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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605864/time-trends-in-radiocaesium-in-the-japanese-diet-following-nuclear-weapons-testing-and-chernobyl-implications-for-long-term-contamination-post-fukushima
#1
Jim T Smith, Keiko Tagami, Shigeo Uchida
Estimation of time changes in radiocaesium in foodstuffs is key to predicting the long term impact of the Fukushima accident on the Japanese diet. We have modelled >4000 measurements, spanning 50 years, of (137)Cs in foodstuffs and whole diet in Japan after nuclear weapons testing (NWT) and the Chernobyl accident. Broadly consistent long term trends in (137)Cs activity concentrations are seen between different agricultural foodstuffs; whole diet follows this general trend with remarkably little variation between averages for different regions of Japan...
June 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605260/cellular-therapies-for-treatment-of-radiation-injury-report-from-a-nih-niaid-and-irsn-workshop
#2
Andrea L DiCarlo, Radia Tamarat, Carmen I Rios, Marc Benderitter, Christine W Czarniecki, Theresa C Allio, Francesca Macchiarini, Bert W Maidment, Jean-Rene Jourdain
In recent years, there has been increasing concern over the possibility of a radiological or nuclear incident occurring somewhere in the world. Intelligence agencies frequently report that terrorist groups and rogue nations are seeking to obtain radiological or nuclear weapons of mass destruction. In addition, there exists the real possibility that safety of nuclear power reactors could be compromised by natural (such as the tsunami and subsequent Fukushima accident in Japan in March, 2011) or accidental (Three Mile Island, 1979 and Chernobyl, 1986) events...
June 12, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554139/recent-210-pb-137-cs-and-241-am-accumulation-in-an-ombrotrophic-peatland-from-amsterdam-island-southern-indian-ocean
#3
Chuxian Li, Gaël Le Roux, Jeroen Sonke, Pieter van Beek, Marc Souhaut, Nathalie Van der Putten, François De Vleeschouwer
Over the past 50 years, (210)Pb, (137)Cs and (241)Am have been abundantly used in reconstructing recent sediment and peat chronologies. The study of global aerosol-climate interaction is also partially depending on our understanding of (222)Rn-(210)Pb cycling, as radionuclides are useful aerosol tracers. However, in comparison with the Northern Hemisphere, few data are available for these radionuclides in the Southern Hemisphere, especially in the South Indian Ocean. A peat core was collected in an ombrotrophic peatland from the remote Amsterdam Island (AMS) and was analyzed for (210)Pb, (137)Cs and (241)Am radionuclides using an underground ultra-low background gamma spectrometer...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531942/target-signalling-pathways-of-natural-plant-derived-radioprotective-agents-from-treatment-to-potential-candidates-a-reverse-thought-on-anti-tumour-drugs
#4
REVIEW
Ke-Li Yun, Zhen Yu Wang
Radiation damage can occur in nuclear power plant workers when physical protections fail, which results in nuclear leakage through the protective layers. Alternatively, workers may be unable to use physical protection in time (in the case of a sudden nuclear weapons attack). In addition, patients who receive local radiotherapy and are not allowed to adopt local physical protection may experience radiation damage. Thus, protection against chemical radiation has become indispensable. In view of the side effects caused by synthetic radioprotective agents (such as amisfostine), searching for radioprotective agents from plant sources is an alternative strategy...
July 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526526/nuclear-weapons-produced-236-u-239-pu-and-240-pu-archived-in-a-porites-lutea-coral-from-enewetak-atoll
#5
M B Froehlich, S G Tims, S J Fallon, A Wallner, L K Fifield
A slice from a Porites Lutea coral core collected inside the Enewetak Atoll lagoon, within 15 km of all major nuclear tests conducted at the atoll, was analysed for (236)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu over the time interval 1952-1964 using a higher time resolution than previously reported for a parallel slice from the same core. In addition two sediment samples from the Koa and Oak craters were analysed. The strong peaks in the concentrations of (236)U and (239)Pu in the testing years are confirmed to be considerably wider than the flushing time of the lagoon...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449297/physics-history-and-the-german-atomic-bomb
#6
Mark Walker
Physics, History, and the German Atomic Bomb. This paper examines the German concept of a nuclear weapon during National Socialism and the Second World War. Zusammenfassung: Physik, Geschichte und die deutsche Atombombe. Dieser Aufsatz untersucht die deutsche Vorstellung einer nuklearen Waffe während des Nationalsozialismus und des Zweiten Weltkrieges.
April 27, 2017: Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441284/comparison-of-homogeneous-and-particulate-lung-dose-rates-for-small-mammals
#7
Emily Caffrey, Mathew Johansen, Jarvis Caffrey, Kathryn Higley
Small, highly radioactive fragments of material incorporated into metallic matrices are commonly found at nuclear weapons test and accident sites and can be inhaled by wildlife. Inhaled particles often partition heterogeneously in the lungs, with aggregation occurring in the periphery of the lung, and are tenaciously retained. However, dose rates are typically calculated as if the material were homogeneously distributed throughout the entire organ. Here the authors quantify the variation in dose rates for alpha-, beta-, and gamma-emitting radionuclides with particle sizes from 0...
June 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432864/plutonium-in-the-atmosphere-a-global-perspective
#8
REVIEW
P Thakur, H Khaing, S Salminen-Paatero
A number of potential source terms have contributed plutonium isotopes to the atmosphere. The atmospheric nuclear weapon tests conducted between 1945 and 1980 and the re-entry of the burned SNAP-9A satellite in 1964, respectively. It is generally believed that current levels of plutonium in the stratosphere are negligible and compared with the levels generally found at surface-level air. In this study, the time trend analysis and long-term behavior of plutonium isotopes ((239+240)Pu and (238)Pu) in the atmosphere were assessed using historical data collected by various national and international monitoring networks since 1960s...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431374/atmospheric-fallout-radionuclides-in-peatland-from-southern-poland
#9
Tomasz Mróz, Edyta Łokas, Justyna Kocurek, Michał Gąsiorek
Two peat profiles were collected in a peat bog located in Southern Poland and their geochronology were determined using (210)Pb, (238,239+240)Pu and (137)Cs radiometric techniques. The (210)Pb chronologies were established using the constant rate of supply model (CRS) and are in good agreement with the Pu isotopes and (137)Cs time markers. Maximum activities of Pu isotopes were found at a depth corresponding to the early 1960s, which is the period characterized by the maximum nuclear weapon tests. The results showed that the (210)Pb method is the most accurate technique for the determination age and accumulation rate of a peat...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409861/neocolonialism-and-health-care-access-among-marshall-islanders-in-the-united-states
#10
Michael R Duke
In the Marshall Islands, a history of extensive nuclear weapons testing and covert biomedical research, coupled with the U.S.'s ongoing military presence in the country, has severely compromised the health of the local population. Despite the U.S.'s culpability in producing ill health along with high rates of emigration from the islands to the mainland United States, the large portion of Marshallese who reside in the United States face substantial barriers to accessing health care. Drawing from ongoing field research with a Marshallese community in Arkansas, this article explores the multifaceted impediments that U...
April 13, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374124/external-dose-reconstruction-for-the-former-village-of-metlino-techa-river-russia-based-on-environmental-surveys-luminescence-measurements-and-radiation-transport-modelling
#11
M M Hiller, C Woda, N G Bougrov, M O Degteva, O Ivanov, A Ulanovsky, S Romanov
In the first years of its operation, the Mayak Production Association, a facility part of the Soviet nuclear weapons program in the Southern Urals, Russia, discharged large amounts of radioactively contaminated effluent into the nearby Techa River, thus exposing the people living at this river to external and internal radiations. The Techa River Cohort is a cohort intensely studied in epidemiology to investigate the correlation between low-dose radiation and health effects on humans. For the individuals in the cohort, the Techa River Dosimetry System describes the accumulated dose in human organs and tissues...
May 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373958/genome-centric-evaluation-of-burkholderia-sp-strain-srs-w-2-2016-resistant-to-high-concentrations-of-uranium-and-nickel-isolated-from-the-savannah-river-site-srs-usa
#12
Ashish Pathak, Ashvini Chauhan, Paul Stothard, Stefan Green, Mark Maienschein-Cline, Rajneesh Jaswal, John Seaman
Savannah River Site (SRS), an approximately 800-km(2) former nuclear weapons production facility located near Aiken, SC remains co-contaminated by heavy metals and radionuclides. To gain a better understanding on microbially-mediated bioremediation mechanisms, several bacterial strains resistant to high concentrations of Uranium (U) and Nickel (Ni) were isolated from the Steeds Pond soils located within the SRS site. One of the isolated strains, designated as strain SRS-W-2-2016, grew robustly on both U and Ni...
June 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350824/time-and-radiation-dose-dependent-changes-in-the-plasma-proteome-after-total-body-irradiation-of-non-human-primates-implications-for-biomarker-selection
#13
Stephanie D Byrum, Marie S Burdine, Lisa Orr, Samuel G Mackintosh, Simon Authier, Mylene Pouliot, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Alan J Tackett
Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is a complex multi-organ disease resulting from total body exposure to high doses of radiation. Individuals can be exposed to total body irradiation (TBI) in a number of ways, including terrorist radiological weapons or nuclear accidents. In order to determine whether an individual has been exposed to high doses of radiation and needs countermeasure treatment, robust biomarkers are needed to estimate radiation exposure from biospecimens such as blood or urine. In order to identity such candidate biomarkers of radiation exposure, high-resolution proteomics was used to analyze plasma from non-human primates following whole body irradiation (Co-60 at 6...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340486/review-of-current-nuclear-fallout-codes
#14
REVIEW
Jerrad P Auxier, John D Auxier, Howard L Hall
The importance of developing a robust nuclear forensics program to combat the illicit use of nuclear material that may be used as an improvised nuclear device is widely accepted. In order to decrease the threat to public safety and improve governmental response, government agencies have developed fallout-analysis codes to predict the fallout particle size, dose, and dispersion and dispersion following a detonation. This paper will review the different codes that have been developed for predicting fallout from both chemical and nuclear weapons...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340392/-237-np-analytical-method-using-239-np-tracers-and-application-to-a-contaminated-nuclear-disposal-facility
#15
Mathew S Snow, Samuel S Morrison, Sue B Clark, John E Olson, Matthew G Watrous
Environmental (237)Np analyses are challenged by low (237)Np concentrations and lack of an available yield tracer; we report a rapid, inexpensive (237)Np analytical approach employing the short lived (239)Np (t1/2 = 2.3 days) as a chemical yield tracer followed by (237)Np quantification using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. (239)Np tracer is obtained via separation from a (243)Am stock solution and standardized using gamma spectrometry immediately prior to sample processing. Rapid digestions using a commercial, 900 W "Walmart" microwave and Parr microwave vessels result in 99...
June 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324843/variations-in-pu-isotopic-composition-in-soils-from-the-spitsbergen-norway-three-potential-pollution-sources-of-the-arctic-region
#16
E Łokas, R Anczkiewicz, R Kierepko, J W Mietelski
Although the polar regions have not been industrialised, numerous contaminants originating from human activity are detectable in the Arctic environment. This study reports evidence of (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratios in the tundra and initial soils from different parts of west and central Spitsbergen and recognizes possible environmental inputs of non-global fallout Pu. The average atomic ratio of (240)Pu/(239)Pu equal to 0.179 (ranging between 0.129 and 0.201) in tundra soils are comparable to the characteristic ratio for global fallout (0...
July 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292671/heavy-metal-bioaccumulation-in-two-passerines-with-differing-migration-strategies
#17
Zoë Cooper, Robert Bringolf, Robert Cooper, Kathy Loftis, Albert L Bryan, James A Martin
Various anthropogenic activities have resulted in concentration of heavy metals and contamination of surrounding environments. Historically, heavy metal contamination at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina has resulted from accidental releases of stored waste generated from nuclear weapon production in the early 1950s. Songbirds inhabiting and using resources from these areas have the potential to bioaccumulate metals but there is limited information on metal concentration levels in areas suspected of contamination as well as uncontaminated sites...
March 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290930/medical-effects-of-a-transuranic-dirty-bomb
#18
Asaf Durakovic
The modern military battlefields are characterized by the use of nonconventional weapons such as encountered in the conflicts of the Gulf War I and Gulf War II. Recent warfare in Iraq, Afghanistan, and the Balkans has introduced radioactive weapons to the modern war zone scenarios. This presents the military medicine with a new area of radioactive warfare with the potential large scale contamination of military and civilian targets with the variety of radioactive isotopes further enhanced by the clandestine use of radioactive materials in the terrorist radioactive warfare...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258385/radioactivity-in-mushrooms-from-selected-locations-in-the-bohemian-forest-czech-republic
#19
Michaela Čadová, Renata Havránková, Jiří Havránek, Friedo Zölzer
(137)Cs is one of the most important radionuclides released in the course of atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and during accidents in nuclear power plants such as that in Chernobyl, Ukraine, or Fukushima, Japan. The aim of this study was to compare (137)Cs and (40)K concentrations in particular species of mushrooms from selected locations in the Bohemian Forest (Czech: Šumava), Czech Republic, where a considerable contamination from the Chernobyl accident had been measured in 1986. Samples were collected between June and October 2014...
May 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241421/age-related-loss-in-bone-mineral-density-of-rats-fed-lifelong-on-a-fish-oil-based-diet-is-avoided-by-coenzyme-q10-addition
#20
Alfonso Varela-López, Julio J Ochoa, José M Llamas-Elvira, Magdalena López-Frías, Elena Planells, MCarmen Ramirez-Tortosa, Cesar L Ramirez-Tortosa, Francesca Giampieri, Maurizio Battino, José L Quiles
During aging, bone mass declines increasing osteoporosis and fracture risks. Oxidative stress has been related to this bone loss, making dietary compounds with antioxidant properties a promising weapon. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on diets with fish oil as unique fat source, supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), to evaluate the potential of adding this molecule to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA)-based diet for bone mineral density (BMD) preservation. BMD was evaluated in the femur...
February 22, 2017: Nutrients
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