markers for distinguishing HIC from non-Hunner type interstitial cystitis (NHIC) METHODS: Urine specimens were collected from 41 HIC patients, 25 NHIC patients, and 31 healthy volunteers (control). The supernatants of urine specimens were subjected to ELISA kits for measurements of 10 cytokines and chemokines, whose gene expression was known to be elevated in HIC bladder tissue...
October 19, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Rashan Haniffa, Mavuto Mukaka, Sithum Bandara Munasinghe, Ambepitiyawaduge Pubudu De Silva, Kosala Saroj Amarasiri Jayasinghe, Abi Beane, Nicolette de Keizer, Arjen M Dondorp
BACKGROUND: Current critical care prognostic models are predominantly developed in high-income countries (HICs) and may not be feasible in intensive care units (ICUs) in lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Existing prognostic models cannot be applied without validation in LMICs as the different disease profiles, resource availability, and heterogeneity of the population may limit the transferability of such scores. A major shortcoming in using such models in LMICs is the unavailability of required measurements...
October 17, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Nchangwi Syntia Munung, Bongani M Mayosi, Jantina de Vries
INTRODUCTION AND METHOD: Africa is currently host to a number of international genomics research and biobanking consortia, each with a mandate to advance genomics research and biobanking in Africa. Whilst most of these consortia promise to transform the way international health research is done in Africa, few have articulated exactly how they propose to go about this. In this paper, we report on a qualitative interviewing study in which we involved 17 genomics researchers in Africa. We describe their perceptions and expectations of international genomics research and biobanking initiatives in Africa...
2017: PloS One
Ai Koyanagi, Jordan E DeVylder, Brendon Stubbs, André F Carvalho, Nicola Veronese, Josep M Haro, Ziggi I Santini
Caregiving has been associated with adverse health outcomes. However, there is a paucity of multi-country, population-based studies on mental health outcomes of caregivers especially from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, we assessed the association of caregiving with depression, sleep problems, and perceived stress in 10 high-, 27 middle-, and 21 low-income countries. Cross-sectional community-based data of the World Health Survey including 258,793 adults aged ≥18 years were analyzed. Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the association of past 12-month caregiving with past 12-month DSM-IV depression, and past 30-day perceived stress [range 0 (low)-100 (high)] and severe/extreme sleep problems...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Andrea L Radossi, Katherine Taromina, Stacey Marjerrison, Caroline J Diorio, Raquel Similio, Festus Njuguna, Glenn M Afungchwi, Elena J Ladas
PURPOSE: Traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) use in children with cancer is well established among high-income, upper middle-income, low-middle-income, and low-income countries (HIC, UMIC, LMIC, LIC, respectively). In HIC, a developing body of evidence exists for several T&CM therapies; however, evidence in other income settings is less well described despite a significantly higher use when compared to reports from HIC. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence for T&CM for a variety of supportive care indications among children with cancer...
October 13, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
David Vincent, Petra Kramberger, Rosana Hudej, Aleš Štrancar, Yaohe Wang, Yuhong Zhou, Ajoy Velayudhan
The purification of large viruses remains an important field of research and development. The development of efficient purification trains is restricted by limited analytical methods, as well as by the complexity of large viruses, as well as the high variability in starting material from cell culture. Vaccinia virus holds great potential as an oncolytic and immunotherapeutic vaccine against a broad spectrum of cancers. In this work, monolith-based capture and polishing chromatographic steps for vaccinia virus Lister strain has been developed...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Natasa Cvetinovic, Andjelka M Isakovic, Mitja Lainscak, Hans-Durk Dungen, Natasa Markovic Nikolic, Goran Loncar
Although procalcitonin (PCT) was evaluated for the first time in the setting of heart failure (HF) in 1999, its utility in HF patients is still under examination. Patients with HF have significantly higher plasma PCT concentrations than healthy subjects and PCT levels are associated with severity of HF. It has been confirmed that higher levels of PCT are associated with worse outcomes, such as increased mortality and higher rate of rehospitalization, in HF patients with no evidence of infection. Furthermore, it has been approved that PCT-guided antibiotic treatment in HF patients reduces duration of antibiotic therapy and improves outcomes...
October 4, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
Sara Gordon, Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus, Sarah Skeen, Charles Perry, Kendall Bryant, Mark Tomlinson
The harmful use of alcohol is a component cause for more than 200 diseases. The association between alcohol consumption, risk taking behavior and a range of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS is well established. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS as well as harmful alcohol use in low and middle income countries is high. Alcohol has been identified as a modifiable risk factor in the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. The objective of this paper is to define research priorities for the interaction of alcohol and HIV/AIDS in low and middle income countries...
October 3, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
Sophie Grabar, Hana Selinger-Leneman, Sophie Abgrall, Gilles Pialoux, Laurence Weiss, Dominique Costagliola
OBJECTIVES: We studied the frequency and risk factors for loss of long-term non-progressor (LTNP) and HIV controller (HIC) status among patients identified as such in 2005 in the French Hospital Database on HIV (FHDH-ANRS CO4). METHODS: We selected patients who were treatment-naïve and asymptomatic in 2005 (baseline). Those with ≥8 years of known HIV infection and a CD4 cell nadir ≥500/mm3 were classified as LTNP and those with ≥10 years of known HIV infection and 90% of plasma viral load (VL) values ≤500 copies/ml in the absence of cART as HIC...
2017: PloS One
Ronald D Barr, W Archie Bleyer
Adolescents and young adults (AYAs - ages 15 to 39) constitute approximately 40% of the world's population and contribute an estimated one million new cases of cancer annually, the great majority in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In high-income countries (HICs) cancer is the commonest cause of disease-related death in AYAs, though overall 5-year survival rates now exceed 80%. A very different circumstance likely holds in LMICs, but accurate assessments are not readily available.Breast cancer accounts for 40% of tumours in female AYAs and this age group includes the peak incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma...
September 27, 2017: Tumori
Carlos de Mestral, Silvia Stringhini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this paper is to summarize the recent and relevant evidence linking socioeconomic status (SES) to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). RECENT FINDINGS: In high-income countries (HICs), the evidence continues to expand, with meta-analyses of large longitudinal cohort studies consistently confirming the inverse association between SES and several CVD and CVRFs. The evidence remains limited in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), where most of the evidence originates from cross-sectional studies of varying quality and external validity; the available evidence indicates that the association between SES and CVD and CVRFs depends on the socioeconomic development context and the stage in the demographic, epidemiological, and nutrition transition of the population...
September 30, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
Tushar Jain, Todd Boland, Asparouh Lilov, Irina Burnina, Michael Brown, Yingda Xu, Maximiliano Vásquez
Motivation: The hydrophobicity of a monoclonal antibody is an important biophysical property relevant for its developability into a therapeutic. In addition to characterizing heterogeneity, Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography (HIC) is an assay that is often used to quantify the hydrophobicity of an antibody to assess downstream risks. Earlier studies have shown that retention times in this assay can be correlated to amino-acid or atomic propensities weighted by the surface areas obtained from protein 3-dimensional structures...
August 16, 2017: Bioinformatics
A Molassiotis, P Yates, Q Li, W K W So, K Pongthavornkamol, P Pittayapan, H Komatsu, M Thandar, M-S Li, S Titus Chacko, V Lopez, J Butcon, D Wyld, R J Chan
Background: To assess the supportive care needs, quality of life (QoL) and symptoms of patients with cancer after the end of first-line treatments and into survivorship in Asian countries using Australian data as benchmark. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Australia and eight high-income (HICs) and low-/middle-income (LMICs) Asian countries (China, Japan, Hong Kong SAR, South Korea, Myanmar, Thailand, India, Philippines) using validated scales (Cancer Survivors Unmet Needs scale), physical-symptom concerns (Cancer Survivors Survey of Needs subscale) and a single-item measure of global QoL perception...
October 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Francesco Marras, Anna Casabianca, Federica Bozzano, Maria Libera Ascierto, Chiara Orlandi, Antonio Di Biagio, Emanuele Pontali, Chiara Dentone, Giancarlo Orofino, Laura Nicolini, Lucia Taramasso, Mauro Magnani, Francesco M Marincola, Ena Wang, Lorenzo Moretta, Andrea De Maria
The size of lentiviral DNA reservoirs reflects effectiveness of immune responses against lentiviruses. So far, abundant information has been gathered on the control of HIV-1 replication, Understanding of innate mechanisms contributing to containment of HIV-DNA reservoir, however, are only partly clarified and are relevant to guide interventions for reservoir containment or eradicationWe studied the contribution of Natural Killer (NK) cell functional features in HIV patients either controlling replication either spontaneously (HIC) or after progression and antiretroviral treatment (PP)...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Virology
Eva Hackemann, Hans Hasse
Using salt mixtures instead of single salts can be beneficial for hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). The effect of electrolytes on the adsorption of proteins, however, depends on the pH. Little is known on that dependence for mixed electrolytes. Therefore, the effect of the pH on protein adsorption from aqueous solutions containing mixed salts is systematically studied in the present work for a model system: the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the mildly hydrophobic resin Toyopearl PPG-600M...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Jacob Van Dyk, Eduardo Zubizarreta, Yolande Lievens
BACKGROUND: With increasing recognition of growing cancer incidence globally, efficient means of expanding radiotherapy capacity is imperative, and understanding the factors impacting human and financial needs is valuable. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A time-driven activity-based costing analysis was performed, using a base case of 2-machine departments, with defined cost inputs and operating parameters. Four income groups were analysed, ranging from low to high income...
September 22, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Alexandre Goyon, Valentina D'Atri, Olivier Colas, Szabolcs Fekete, Alain Beck, Davy Guillarme
Despite the popularity of targeted and immune therapies, the number of studies dealing with the quantitation of aggregates for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) approved mAb and related products are still very scarce in literature. In this work, 30 therapeutic proteins including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), Fc-fusion proteins and a bi-specific antibody (bsAb) were investigated using size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Their levels of high molecular weight species (HMWS) were experimentally estimated between 0...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Mamunur Rashid, Judson Belmont, David Carpenter, Christopher E Turner, Eric C Olson
Paxillin and Hic-5 are homologous focal adhesion adaptor proteins that coordinate cytoskeletal rearrangements in response to integrin-signaling, but their role(s) in cortical development are unknown. Here, we find that Hic-5 deficient mice are postnatal viable with normal cortical layering. Mice with a neural-specific deletion of paxillin are also postnatal viable, but show evidence of a cortical neuron migration delay that is evident pre and perinatally, but is not detected at postnatal day 35 (P35). This phenotype is not modified by Hic-5 deficiency (double knockout)...
September 21, 2017: Development
David C Poole
When Virgil's hero Aeneas sought to return from the underworld the task (power output) was carefully discriminated from the toil (exercise intensity) "hoc opus, hic labor est". This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
September 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Pawel Baranowski, Krzysztof Damaziak, Lukasz Mazurkiewicz, Jerzy Malachowski, Artur Muszynski, Dario Vangi
OBJECTIVE: This article discusses differences between a side impact procedure described in UN/ECE Regulation 129 and scenarios observed in real world cases. METHODS: Numerical simulations of side impact tests utilizing different boundary conditions are used to compare the severity of the Regulation 129 test and the other tests with different kinematics of child resistant systems (CRS). In the simulations, the authors use a validated finite element (FE) model of real world CRS together with a fully deformable numerical model of the Q3 anthropomorphic test device (ATD) by Humanetics Innovative Solution, Inc...
September 14, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
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