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nuclear weapon

Eduard Hanslík, Diana Marešová, Eva Juranová, Barbora Sedlářová
The paper presents results and interpretation of long-term monitoring of occurrence and behaviour of radioisotopes 3H, 90Sr, and 137Cs in the vicinity of the Temelín Nuclear Power Plant. 3H, 90Sr, and 137Cs originate predominantly from residual contamination due to atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl disaster in the last century. Monitoring of radionuclides comprised surface waters, river sediments, aquatic plants, and fish. This enables an up-to-date appraisal of the Temelín Nuclear Power Plant impact on the hydrosphere in all indicators at standard power plant operation, as well as at critical situations...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Katarzyna Szarlowicz, Witold Reczynski, Agnieszka Czajka, Barbara Spyt, Grzegorz Szacilowski
The Sudety Mts. form a chain of mountains in the South of Poland and during the last 200 years were subjected to strong industrial and agricultural pressure. The records of these human-induced changes are stored in natural archives like lake sediments. For the comprehensive study, three sediment cores taken from Mały Staw Lake (Sudety Mts.) were analyzed for the concentration of K, Na, Mn, Fe, Cu, Mg, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and radioactivity of (137)Cs and (210)Pb. As a result of the studies, the bathymetry map was developed and the sources of solid material supplied to the lake were identified...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Christine Yi Lai Luk
Radiobiology assesses the biological hazards of exposure to radioactive substances and nuclear radiation. This article explores the history of radiobiology in twentieth-century China by examining the overlapping of radium research and biophysics, from roughly the 1920s Nationalist period to the 1960s Communist period; from the foreign purchase of radium by the Rockefeller Foundation's China Medical Board during the Republican era, to the institutional establishment of radiobiology as a subset of biophysics in the People's Republic...
November 2, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Ken O Buesseler, Matthew A Charette, Steven M Pike, Paul B Henderson, Lauren E Kipp
We made an assessment of the levels of radionuclides in the ocean waters, seafloor and groundwater at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls where the US conducted nuclear weapons tests in the 1940's and 50's. This included the first estimates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) derived from radium isotopes that can be used here to calculate radionuclide fluxes in to the lagoon waters. While there is significant variability between sites and sample types, levels of plutonium ((239,240)Pu) remain several orders of magnitude higher in lagoon seawater and sediments than what is found in rest of the world's oceans...
October 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
John Zarocostas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2017: Lancet
Bradley G Fritz, Craig E Aalseth, Henning O Back, James C Hayes, Paul H Humble, Pavlo Ivanusa, Emily K Mace
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, which is intended to prevent nuclear weapon test explosions and any other nuclear explosions, includes a verification regime, which provides monitoring to identify potential nuclear explosions. The presence of elevated (37)Ar is one way to identify subsurface nuclear explosive testing. However, the naturally occurring formation of (37)Ar in the subsurface adds a complicating factor. Prediction of the naturally occurring concentration of (37)Ar can help to determine if a measured (37)Ar concentration is elevated relative to background...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Trista McKenzie, Henrietta Dulai
Several reactors at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered damage on March 11, 2011, resulting in the release of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs), as well as other radionuclides, into the atmosphere. A week later, these isotopes were detected in aerosols over the state of Hawai'i and in milk samples analyzed on the island of Hawai'i. This study estimated the magnitude of cesium deposition in soil, collected in 2015-2016, resulting from atmospheric fallout. It also examined the patterns of cesium wet deposition with precipitation observed on O'ahu and the island of Hawai'i following the disaster...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
T Wilflinger, H Lettner, A Hubmer, P Bossew, B Sattler, H Slupetzky
Cryoconites ("cold dust", derived from the Greek) are aeolian sediments accumulated on glacier surfaces. In cryoconites from the surface of the Stubacher Sonnblickkees, a temperate Austrian glacier, extremely high activity concentrations of artificial and natural radionuclides were found. Artificial radionuclides stem from two clearly distinguishable sources, global fallout from the nuclear weapons testing era deposited over a period of years until roughly 1966 and the fallout from Chernobyl in 1986, which was essentially deposited as a single input during one week...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Andy Haines, Ira Helfand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2017: Lancet
Jeff Tollefson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2017: Nature
Grzegorz Olszewski, Pål Andersson, Patric Lindahl, Mats Eriksson
The activity concentrations and distribution of (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239+240)Pu, (241)Am, and (210)Pb was determined by the analysis of six sediment cores from the Baltic Sea and Kattegat. The chronology of the sediment cores has been used to evaluate the origin and time trend of the radionuclide sources in these sediments. The sediment cores were dated with a (210)Pb model and the results were validated with fallout peaks, assumed to originate from the global nuclear weapons testing and the Chernobyl accident...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Robert Peter Gale
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to address the increasing medical and public concern regarding the health consequences of radiation exposure, a concern shaped not only by fear of another Chernobyl or Fukushima nuclear power facility accident but also by the intentional use of a nuclear weapon, a radiological dispersion device, a radiological exposure device, or an improved nuclear device by rogue states such as North Korea and terrorist organizations such as Al Qaeda and ISIS...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
Brit Salbu, Valery Kashparov, Ole Christian Lind, Rafael Garcia-Tenorio, Mathew P Johansen, David P Child, Per Roos, Carlos Sancho
A series of different nuclear sources associated with the nuclear weapon and fuel cycles have contributed to the release of radioactive particles to the environment. Following nuclear weapon tests, safety tests, conventional destruction of weapons, reactor explosions and fires, a major fraction of released refractory radionuclides such as uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) were present as entities ranging from sub microns to fragments. Furthermore, radioactive particles and colloids have been released from reprocessing facilities and civil reactors, from radioactive waste dumped at sea, and from NORM sites...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
R Lal, L K Fifield, S G Tims, R J Wasson
At present there is a need for the development of new radioisotopes for soil erosion and sediment tracing especially as fallout (137)Cs levels become depleted. Recent studies have shown that (239)Pu can be a useful new soil erosion and sediment radioisotope tracer. (239)Pu was released in the major atmospheric nuclear weapons tests of 1950's and 1960's. However (239)Pu has a half-life of 24110 years and more than 99% of this isotope is still present in the environment today. In contrast (137)Cs with a half-life of 30...
November 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
David K Hecht
Nuclear history always compels. Scholars (and readers) can immerse themselves in the existential threat posed by the atomic bomb and its successor weapons, the tantalizing prospect of carbon-free energy, or the study of a natural phenomenon deeply at odds with our everyday experience of the world. There is thus always something profound at stake when we write nuclear history - be it physical, economic or intellectual. And while it may seem that the end of the Cold War should have diminished the academic attention accorded to the subject, it actually just allowed the historiography to evolve...
September 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
Thomas R Wellock
In recent decades, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has become an essential tool in risk analysis and management in many industries and government agencies. The origins of PRA date to the 1975 publication of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Reactor Safety Study led by MIT professor Norman Rasmussen. The "Rasmussen Report" inspired considerable political and scholarly disputes over the motives behind it and the value of its methods and numerical estimates of risk. The Report's controversies have overshadowed the deeper technical origins of risk assessment...
2017: Technology and Culture
Margaret McCartney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Neil Arya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2017: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
Yuanyuan Qu, Feng Li, Mingwen Zhao
Helium-3 is a precious noble gas, which is essential in many advanced technologies such as cryogenics, isotope labeling and nuclear weapons. The current imbalance of (3)He demand and supply shortage leads to the search for an efficient membrane with high performance for (3)He separation. In this study, based on first-principles calculations, we demonstrated that highly efficient (3)He harvesting can be achieved in a nanoporous graphenylene membrane with industrially-acceptable selectivity and permeance. The quantum tunneling effect leads to (3)He harvesting with high efficiency via kinetic sieving...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
O Delaune, A Cagniant, P Gross, G Douysset, J-P Fontaine, G Le Petit
Radioactive xenon (mainly (131m)Xe, (133)Xe, (133m)Xe and (135)Xe) are tracked as markers of nuclear weapons testing. The CEA has developed the PIPSBox, a measurement cell able to detect electrons emitted by xenon nuclides. Combined with an ultra-low background γ spectrometer, electron detection capacities allow reaching minimum detectable activities (MDA) for a 3-day long measurement of about 0.5mBq for the four xenon radionuclides. Compared to a classical measurement cell, MDAs are improved by a factor of 2-4...
July 13, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
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