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nuclear weapon

Feng Zhang, Bo Yang, Kailiang Zhang, Mei-Ling Hou, Xue-Chun Lu, Yu-Xin Li
Amifostine (AMF), 2-(3-Aminopropyl) aminoethyl phosphorothioate is a broad-spectrum cytoprotective agent used to treat nuclear radiation and chemical weapon injuries. Recently, amifostine has been shown to have a profound biological influence on tumor cells. In order to examine the effects and mechanisms underlying the effects of amifostine on human acute megakaryocytic leukemia, we evaluated the efficacy of amifostine against Dami cells and observed a cell cycle arrest in G2 /M phase. Amifostine treatment also induced cell apoptosis of Dami cells which corresponds to formal studies...
October 19, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Hilary P Emerson, Katherine A Hickok, Brian A Powell
Previous field experiments have suggested colloid-facilitated transport via inorganic and organic colloids as the primary mechanism of enhanced actinide transport in the subsurface at former nuclear weapons facilities. In this work, research was guided by the hypothesis that humic substances can enhance tetravalent actinide (An(IV)) migration by coating and mobilizing natural colloids in environmental systems and increasing An(IV) sorption to colloids. This mechanism is expected to occur under relatively acidic conditions where organic matter can sorb and coat colloid surfaces and facilitate formation of ternary colloid-ligand-actinide complexes...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Ching-Chih Chang, George S Burr, A J Timothy Jull, Joellen L Russell, Dana Biddulph, Lara White, Nancy G Prouty, Yue-Gau Chen, Chuan-Chou Shen, Weijian Zhou, Doan Dinh Lam
The long-lived radionuclide (129)I (half-life: 15.7 × 10(6) yr) is well-known as a useful environmental tracer. At present, the global (129)I in surface water is about 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than pre-1960 levels. Since the 1990s, anthropogenic (129)I produced from industrial nuclear fuels reprocessing plants has been the primary source of (129)I in marine surface waters of the Atlantic and around the globe. Here we present four coral (129)I time series records from: 1) Con Dao and 2) Xisha Islands, the South China Sea, 3) Rabaul, Papua New Guinea and 4) Guam...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Anwei Chen, Cui Shang, Jihai Shao, Jiachao Zhang, Hongli Huang
Remediating uranium contamination is of worldwide interest because of the increasing release of uranium from mining and processing, nuclear power leaks, depleted uranium components in weapons production and disposal, and phosphate fertilizer in agriculture activities. Iron-based technologies are attractive because they are highly efficient, inexpensive, and readily available. This paper provides an overview of the current literature that addresses the application of iron-based technologies in the remediation of sites with elevated uranium levels...
October 5, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Sébastien Philippe, Robert J Goldston, Alexander Glaser, Francesco d'Errico
Zero-knowledge proofs are mathematical cryptographic methods to demonstrate the validity of a claim while providing no further information beyond the claim itself. The possibility of using such proofs to process classified and other sensitive physical data has attracted attention, especially in the field of nuclear arms control. Here we demonstrate a non-electronic fast neutron differential radiography technique using superheated emulsion detectors that can confirm that two objects are identical without revealing their geometry or composition...
September 20, 2016: Nature Communications
Albert L Wiley
This review is a discussion of special issues associated with the medical and public health management of persons at risk of internal contamination from radionuclides, following various radiological mass-casualty scenarios, as well as definition, discussion and use of the Clinical Decision Guidance (CDG) in such scenarios. Specific medical countermeasures are available for reducing the internal radiation dose and the subsequent stochastic and deterministic risks to persons internally contaminated with radionuclides from nuclear power plant, fuel processing and nuclear weapon accidents/incidents...
September 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Atsushi Ikeda-Ohno, Lida Mokhber Shahin, Daryl L Howard, Richard N Collins, Timothy E Payne, Mathew P Johansen
A series of the British nuclear tests conducted on mainland Australia between 1953 and 1963 dispersed long-lived radioactivity and nuclear weapons debris including plutonium (Pu), the legacy of which is a long-lasting source of radioactive contamination to the surrounding biosphere. A reliable assessment of the environmental impact of Pu contaminants and their implications for human health requires an understanding of their physical/chemical characteristics at the molecular scale. In this study, we identify the chemical form of the Pu remaining in the local soils at the Taranaki site, one of the former nuclear testing sites at Maralinga, South Australia...
September 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Jiangzhou You, Hongren Wang, Xiaojun Huang, Zhen Qin, Zhaomin Deng, Jun Luo, Baoning Wang, Mingyuan Li
BACKGROUND: Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are a novel class of anti-HIV agents that show high activity in inhibiting HIV-1 replication. Currently, licensed INSTIs include raltegravir (RAL), elvitegravir (EVG) and dolutegravir (DTG); these drugs have played a critical role in AIDS therapy, serving as additional weapons in the arsenal for treating patients infected with HIV-1. To date, long-term data regarding clinical experience with INSTI use and the emergence of resistance remain scarce...
2016: PloS One
Jonathan L Burnett, Brian D Milbrath
Past nuclear weapon explosive tests provide invaluable information for understanding the radionuclide observables expected during an On-site Inspection (OSI) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These radioactive signatures are complex and subject to spatial and temporal variability. The Platte underground nuclear explosive test on 14 April 1962 provides extensive environmental monitoring data that can be modelled and used to calculate the maximum time available for detection of the OSI-relevant radionuclides...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Ufuk Mert, Ahter Dilsad Sanlioglu
TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a prominent cytokine capable of inducing apoptosis. It can bind to five different cognate receptors, through which diverse intracellular pathways can be activated. TRAIL's ability to preferentially kill transformed cells makes it a promising potential weapon for targeted tumor therapy. However, recognition of several resistance mechanisms to TRAIL-induced apoptosis has indicated that a thorough understanding of the details of TRAIL biology is still essential before this weapon can be confidently unleashed...
August 10, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Renata Kierepko, Jerzy W Mietelski, Zbigniew Ustrnul, Robert Anczkiewicz, Herbert Wershofen, Zoltan Holgye, Jacek Kapała, Krzysztof Isajenko
This paper reports evidence of Pu isotopes in the lower part of the troposphere of Central Europe. The data were obtained based on atmospheric aerosol fraction samples collected from four places in three countries (participating in the informal European network known as the Ring of Five (Ro5)) forming a cell with a surface area of about 200,000km(2). We compared our original data sets from Krakow (Poland, 1990-2007) and Bialystok (Poland, 1991-2007) with the results from two other locations, Prague (Czech Republic; 1997-2004) and Braunschweig (Germany; 1990-2003) to find time evolution of the Pu isotopes...
November 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
R Scott Kemp, Areg Danagoulian, Ruaridh R Macdonald, Jayson R Vavrek
How does one prove a claim about a highly sensitive object such as a nuclear weapon without revealing information about the object? This paradox has challenged nuclear arms control for more than five decades. We present a mechanism in the form of an interactive proof system that can validate the structure and composition of an object, such as a nuclear warhead, to arbitrary precision without revealing either its structure or composition. We introduce a tomographic method that simultaneously resolves both the geometric and isotopic makeup of an object...
August 2, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dean Kyne, Bob Bolin
Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
T J Stocki, M Gamberg, L Loseto, E Pellerin, L Bergman, J-F Mercier, L Genovesi, M Cooke, B Todd, D Sandles, J Whyte, X Wang
Concern from northern communities following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident of March 2011 has prompted a reassessment of the safety of their traditional foods with respect to radioactivity levels. To this end, a study was conducted to measure the levels of radionuclides in Arctic caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). The main radionuclide of concern is cesium-137, which is easily transferred through the lichen-caribou food chain. Previous studies have been conducted on the cesium-137 levels in Canadian caribou herds from 1958 to 2000, allowing researchers to determine the amount of cesium-137 in caribou specifically attributable to atmospheric weapons testing and the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986...
June 27, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Steven Lehrer, Sheryl Green, Kenneth E Rosenzweig
BACKGROUND: High dose ionizing radiation can induce ovarian cancer, but the effect of low dose radiation on the development of ovarian cancer has not been extensively studied. We evaluated the effect of low dose radiation and total background radiation, and the radiation delivered to the ovaries during the treatment of rectosigmoid cancer and breast cancer on ovarian cancer incidence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Background radiation measurements are from Assessment of Variations in Radiation Exposure in the United States, 2011...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Glyn G Caldwell, Matthew M Zack, Michael T Mumma, Henry Falk, Clark W Heath, John E Till, Heidi Chen, John D Boice
Health effects following low doses of ionizing radiation are uncertain. Military veterans at the Nevada test site (NTS) during the SMOKY atmospheric nuclear weapons test in 1957 were reported to be at increased risk for leukemia in 1979, but this increase was not evaluated with respect to radiation dose. The SMOKY test was one of 30 tests in 1957 within the PLUMBBOB test series. These early studies led to public laws where atomic veterans could qualify for compensation for presumptive radiogenic diseases. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 12219 veterans at the PLUMBBOB test series, including 3020 at the SMOKY nuclear test...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Susan Lindee
In this article, I reflect on the Radiation Effects Research Foundation and its ongoing studies of long-term radiation risk. Originally called the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (1947-1975), the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has carried out epidemiological research tracking the biomedical effects of radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki for almost 70 years. Radiation Effects Research Foundation scientists also played a key role in the assessment of populations exposed at Chernobyl and are now embarking on studies of workers at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant...
April 2016: Social Studies of Science
M M Arienzo, J R McConnell, N Chellman, A S Criscitiello, M Curran, D Fritzsche, S Kipfstuhl, R Mulvaney, M Nolan, T Opel, M Sigl, J P Steffensen
Atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (NWT) resulted in the injection of plutonium (Pu) into the atmosphere and subsequent global deposition. We present a new method for continuous semiquantitative measurement of (239)Pu in ice cores, which was used to develop annual records of fallout from NWT in ten ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica. The (239)Pu was measured directly using an inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometer, thereby reducing analysis time and increasing depth-resolution with respect to previous methods...
July 5, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
N C Larter, C R Macdonald, B T Elkin, X Wang, N J Harms, M Gamberg, D C G Muir
Tissue samples from four ungulate species from the south Mackenzie Mountain region of the Northwest Territories (NT), Canada, were analysed for stable and radioactive elements and (15)N and (13)C stable isotopes. Elevated Cd concentrations in moose (Alces americanus) kidney have been observed in the region and are a health care concern for consumers of traditional foods. This study examined the factors associated with, and potential renal effects from, the accumulation of cadmium, and interactions with other elements in four sympatric ungulate species...
October 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
L Konovalenko, C Bradshaw, E Andersson, D Lindqvist, U Kautsky
As a result of nuclear accidents and weapons tests, the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 are common contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Concentration ratios (CR) based on concentrations of stable Cs and Sr in biota and media are used for the estimation of transfer of their radioisotopes for radiation dose calculations in environmental and human safety assessments. Available element-specific CRs vary by over an order of magnitude for similar organisms, thus affecting the dose estimates proportionally. The variation could be reduced if they were based on a better understanding of the influence of the underlying data and how that affects accumulation and potential biomagnification of stable Cs and Sr in aquatic organisms...
August 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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