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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762419/efficient-3-he-4-he-separation-in-a-nanoporous-graphenylene-membrane
#1
Yuanyuan Qu, Feng Li, Mingwen Zhao
Helium-3 is a precious noble gas, which is essential in many advanced technologies such as cryogenics, isotope labeling and nuclear weapons. The current imbalance of (3)He demand and supply shortage leads to the search for an efficient membrane with high performance for (3)He separation. In this study, based on first-principles calculations, we demonstrated that highly efficient (3)He harvesting can be achieved in a nanoporous graphenylene membrane with industrially-acceptable selectivity and permeance. The quantum tunneling effect leads to (3)He harvesting with high efficiency via kinetic sieving...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743410/low-level-laboratory-measurement-of-xenon-radionuclides-electron-photon-versus-photon-measurements
#2
O Delaune, A Cagniant, P Gross, G Douysset, J-P Fontaine, G Le Petit
Radioactive xenon (mainly (131m)Xe, (133)Xe, (133m)Xe and (135)Xe) are tracked as markers of nuclear weapons testing. The CEA has developed the PIPSBox, a measurement cell able to detect electrons emitted by xenon nuclides. Combined with an ultra-low background γ spectrometer, electron detection capacities allow reaching minimum detectable activities (MDA) for a 3-day long measurement of about 0.5mBq for the four xenon radionuclides. Compared to a classical measurement cell, MDAs are improved by a factor of 2-4...
July 13, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726397/potential-releases-of-129-i-236-u-and-pu-isotopes-from-the-fukushima-dai-ichi-nuclear-power-plants-to-the-ocean-during-2013-to-2015
#3
Núria Casacuberta, Marcus Christl, Ken O Buesseler, YikSze Lau, Christof Vockenhuber, Maxi Castrillejo, Hans-Arno Synal, Pere Masque
After the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear accident, many efforts were put into the determination of the presence of (137)Cs, (134)Cs, (131)I and other gamma-emitting radionuclides in the ocean, but minor work was done regarding the monitoring of less volatile radionuclides, pure beta-ray emitters or simply radionuclides with very long half-lives. In this study we document the temporal evolution of (129)I, (236)U and Pu isotopes ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) in seawater sampled during four different cruises performed 2, 3 and 4 years after the accident, and compare the results to (137)Cs collected at the same stations and depths...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715670/estimated-lifetime-effective-dose-to-hunters-and-their-families-in-the-three-most-contaminated-counties-in-sweden-after-the-chernobyl-nuclear-power-plant-accident-in-1986-a-pilot-study
#4
Martin Tondel, Christopher Rääf, Robert Wålinder, Afrah Mamour, Mats Isaksson
Hunters and their families were one of the most exposed subpopulations in Sweden after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. In this pilot study we used existing registries and whole-body measurements to develop algorithms to calculate lifetime effective doses and collective doses to some hunters in Sweden. Ten hunters and their family members were randomly selected from each of the three most contaminated counties in Sweden (Västernorrland, Uppsala, Gävleborg) using the register for hunting weapons from the Police Authority in 1985...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712535/the-un-adopts-treaty-to-ban-the-use-of-nuclear-weapons
#5
John Zarocostas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703206/panda-diplomats-smuggled-relics-and-a-nuclear-weapons-treaty
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668746/the-abolition-of-war-as-a-goal-of-environmental-policy
#7
REVIEW
Brian F Snyder, Leslie E Ruyle
Since the 1950s, select military and political leaders have had the capacity to kill all or nearly all human life on Earth. The number of people entrusted with this power grows each year through proliferation and the rise of new political leaders. If humans continue to maintain and develop nuclear weapons, it is highly probable that a nuclear exchange will occur again at some point in the future. This nuclear exchange may or may not annihilate the human species, but it will cause catastrophic effects on the biosphere...
June 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657400/a-review-of-radiation-countermeasures-focusing-on-injury-specific-medicinals-and-regulatory-approval-status-part-iii-countermeasures-under-early-stages-of-development-along-with-standard-of-care-medicinal-and-procedures-not-requiring-regulatory-approval-for
#8
Vijay K Singh, Briana K Hanlon, Paola T Santiago, Thomas M Seed
PURPOSE: Terrorist attacks, with their intent to maximize psychological and economic damage as well as inflicting sickness and death on given targeted populations, are an ever-growing worldwide concern in government and public sectors as they become more frequent, violent, and sensational. If given the chance, it is likely that terrorists will use radiological or nuclear weapons. To thwart these sinister efforts, both physical and medical countermeasures against these weapons are currently being researched and developed so that they can be utilized by the first responders, military, and medical providers alike...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605864/time-trends-in-radiocaesium-in-the-japanese-diet-following-nuclear-weapons-testing-and-chernobyl-implications-for-long-term-contamination-post-fukushima
#9
Jim T Smith, Keiko Tagami, Shigeo Uchida
Estimation of time changes in radiocaesium in foodstuffs is key to predicting the long term impact of the Fukushima accident on the Japanese diet. We have modelled >4000 measurements, spanning 50 years, of (137)Cs in foodstuffs and whole diet in Japan after nuclear weapons testing (NWT) and the Chernobyl accident. Broadly consistent long term trends in (137)Cs activity concentrations are seen between different agricultural foodstuffs; whole diet follows this general trend with remarkably little variation between averages for different regions of Japan...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605260/cellular-therapies-for-treatment-of-radiation-injury-report-from-a-nih-niaid-and-irsn-workshop
#10
Andrea L DiCarlo, Radia Tamarat, Carmen I Rios, Marc Benderitter, Christine W Czarniecki, Theresa C Allio, Francesca Macchiarini, Bert W Maidment, Jean-Rene Jourdain
In recent years, there has been increasing concern over the possibility of a radiological or nuclear incident occurring somewhere in the world. Intelligence agencies frequently report that terrorist groups and rogue nations are seeking to obtain radiological or nuclear weapons of mass destruction. In addition, there exists the real possibility that safety of nuclear power reactors could be compromised by natural (such as the tsunami and subsequent Fukushima accident in Japan in March, 2011) or accidental (Three Mile Island, 1979 and Chernobyl, 1986) events...
August 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554139/recent-210-pb-137-cs-and-241-am-accumulation-in-an-ombrotrophic-peatland-from-amsterdam-island-southern-indian-ocean
#11
Chuxian Li, Gaël Le Roux, Jeroen Sonke, Pieter van Beek, Marc Souhaut, Nathalie Van der Putten, François De Vleeschouwer
Over the past 50 years, (210)Pb, (137)Cs and (241)Am have been abundantly used in reconstructing recent sediment and peat chronologies. The study of global aerosol-climate interaction is also partially depending on our understanding of (222)Rn-(210)Pb cycling, as radionuclides are useful aerosol tracers. However, in comparison with the Northern Hemisphere, few data are available for these radionuclides in the Southern Hemisphere, especially in the South Indian Ocean. A peat core was collected in an ombrotrophic peatland from the remote Amsterdam Island (AMS) and was analyzed for (210)Pb, (137)Cs and (241)Am radionuclides using an underground ultra-low background gamma spectrometer...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531942/target-signalling-pathways-of-natural-plant-derived-radioprotective-agents-from-treatment-to-potential-candidates-a-reverse-thought-on-anti-tumour-drugs
#12
REVIEW
Ke-Li Yun, Zhen Yu Wang
Radiation damage can occur in nuclear power plant workers when physical protections fail, which results in nuclear leakage through the protective layers. Alternatively, workers may be unable to use physical protection in time (in the case of a sudden nuclear weapons attack). In addition, patients who receive local radiotherapy and are not allowed to adopt local physical protection may experience radiation damage. Thus, protection against chemical radiation has become indispensable. In view of the side effects caused by synthetic radioprotective agents (such as amisfostine), searching for radioprotective agents from plant sources is an alternative strategy...
July 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526526/nuclear-weapons-produced-236-u-239-pu-and-240-pu-archived-in-a-porites-lutea-coral-from-enewetak-atoll
#13
M B Froehlich, S G Tims, S J Fallon, A Wallner, L K Fifield
A slice from a Porites Lutea coral core collected inside the Enewetak Atoll lagoon, within 15 km of all major nuclear tests conducted at the atoll, was analysed for (236)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu over the time interval 1952-1964 using a higher time resolution than previously reported for a parallel slice from the same core. In addition two sediment samples from the Koa and Oak craters were analysed. The strong peaks in the concentrations of (236)U and (239)Pu in the testing years are confirmed to be considerably wider than the flushing time of the lagoon...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449297/physics-history-and-the-german-atomic-bomb
#14
Mark Walker
Physics, History, and the German Atomic Bomb. This paper examines the German concept of a nuclear weapon during National Socialism and the Second World War. Zusammenfassung: Physik, Geschichte und die deutsche Atombombe. Dieser Aufsatz untersucht die deutsche Vorstellung einer nuklearen Waffe während des Nationalsozialismus und des Zweiten Weltkrieges.
April 27, 2017: Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441284/comparison-of-homogeneous-and-particulate-lung-dose-rates-for-small-mammals
#15
Emily Caffrey, Mathew Johansen, Jarvis Caffrey, Kathryn Higley
Small, highly radioactive fragments of material incorporated into metallic matrices are commonly found at nuclear weapons test and accident sites and can be inhaled by wildlife. Inhaled particles often partition heterogeneously in the lungs, with aggregation occurring in the periphery of the lung, and are tenaciously retained. However, dose rates are typically calculated as if the material were homogeneously distributed throughout the entire organ. Here the authors quantify the variation in dose rates for alpha-, beta-, and gamma-emitting radionuclides with particle sizes from 0...
June 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432864/plutonium-in-the-atmosphere-a-global-perspective
#16
REVIEW
P Thakur, H Khaing, S Salminen-Paatero
A number of potential source terms have contributed plutonium isotopes to the atmosphere. The atmospheric nuclear weapon tests conducted between 1945 and 1980 and the re-entry of the burned SNAP-9A satellite in 1964, respectively. It is generally believed that current levels of plutonium in the stratosphere are negligible and compared with the levels generally found at surface-level air. In this study, the time trend analysis and long-term behavior of plutonium isotopes ((239+240)Pu and (238)Pu) in the atmosphere were assessed using historical data collected by various national and international monitoring networks since 1960s...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431374/atmospheric-fallout-radionuclides-in-peatland-from-southern-poland
#17
Tomasz Mróz, Edyta Łokas, Justyna Kocurek, Michał Gąsiorek
Two peat profiles were collected in a peat bog located in Southern Poland and their geochronology were determined using (210)Pb, (238,239+240)Pu and (137)Cs radiometric techniques. The (210)Pb chronologies were established using the constant rate of supply model (CRS) and are in good agreement with the Pu isotopes and (137)Cs time markers. Maximum activities of Pu isotopes were found at a depth corresponding to the early 1960s, which is the period characterized by the maximum nuclear weapon tests. The results showed that the (210)Pb method is the most accurate technique for the determination age and accumulation rate of a peat...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409861/neocolonialism-and-health-care-access-among-marshall-islanders-in-the-united-states
#18
Michael R Duke
In the Marshall Islands, a history of extensive nuclear weapons testing and covert biomedical research, coupled with the U.S.'s ongoing military presence in the country, has severely compromised the health of the local population. Despite the U.S.'s culpability in producing ill health along with high rates of emigration from the islands to the mainland United States, the large portion of Marshallese who reside in the United States face substantial barriers to accessing health care. Drawing from ongoing field research with a Marshallese community in Arkansas, this article explores the multifaceted impediments that U...
April 13, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374124/external-dose-reconstruction-for-the-former-village-of-metlino-techa-river-russia-based-on-environmental-surveys-luminescence-measurements-and-radiation-transport-modelling
#19
M M Hiller, C Woda, N G Bougrov, M O Degteva, O Ivanov, A Ulanovsky, S Romanov
In the first years of its operation, the Mayak Production Association, a facility part of the Soviet nuclear weapons program in the Southern Urals, Russia, discharged large amounts of radioactively contaminated effluent into the nearby Techa River, thus exposing the people living at this river to external and internal radiations. The Techa River Cohort is a cohort intensely studied in epidemiology to investigate the correlation between low-dose radiation and health effects on humans. For the individuals in the cohort, the Techa River Dosimetry System describes the accumulated dose in human organs and tissues...
May 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373958/genome-centric-evaluation-of-burkholderia-sp-strain-srs-w-2-2016-resistant-to-high-concentrations-of-uranium-and-nickel-isolated-from-the-savannah-river-site-srs-usa
#20
Ashish Pathak, Ashvini Chauhan, Paul Stothard, Stefan Green, Mark Maienschein-Cline, Rajneesh Jaswal, John Seaman
Savannah River Site (SRS), an approximately 800-km(2) former nuclear weapons production facility located near Aiken, SC remains co-contaminated by heavy metals and radionuclides. To gain a better understanding on microbially-mediated bioremediation mechanisms, several bacterial strains resistant to high concentrations of Uranium (U) and Nickel (Ni) were isolated from the Steeds Pond soils located within the SRS site. One of the isolated strains, designated as strain SRS-W-2-2016, grew robustly on both U and Ni...
June 2017: Genomics Data
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