Read by QxMD icon Read

nuclear weapon

Andy Haines, Ira Helfand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2017: Lancet
Jeff Tollefson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2017: Nature
Grzegorz Olszewski, Pål Andersson, Patric Lindahl, Mats Eriksson
The activity concentrations and distribution of (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239+240)Pu, (241)Am, and (210)Pb was determined by the analysis of six sediment cores from the Baltic Sea and Kattegat. The chronology of the sediment cores has been used to evaluate the origin and time trend of the radionuclide sources in these sediments. The sediment cores were dated with a (210)Pb model and the results were validated with fallout peaks, assumed to originate from the global nuclear weapons testing and the Chernobyl accident...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Robert Peter Gale
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to address the increasing medical and public concern regarding the health consequences of radiation exposure, a concern shaped not only by fear of another Chernobyl or Fukushima nuclear power facility accident but also by the intentional use of a nuclear weapon, a radiological dispersion device, a radiological exposure device, or an improved nuclear device by rogue states such as North Korea and terrorist organizations such as Al Qaeda and ISIS...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
Brit Salbu, Valery Kashparov, Ole Christian Lind, Rafael Garcia-Tenorio, Mathew P Johansen, David P Child, Per Roos, Carlos Sancho
A series of different nuclear sources associated with the nuclear weapon and fuel cycles have contributed to the release of radioactive particles to the environment. Following nuclear weapon tests, safety tests, conventional destruction of weapons, reactor explosions and fires, a major fraction of released refractory radionuclides such as uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) were present as entities ranging from sub microns to fragments. Furthermore, radioactive particles and colloids have been released from reprocessing facilities and civil reactors, from radioactive waste dumped at sea, and from NORM sites...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
R Lal, L K Fifield, S G Tims, R J Wasson
At present there is a need for the development of new radioisotopes for soil erosion and sediment tracing especially as fallout (137)Cs levels become depleted. Recent studies have shown that (239)Pu can be a useful new soil erosion and sediment radioisotope tracer. (239)Pu was released in the major atmospheric nuclear weapons tests of 1950's and 1960's. However (239)Pu has a half-life of 24110 years and more than 99% of this isotope is still present in the environment today. In contrast (137)Cs with a half-life of 30...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
David K Hecht
Nuclear history always compels. Scholars (and readers) can immerse themselves in the existential threat posed by the atomic bomb and its successor weapons, the tantalizing prospect of carbon-free energy, or the study of a natural phenomenon deeply at odds with our everyday experience of the world. There is thus always something profound at stake when we write nuclear history - be it physical, economic or intellectual. And while it may seem that the end of the Cold War should have diminished the academic attention accorded to the subject, it actually just allowed the historiography to evolve...
September 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
Thomas R Wellock
In recent decades, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has become an essential tool in risk analysis and management in many industries and government agencies. The origins of PRA date to the 1975 publication of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Reactor Safety Study led by MIT professor Norman Rasmussen. The "Rasmussen Report" inspired considerable political and scholarly disputes over the motives behind it and the value of its methods and numerical estimates of risk. The Report's controversies have overshadowed the deeper technical origins of risk assessment...
2017: Technology and Culture
Margaret McCartney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Neil Arya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2017: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
Yuanyuan Qu, Feng Li, Mingwen Zhao
Helium-3 is a precious noble gas, which is essential in many advanced technologies such as cryogenics, isotope labeling and nuclear weapons. The current imbalance of (3)He demand and supply shortage leads to the search for an efficient membrane with high performance for (3)He separation. In this study, based on first-principles calculations, we demonstrated that highly efficient (3)He harvesting can be achieved in a nanoporous graphenylene membrane with industrially-acceptable selectivity and permeance. The quantum tunneling effect leads to (3)He harvesting with high efficiency via kinetic sieving...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
O Delaune, A Cagniant, P Gross, G Douysset, J-P Fontaine, G Le Petit
Radioactive xenon (mainly (131m)Xe, (133)Xe, (133m)Xe and (135)Xe) are tracked as markers of nuclear weapons testing. The CEA has developed the PIPSBox, a measurement cell able to detect electrons emitted by xenon nuclides. Combined with an ultra-low background γ spectrometer, electron detection capacities allow reaching minimum detectable activities (MDA) for a 3-day long measurement of about 0.5mBq for the four xenon radionuclides. Compared to a classical measurement cell, MDAs are improved by a factor of 2-4...
July 13, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Núria Casacuberta, Marcus Christl, Ken O Buesseler, YikSze Lau, Christof Vockenhuber, Maxi Castrillejo, Hans-Arno Synal, Pere Masqué
After the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident, many efforts were put into the determination of the presence of (137)Cs, (134)Cs, (131)I, and other gamma-emitting radionuclides in the ocean, but minor work was done regarding the monitoring of less volatile radionuclides, pure beta-ray emitters or simply radionuclides with very long half-lives. In this study we document the temporal evolution of (129)I, (236)U, and Pu isotopes ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) in seawater sampled during four different cruises performed 2, 3, and 4 years after the accident, and we compare the results to (137)Cs collected at the same stations and depths...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Martin Tondel, Christopher Rääf, Robert Wålinder, Afrah Mamour, Mats Isaksson
Hunters and their families were one of the most exposed subpopulations in Sweden after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. In this pilot study we used existing registries and whole-body measurements to develop algorithms to calculate lifetime effective doses and collective doses to some hunters in Sweden. Ten hunters and their family members were randomly selected from each of the three most contaminated counties in Sweden (Västernorrland, Uppsala, Gävleborg) using the register for hunting weapons from the Police Authority in 1985...
October 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
John Zarocostas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2017: Lancet
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2017: Nature
Brian F Snyder, Leslie E Ruyle
Since the 1950s, select military and political leaders have had the capacity to kill all or nearly all human life on Earth. The number of people entrusted with this power grows each year through proliferation and the rise of new political leaders. If humans continue to maintain and develop nuclear weapons, it is highly probable that a nuclear exchange will occur again at some point in the future. This nuclear exchange may or may not annihilate the human species, but it will cause catastrophic effects on the biosphere...
December 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Vijay K Singh, Briana K Hanlon, Paola T Santiago, Thomas M Seed
PURPOSE: Terrorist attacks, with their intent to maximize psychological and economic damage as well as inflicting sickness and death on given targeted populations, are an ever-growing worldwide concern in government and public sectors as they become more frequent, violent, and sensational. If given the chance, it is likely that terrorists will use radiological or nuclear weapons. To thwart these sinister efforts, both physical and medical countermeasures against these weapons are currently being researched and developed so that they can be utilized by the first responders, military, and medical providers alike...
September 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Jim T Smith, Keiko Tagami, Shigeo Uchida
Estimation of time changes in radiocaesium in foodstuffs is key to predicting the long term impact of the Fukushima accident on the Japanese diet. We have modelled >4000 measurements, spanning 50 years, of (137)Cs in foodstuffs and whole diet in Japan after nuclear weapons testing (NWT) and the Chernobyl accident. Broadly consistent long term trends in (137)Cs activity concentrations are seen between different agricultural foodstuffs; whole diet follows this general trend with remarkably little variation between averages for different regions of Japan...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Andrea L DiCarlo, Radia Tamarat, Carmen I Rios, Marc Benderitter, Christine W Czarniecki, Theresa C Allio, Francesca Macchiarini, Bert W Maidment, Jean-Rene Jourdain
In recent years, there has been increasing concern over the possibility of a radiological or nuclear incident occurring somewhere in the world. Intelligence agencies frequently report that terrorist groups and rogue nations are seeking to obtain radiological or nuclear weapons of mass destruction. In addition, there exists the real possibility that safety of nuclear power reactors could be compromised by natural (such as the tsunami and subsequent Fukushima accident in Japan in March, 2011) or accidental (Three Mile Island, 1979 and Chernobyl, 1986) events...
August 2017: Radiation Research
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"