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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924219/mesoscopic-model-for-dna-g-quadruplex-unfolding
#1
A E Bergues-Pupo, I Gutiérrez, J R Arias-Gonzalez, F Falo, A Fiasconaro
Genomes contain rare guanine-rich sequences capable of assembling into four-stranded helical structures, termed G-quadruplexes, with potential roles in gene regulation and chromosome stability. Their mechanical unfolding has only been reported to date by all-atom simulations, which cannot dissect the major physical interactions responsible for their cohesion. Here, we propose a mesoscopic model to describe both the mechanical and thermal stability of DNA G-quadruplexes, where each nucleotide of the structure, as well as each central cation located at the inner channel, is mapped onto a single bead...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916711/comparative-analysis-of-three-dimensional-chromosomal-architecture-identifies-a-novel-fetal-hemoglobin-regulatory-element
#2
Peng Huang, Cheryl A Keller, Belinda Giardine, Jeremy D Grevet, James O J Davies, Jim R Hughes, Ryo Kurita, Yukio Nakamura, Ross C Hardison, Gerd A Blobel
Chromatin structure is tightly intertwined with transcription regulation. Here we compared the chromosomal architectures of fetal and adult human erythroblasts and found that, globally, chromatin structures and compartments A/B are highly similar at both developmental stages. At a finer scale, we detected distinct folding patterns at the developmentally controlled β-globin locus. Specifically, new fetal stage-specific contacts were uncovered between a region separating the fetal (γ) and adult (δ and β) globin genes (encompassing the HBBP1 and BGLT3 noncoding genes) and two distal chromosomal sites (HS5 and 3'HS1) that flank the locus...
September 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903899/the-application-of-next-generation-sequencing-techniques-in-studying-transcriptional-regulation-in-embryonic-stem-cells
#3
Ya-Jun Liu, Feng Zhang, Hong-de Liu, Xiao Sun
The mechanism of transcriptional regulation has been the focus of many studies in the post-genomic era. The development of sequencing-based technologies for chromatin profiling enables current researchers to experimentally measure chromatin properties. Moreover, many studies aim at annotating the state of the chromatin into broad categories based on observed chromatin features and/or DNA sequences, then associating the resultant distal regulatory regions with the correct target genes based on DNA sequences, and predicting the dependence of epigenetic features on genetic variation...
August 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892574/identification-of-a-novel-interspecific-hybrid-yeast-from-a-metagenomic-spontaneously-inoculated-beer-sample-using-hi-c
#4
Caiti Smukowski Heil, Joshua N Burton, Ivan Liachko, Anne Friedrich, Noah A Hanson, Cody L Morris, Joseph Schacherer, Jay Shendure, James H Thomas, Maitreya J Dunham
Interspecific hybridization is a common mechanism enabling genetic diversification and adaptation; however, the detection of hybrid species has been quite difficult. The identification of microbial hybrids is made even more complicated, as most environmental microbes are resistant to culturing and must be studied in their native mixed communities. We have previously adapted the chromosome conformation capture method Hi-C to the assembly of genomes from mixed populations. Here, we show the method's application in assembling genomes directly from an uncultured, mixed population from a spontaneously inoculated beer sample...
September 11, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887309/phosphorylation-of-the-oncogenic-transcription-factor-erg-in-prostate-cells-dissociates-polycomb-repressive-complex-2-allowing-target-gene-activation
#5
Vivekananda Kedage, Brady G Strittmatter, Paige B Dausinas, Peter C Hollenhorst
In ~50% of prostate cancers, chromosomal rearrangements cause the fusion of the promoter and 5' UTR of the androgen-regulated transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) gene to the open reading frame of ERG, encoding an ETS family transcription factor. This fusion results in expression of full-length or N-terminally truncated ERG protein in prostate epithelia. ERG is not expressed in normal prostate epithelia, but when expressed, it promotes tumorigenesis via altered gene expression, stimulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cellular migration/invasion, and transformation...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867287/dynamic-control-of-x-chromosome-conformation-and-repression-by-a-histone-h4k20-demethylase
#6
Katjuša Brejc, Qian Bian, Satoru Uzawa, Bayly S Wheeler, Erika C Anderson, David S King, Philip J Kranzusch, Christine G Preston, Barbara J Meyer
Chromatin modification and higher-order chromosome structure play key roles in gene regulation, but their functional interplay in controlling gene expression is elusive. We have discovered the machinery and mechanism underlying the dynamic enrichment of histone modification H4K20me1 on hermaphrodite X chromosomes during C. elegans dosage compensation and demonstrated H4K20me1's pivotal role in regulating higher-order chromosome structure and X-chromosome-wide gene expression. The structure and the activity of the dosage compensation complex (DCC) subunit DPY-21 define a Jumonji demethylase subfamily that converts H4K20me2 to H4K20me1 in worms and mammals...
August 26, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855673/aurora-a-phosphorylation-of-yy1-during-mitosis-inactivates-its-dna-binding-activity
#7
Karen E Alexander, Raed Rizkallah
Successful execution of mitotic cell division requires the tight synchronisation of numerous biochemical pathways. The underlying mechanisms that govern chromosome segregation have been thoroughly investigated. However, the mechanisms that regulate transcription factors in coordination with mitotic progression remain poorly understood. In this report, we identify the transcription factor YY1 as a novel mitotic substrate for the Aurora A kinase, a key regulator of critical mitotic events, like centrosome maturation and spindle formation...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854249/deregulation-of-kshv-latency-conformation-by-er-stress-and-caspase-dependent-rad21-cleavage
#8
Alessandra De Leo, Horng-Shen Chen, Chih-Chi Andrew Hu, Paul M Lieberman
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a human gammaherpesvirus recognized as the principal causative agent of KS and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). KSHV establishes persistent latent infection in B lymphocytes where viral gene expression is restricted, in part, by a cohesin-dependent chromosome conformation. Here, we show that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces a rapid, caspase-dependent cleavage of cohesin subunit RAD21. ER stress-induced cleavage of RAD21 correlated with a rapid and strong viral lytic transcriptional activation...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842887/imaging-the-cell-cycle-of-pathogen-e-coli-during-growth-in-macrophage
#9
Gaëlle Demarre, Victoria Prudent, Olivier Espéli
The study of the bacterial cell cycle at the single cell level can not only give insights on the fitness of the bacterial population but also reveal heterogeneous behavior. Typically, the DNA replication, the cell division, and the nucleoid conformation are appropriate representatives of the bacterial cell cycle. Because bacteria rapidly adapt their growth rate to environmental changes, the measure of cell cycle parameters gives valuable insights for the study of bacterial stress response or host-pathogen interactions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842877/generation-and-analysis-of-chromosomal-contact-maps-of-bacteria
#10
Martial Marbouty, Romain Koszul
This methods article described a protocol aiming at generating chromosome contact maps of bacterial species using a genome-wide derivative of the chromosome conformation capture (3C) technique. The approach is readily applicable on a broad variety of gram + and gram-bacterial species. It describes and addresses known caveats and technicalities associated with the technique, and should be of interest to any laboratory interested to perform a multiscale analysis of the genome structure of its species of interest...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835994/a-new-twist-in-the-coil-functions-of-the-coiled-coil-domain-of-structural-maintenance-of-chromosome-smc-proteins
#11
REVIEW
Avi Matityahu, Itay Onn
The higher-order organization of chromosomes ensures their stability and functionality. However, the molecular mechanism by which higher order structure is established is poorly understood. Dissecting the activity of the relevant proteins provides information essential for achieving a comprehensive understanding of chromosome structure. Proteins of the structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) family of ATPases are the core of evolutionary conserved complexes. SMC complexes are involved in regulating genome dynamics and in maintaining genome stability...
August 23, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825727/condensin-mediated-remodeling-of-the-mitotic-chromatin-landscape-in-fission-yeast
#12
Yasutaka Kakui, Adam Rabinowitz, David J Barry, Frank Uhlmann
The eukaryotic genome consists of DNA molecules far longer than the cells that contain them. They reach their greatest compaction during chromosome condensation in mitosis. This process is aided by condensin, a structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family member. The spatial organization of mitotic chromosomes and how condensin shapes chromatin architecture are not yet fully understood. Here we use chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) to study mitotic chromosome condensation in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe...
August 21, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825700/smc-complexes-differentially-compact-mitotic-chromosomes-according-to-genomic-context
#13
Stephanie Andrea Schalbetter, Anton Goloborodko, Geoffrey Fudenberg, Jon-Matthew Belton, Catrina Miles, Miao Yu, Job Dekker, Leonid Mirny, Jonathan Baxter
Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) protein complexes are key determinants of chromosome conformation. Using Hi-C and polymer modelling, we study how cohesin and condensin, two deeply conserved SMC complexes, organize chromosomes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The canonical role of cohesin is to co-align sister chromatids, while condensin generally compacts mitotic chromosomes. We find strikingly different roles for the two complexes in budding yeast mitosis. First, cohesin is responsible for compacting mitotic chromosome arms, independently of sister chromatid cohesion...
September 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808972/chromosome-conformation-capture-for-research-on-innate-antiviral-immunity
#14
Yoon Jung Kim, Tae Hoon Kim
Chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology has revolutionized our knowledge on chromatin folding and nuclear organization. This cis-loop detection approach can be used to identify candidate regulatory elements interacting with target gene of interest. This chapter introduces the application of 3C technique to investigate a dynamic alteration in the chromosome folding structure or genomic architecture resulting from interaction changes between the enhancer and its target gene. Innate antiviral immunity is one of the well-known gene induction systems, involving rapid first-line response to virus or pathogen to trigger gene expression changes in order to protect cells and to limit further infection...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805849/topology-of-polymer-chains-under-nanoscale-confinement
#15
Vahid Satarifard, Maziar Heidari, Samaneh Mashaghi, Sander J Tans, Mohammad Reza Ejtehadi, Alireza Mashaghi
Spatial confinement limits the conformational space accessible to biomolecules but the implications for bimolecular topology are not yet known. Folded linear biopolymers can be seen as molecular circuits formed by intramolecular contacts. The pairwise arrangement of intra-chain contacts can be categorized as parallel, series or cross, and has been identified as a topological property. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we determine the contact order distributions and topological circuits of short semi-flexible linear and ring polymer chains with a persistence length of lp under a spherical confinement of radius Rc...
August 24, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805829/lineage-specific-dynamic-and-pre-established-enhancer-promoter-contacts-cooperate-in-terminal-differentiation
#16
Adam J Rubin, Brook C Barajas, Mayra Furlan-Magaril, Vanessa Lopez-Pajares, Maxwell R Mumbach, Imani Howard, Daniel S Kim, Lisa D Boxer, Jonathan Cairns, Mikhail Spivakov, Steven W Wingett, Minyi Shi, Zhixin Zhao, William J Greenleaf, Anshul Kundaje, Michael Snyder, Howard Y Chang, Peter Fraser, Paul A Khavari
Chromosome conformation is an important feature of metazoan gene regulation; however, enhancer-promoter contact remodeling during cellular differentiation remains poorly understood. To address this, genome-wide promoter capture Hi-C (CHi-C) was performed during epidermal differentiation. Two classes of enhancer-promoter contacts associated with differentiation-induced genes were identified. The first class ('gained') increased in contact strength during differentiation in concert with enhancer acquisition of the H3K27ac activation mark...
August 14, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802249/high-resolution-mapping-of-chromatin-conformation-in-cardiac-myocytes-reveals-structural-remodeling-of-the-epigenome-in-heart-failure
#17
Manuel Rosa-Garrido, Douglas J Chapski, Anthony D Schmitt, Todd H Kimball, Elaheh Karbassi, Emma Monte, Enrique Balderas, Matteo Pellegrini, Tsai-Ting Shih, Elizabeth Soehalim, David A Liem, Peipei Ping, Niels J Galjart, Shuxun Ren, Yibin Wang, Bing Ren, Thomas M Vondriska
Background -Cardiovascular disease is associated with epigenomic changes in the heart, however the endogenous structure of cardiac myocyte chromatin has never been determined. Methods -To investigate the mechanisms of epigenomic function in the heart, genome-wide chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) and DNA sequencing were performed in adult cardiac myocytes following development of pressure overload-induced hypertrophy. Mice with cardiac-specific deletion of CTCF (a ubiquitous chromatin structural protein) were generated to explore the role of this protein in chromatin structure and cardiac phenotype...
August 11, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794204/chromosome-topology-guides-the-drosophila-dosage-compensation-complex-for-target-gene-activation
#18
Tamás Schauer, Yad Ghavi-Helm, Tom Sexton, Christian Albig, Catherine Regnard, Giacomo Cavalli, Eileen Em Furlong, Peter B Becker
X chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila requires chromosome-wide coordination of gene activation. The male-specific lethal dosage compensation complex (DCC) identifies and binds to X-chromosomal high-affinity sites (HAS) from which it boosts transcription. A sub-class of HAS, PionX sites, represent first contacts on the X. Here, we explored the chromosomal interactions of representative PionX sites by high-resolution 4C and determined the global chromosome conformation by Hi-C in sex-sorted embryos. Male and female X chromosomes display similar nuclear architecture, concordant with clustered, constitutively active genes...
August 9, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792605/single-cell-hi-c-bridges-microscopy-and-genome-wide-sequencing-approaches-to-study-3d-chromatin-organization
#19
REVIEW
Sergey V Ulianov, Kikue Tachibana-Konwalski, Sergey V Razin
Recent years have witnessed an explosion of the single-cell biochemical toolbox including chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based methods that provide novel insights into chromatin spatial organization in individual cells. The observations made with these techniques revealed that topologically associating domains emerge from cell population averages and do not exist as static structures in individual cells. Stochastic nature of the genome folding is likely to be biologically relevant and may reflect the ability of chromatin fibers to adopt a number of alternative configurations, some of which could be transiently stabilized and serve regulatory purposes...
August 9, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776025/three-dimensional-positioning-and-structure-of-chromosomes-in-a-human-prophase-nucleus
#20
Bo Chen, Mohammed Yusuf, Teruo Hashimoto, Ana Katrina Estandarte, George Thompson, Ian Robinson
The human genetic material is packaged into 46 chromosomes. The structure of chromosomes is known at the lowest level, where the DNA chain is wrapped around a core of eight histone proteins to form nucleosomes. Around a million of these nucleosomes, each about 11 nm in diameter and 6 nm in thickness, are wrapped up into the complex organelle of the chromosome, whose structure is mostly known at the level of visible light microscopy to form a characteristic cross shape in metaphase. However, the higher-order structure of human chromosomes, between a few tens and hundreds of nanometers, has not been well understood...
July 2017: Science Advances
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