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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221786/chemical-trends-in-solid-alkali-pertechnetates
#1
Jamie Weaver, Chuck Z Soderquist, Nancy M Washton, Andrew S Lipton, Paul L Gassman, Wayne W Lukens, Albert A Kruger, Nathalie A Wall, John S McCloy
Insight into the solid-state chemistry of pure technetium-99 ((99)Tc) oxides is required in the development of a robust immobilization and disposal system for nuclear waste stemming from the radiopharmaceutical industry, from the production of nuclear weapons, and from spent nuclear fuel. However, because of its radiotoxicity and the subsequent requirement of special facilities and handling procedures for research, only a few studies have been completed, many of which are over 20 years old. In this study, we report the synthesis of pure alkali pertechnetates (sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium) and analysis of these compounds by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (static and magic angle spinning), and neutron diffraction...
February 21, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219041/coupling-the-advection-dispersion-equation-with-fully-kinetic-reversible-irreversible-sorption-terms-to-model-radiocesium-soil-profiles-in-fukushima-prefecture
#2
Hiroshi Kurikami, Alex Malins, Minoru Takeishi, Kimiaki Saito, Kazuki Iijima
Radiocesium is an important environmental contaminant in fallout from nuclear reactor accidents and atomic weapons testing. A modified Diffusion-Sorption-Fixation (mDSF) model, based on the advection-dispersion equation, is proposed to describe the vertical migration of radiocesium in soils following fallout. The model introduces kinetics for the reversible binding of radiocesium. We test the model by comparing its results to depth profiles measured in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, since 2011. The results from the mDSF model are a better fit to the measurement data (as quantified by R(2)) than results from a simple diffusion model and the original DSF model...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135126/red-bone-marrow-and-male-breast-doses-for-a-cohort-of-atomic-veterans
#3
Harold L Beck, John E Till, Helen A Grogan, Jill W Aanenson, H Justin Mohler, S Shawn Mohler, Paul G Voillequé
Both red bone marrow and male breast doses with associated uncertainty have been reconstructed for a 1,982-person subset of a cohort of 114, 270 military personnel (referred to as "atomic veterans") who participated in U.S. atmospheric nuclear weapons testing from 1945 to 1962. The methods used to calculate these doses and corresponding uncertainty have been reported in detail by Till et al. in an earlier publication. In this current article we report the final results of those calculations. These doses are being used in a case-cohort design epidemiological investigation of leukemia and male breast cancer...
January 30, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110524/plutonium-isotopes-239-241-pu-dissolved-in-pacific-ocean-waters-detected-by-accelerator-mass-spectrometry-no-effects-of-the-fukushima-accident-observed
#4
Karin Hain, Thomas Faestermann, Leticia Fimiani, Robin Golser, José Manuel Gómez-Guzmán, Gunther Korschinek, Florian Kortmann, Christoph Lierse von Gostomski, Peter Ludwig, Peter Steier, Hirofumi Tazoe, Masatoshi Yamada
The concentration of plutonium (Pu) and the isotopic ratios of (240)Pu to (239)Pu and (241)Pu to (239)Pu were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in Pacific Ocean water samples (20 L each) collected in late 2012. The isotopic Pu ratios are important indicators of different contamination sources and were used to identify a possible release of Pu into the ocean by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. In particular, (241)Pu is a well-suited indicator for a recent entry of Pu because (241)Pu from fallout of nuclear weapon testings has already significantly decayed...
February 8, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074207/plutonium-segregation-in-glassy-aerodynamic-fallout-from-a-nuclear-weapon-test
#5
K S Holliday, J M Dierken, M L Monroe, M A Fitzgerald, N E Marks, R C Gostic, K B Knight, K R Czerwinski, I D Hutcheon, J W McClory
This study combines electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy to probe major element composition and autoradiography to map plutonium in order to examine the spatial relationships between plutonium and fallout composition in aerodynamic glassy fallout from a nuclear weapon test. A sample set of 48 individual fallout specimens were interrogated to reveal that the significant chemical heterogeneity of this sample set could be described compositionally with a relatively small number of compositional endmembers...
January 11, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048283/we-h-204-03-part-2-history-and-archives-resources-at-aip-for-aapm-and-its-members
#6
M Mueller
: "William D. Coolidge, Inventor of the Modern X-ray Tube" David J. Allard, M.S., CHP - Director, PA DEP Bureau of Radiation Protection William David Coolidge 1873-1975 was a research scientist and inventor of the modern X-ray tube. Besides Roentgen, with his 1895 discovery and subsequent studies of X-rays, perhaps no other individual contributed more to the advancement of X-ray technology than did Coolidge. He was born in Hudson, MA and received his Bachelor of Science degree from MIT in 1896...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047523/we-h-204-00-history-committee-symposium
#7
Michael Gossman
: "William D. Coolidge, Inventor of the Modern X-ray Tube" David J. Allard, M.S., CHP - Director, PA DEP Bureau of Radiation Protection William David Coolidge 1873-1975 was a research scientist and inventor of the modern X-ray tube. Besides Roentgen, with his 1895 discovery and subsequent studies of X-rays, perhaps no other individual contributed more to the advancement of X-ray technology than did Coolidge. He was born in Hudson, MA and received his Bachelor of Science degree from MIT in 1896...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046866/we-h-204-01-william-d-coolidge-inventor-of-the-modern-x-ray-tube
#8
D Allard
: "William D. Coolidge, Inventor of the Modern X-ray Tube" David J. Allard, M.S., CHP - Director, PA DEP Bureau of Radiation Protection William David Coolidge 1873-1975 was a research scientist and inventor of the modern X-ray tube. Besides Roentgen, with his 1895 discovery and subsequent studies of X-rays, perhaps no other individual contributed more to the advancement of X-ray technology than did Coolidge. He was born in Hudson, MA and received his Bachelor of Science degree from MIT in 1896...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046816/su-f-p-24-radiological-disperse-device
#9
R Alam
PURPOSE: We are now living in a society of constant fear of terrorism. This topic is pertaining to give a general knowledge of what is a radiological dispersion device or RDD and in case of its detonation, what are the options open to public for a safe action in terms of reducing the exposure and knowing the proper steps. These RDD are also called dirty bombs. METHODS: Compared to nuclear weapons, dirty bombs are easy to make. In order for a terrorist organization to construct and detonate a dirty bomb, it must acquire radioactive material by stealing it or buying it through legal or illegal channels...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046206/we-h-204-02-part-1-history-and-archives-resources-at-aip-for-aapm-and-its-members
#10
G Good
: "William D. Coolidge, Inventor of the Modern X-ray Tube" David J. Allard, M.S., CHP - Director, PA DEP Bureau of Radiation Protection William David Coolidge 1873-1975 was a research scientist and inventor of the modern X-ray tube. Besides Roentgen, with his 1895 discovery and subsequent studies of X-rays, perhaps no other individual contributed more to the advancement of X-ray technology than did Coolidge. He was born in Hudson, MA and received his Bachelor of Science degree from MIT in 1896...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027166/ncrp-vision-for-the-future-and-program-area-committee-activities
#11
John D Boice
The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) believes that the most critical need for the nation in radiation protection is to train, engage, and retain radiation professionals for the future. Not only is the pipeline shrinking, but for some areas there is no longer a pipe! When the call comes to respond, there may be no one to answer the phone! The NCRP "Where are the Radiation Professionals?" initiative, Council Committee (CC) 2, and this year's annual meeting are to focus our efforts to find solutions and not just reiterate the problems...
February 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995953/anthropogenic-and-natural-sources-of-dust-in-peatland-during-the-anthropocene
#12
B Fiałkiewicz-Kozieł, B Smieja-Król, M Frontasyeva, M Słowiński, K Marcisz, E Lapshina, D Gilbert, A Buttler, V E J Jassey, K Kaliszan, F Laggoun-Défarge, P Kołaczek, M Lamentowicz
As human impact have been increasing strongly over the last decades, it is crucial to distinguish human-induced dust sources from natural ones in order to define the boundary of a newly proposed epoch - the Anthropocene. Here, we track anthropogenic signatures and natural geochemical anomalies in the Mukhrino peatland, Western Siberia. Human activity was recorded there from cal AD 1958 (±6). Anthropogenic spheroidal aluminosilicates clearly identify the beginning of industrial development and are proposed as a new indicator of the Anthropocene...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885077/highlights-of-the-russian-health-studies-program-and-updated-research-findings
#13
Barrett N Fountos
Recognized for conducting cutting-edge science in the field of radiation health effects research, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Russian Health Studies Program has continued to generate excitement and enthusiasm throughout its 23-year mission to assess worker and public health risks from radiation exposure resulting from nuclear weapons production activities in the former Soviet Union. The three goals of the Program are to: (1) clarify the relationship between health effects and chronic, low-to-medium dose radiation exposure; (2) estimate the cancer risks from exposure to gamma, neutron, and alpha radiation; and (3) provide information to the national and international organizations that determine radiation protection standards and practices...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881792/estimates-of-radiation-doses-to-the-skin-for-people-camped-at-wallatinna-during-the-uk-totem-1-atomic-weapons-test
#14
G A Williams, R S O'Brien, M Grzechnik, K N Wise
A group of Aboriginal people was camped at Wallatinna in South Australia, ~170 km downwind from Emu Field, where an atomic test (the Totem 1 test) was carried out at 07.00 on 15 October 1953 local time (21.30 on 14 October 1953 GMT (Greenwich Mean Time)). They left the camp ~24 hours later. These people stated that a phenomenon that has become known as a 'black mist' rolled through their camp site ~5 hours after detonation and that some of them subsequently became sick, displaying skin reddening and nausea...
November 23, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849500/the-u-s-army-occupational-and-environmental-medicine-residency-at-aberdeen-proving-ground-maryland-1960-1996
#15
Joel C Gaydos, Timothy M Mallon, William A Rice
BACKGROUND: Reorganization of the Army and critical assessment of Army Graduate Medical Education programs prompted the Occupational and Environmental Medicine (OEM) Consultant to the Army Surgeon General to initiate a review of current Army OEM residency training. Available information indicated the Army OEM residency at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, was the first and longest operating Army OEM residency. Describing this residency was identified as the first step in the review, with the objectives of determining why the residency was started and sustained and its relevance to the needs of the Army...
November 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792232/technetium-incorporation-in-scheelite-insights-from-first-principles
#16
Matthew Ackerman, Eunja Kim, Philippe F Weck, Wendy Chernesky, Kenneth R Czerwinski
Atomistic investigations of crystalline scheelite, CaWO4, and (99)Tc-bearing scheelite, CaWO4:Tc, have been carried out using density functional theory. The lattice constants, bulk modulus, and volume compression data of CaWO4 have been calculated and compared with experimental data, with a focus on predictive understanding of (99)Tc incorporation in CaWO4. Defect formation energies have been computed for several possible interstitial (I) and substitutional (S) sites of (99)Tc in CaWO4. Both I(Oh) and S(W) sites were found to be energetically favourable for Tc doping...
October 28, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762064/ccnd1-bcl2-gene-network-a-direct-target-of-amifostine-in-human-acute-megakaryocytic-leukemia-cells
#17
Feng Zhang, Bo Yang, Kailiang Zhang, Mei-Ling Hou, Xue-Chun Lu, Yu-Xin Li
Amifostine, 2-(3-aminopropyl) aminoethyl phosphorothioate, is a broad-spectrum cytoprotective agent used to treat nuclear radiation and chemical weapon injuries. Recently, amifostine has been shown to have a profound biological influence on tumor cells. To examine the effects and mechanisms underlying the effects of amifostine on human acute megakaryocytic leukemia, we evaluated the efficacy of amifostine against Dami cells and observed a cell cycle arrest in G2 /M phase. Amifostine treatment also induced cell apoptosis of Dami cells which corresponds to formal studies...
October 19, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723529/experimental-evidence-for-ternary-colloid-facilitated-transport-of-th-iv-with-hematite-%C3%AE-fe2o3-colloids-and-suwannee-river-fulvic-acid
#18
Hilary P Emerson, Katherine A Hickok, Brian A Powell
Previous field experiments have suggested colloid-facilitated transport via inorganic and organic colloids as the primary mechanism of enhanced actinide transport in the subsurface at former nuclear weapons facilities. In this work, research was guided by the hypothesis that humic substances can enhance tetravalent actinide (An(IV)) migration by coating and mobilizing natural colloids in environmental systems and increasing An(IV) sorption to colloids. This mechanism is expected to occur under relatively acidic conditions where organic matter can sorb and coat colloid surfaces and facilitate formation of ternary colloid-ligand-actinide complexes...
December 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721136/reconstructing-surface-ocean-circulation-with-129-i-time-series-records-from-corals
#19
Ching-Chih Chang, George S Burr, A J Timothy Jull, Joellen L Russell, Dana Biddulph, Lara White, Nancy G Prouty, Yue-Gau Chen, Chuan-Chou Shen, Weijian Zhou, Doan Dinh Lam
The long-lived radionuclide (129)I (half-life: 15.7 × 10(6) yr) is well-known as a useful environmental tracer. At present, the global (129)I in surface water is about 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than pre-1960 levels. Since the 1990s, anthropogenic (129)I produced from industrial nuclear fuels reprocessing plants has been the primary source of (129)I in marine surface waters of the Atlantic and around the globe. Here we present four coral (129)I time series records from: 1) Con Dao and 2) Xisha Islands, the South China Sea, 3) Rabaul, Papua New Guinea and 4) Guam...
December 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720254/the-application-of-iron-based-technologies-in-uranium-remediation-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Anwei Chen, Cui Shang, Jihai Shao, Jiachao Zhang, Hongli Huang
Remediating uranium contamination is of worldwide interest because of the increasing release of uranium from mining and processing, nuclear power leaks, depleted uranium components in weapons production and disposal, and phosphate fertilizer in agriculture activities. Iron-based technologies are attractive because they are highly efficient, inexpensive, and readily available. This paper provides an overview of the current literature that addresses the application of iron-based technologies in the remediation of sites with elevated uranium levels...
January 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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