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Peter Warth, Eric J Hilton, Benjamin Naumann, Lennart Olsson, Peter Konstantinidis
The head is considered the major novelty of the vertebrates and directly linked to their evolutionary success. Its form and development as well as its function, for example in feeding, is of major interest for evolutionary biologists. In this study, we describe the skeletal development of the cranium and pectoral girdle in Siberian (Acipenser baerii) and Russian sturgeon (A. gueldenstaedtii), two species that are commonly farmed in aquaculture and increasingly important in developmental studies. This study comprises the development of the neuro-, viscero- and dermatocranium and the dermal and chondral components of the pectoral girdle, from first condensation of chondrocytes in prehatchlings to the early juvenile stage and reveals a clear pattern in formation...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Morphology
Vincent Dupret, Sophie Sanchez, Daniel Goujet, Per Erik Ahlberg
Placoderms are considered as the first jawed vertebrates and constitute a paraphyletic group in the stem-gnathostome grade. The acanthothoracid placoderms are among the phylogenetically most basal and morphologically primitive gnathostomes, but their neurocranial anatomy is poorly understood. Here we present a near-complete three-dimensional skull of Romundina stellina, a small Early Devonian acanthothoracid from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, scanned with propagation phase contrast microtomography at a 7...
2017: PloS One
Jorge Cubo, Mylaine Hui, François Clarac, Alexandra Quilhac
Two successive mechanisms have been described in perichondral ossification: (1) in static osteogenesis, mesenchymal cells differentiate into stationary osteoblasts oriented randomly, which differentiate into osteocytes in the same site; (2) in dynamic osteogenesis, mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts that are all oriented in the same direction and move back as they secrete collagen fibers. This study is aimed at testing the hypothesis that the ontogenetic sequence static then dynamic osteogenesis observed in the chicken and in the rabbit is homologous and was acquired by the last common ancestor of amniotes or at a more inclusive node...
May 2017: Journal of Morphology
Tingsheng Yu, Martin Graf, Joerg Renn, Manfred Schartl, Daria Larionova, Ann Huysseune, Paul Eckhard Witten, Christoph Winkler
osterix (osx; sp7) encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor that controls osteoblast differentiation in mammals. Although identified in all vertebrate lineages, its role in non-mammalian bone formation remains elusive. Here, we show that an osx mutation in medaka results in severe bone defects and larval lethality. Pre-osteoblasts fail to differentiate leading to severe intramembranous and perichondral ossification defects. The notochord sheath mineralizes normally, supporting the idea of an osteoblast-independent mechanism for teleost vertebral centra formation...
January 15, 2017: Development
Dirk Pieter Hogerzeil, Klaas Albert Hartholt, Mark Rem de Vries
Two patients who presented with nonspecific thoracic and upper abdominal symptoms and tenderness of the xiphoid process are discussed. Both patients had undergone extensive examinations, but no source for their symptoms could be found. Plain chest radiographs revealed an anterior displacement of the xiphoid process in both patients. Physical examination confirmed this to be the primary source of discomfort. Anterior displacement of the xiphoid process may be the result of significant weight gain. Repeated trauma of the afflicted area, unaccustomed heavy lifting, exercise, and perichondritis are, amongst other causes, believed to contribute to the development of xiphodynia...
2016: Case Reports in Surgery
Amandine Leprévost, Thierry AzaÏs, Michael Trichet, Jean-Yves Sire
In order to improve our knowledge on the vertebral development, structure and mineralization in Acipenseriformes, we undertook a study in a growth series of reared Siberian sturgeons (Acipenser baerii) using in toto clear and stain specimens, histological and ultrastructural observations, X-ray micro-tomography, and solid state NMR analyses. Scutes were also studied to compare the tissue structure and mineralization of endoskeletal and dermal skeletal elements. This study completes and clarifies previous investigations on vertebral development and architecture in sturgeons, and brings original data on the structure of (i) the perichondral bone that is progressively deposited around the vertebral elements during ontogeny, (ii) the typical cartilage composing these elements, and (iii) the scutes...
November 14, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Riza Dundar, Erkan Kulduk, Fatih Kemal Soy, Mehmet Aslan, Ahmet Yükkaldiran, Mehmet Ali Çiftçi
The aim of this study was to compare anatomical and audiological results of boomerang-shaped chondroperichondrial graft (BSCPG) with temporal muscle fascia in type 1 tympanoplasties. Sixty-eight patients in BSCPG group and 54 patients in fascia group were evaluated. Otomicroscopic examination was done periodically till 24 months as for graft perforation, lateralization and retraction and mean air conduction threshold and airbone gap values were measured. At long term controls, in BSCPG group, rates of neomembrane, perforation, retraction and lateralization were 91...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Nathan E Pierce, Patrick J Antonelli
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of combined antistaphylococcal and antipseudomonal preoperative antibiotics for preventing surgical site infections following tympanoplasty and mastoidectomy with contaminated cholesteatoma. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. METHODS: Medical records of patients who underwent tympanoplasty ± mastoidectomy for cholesteatoma were reviewed. Only cases considered to have contaminated or dirty surgical fields were included...
October 2016: Laryngoscope
Jake Barber, Nobue Itasaki
Hypoxic cellular response is crucial for normal development as well as in pathological conditions in order to tolerate low oxygen. The response is mediated by Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIFs), where the α-subunit of HIF is stabilised and able to function only in low oxygen. Prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) are oxygen dependent dioxygenase enzymes that hydroxylate HIF-α leading to HIF degradation. Thus PHDs function as an oxygen sensor for the function of HIFs. Here we describe the mRNA expression pattern of PHDs in chick embryos...
July 2016: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Joana Rosa, Daniel M Tiago, Cátia L Marques, Parameswaran Vijayakumar, Luis Fonseca, M Leonor Cancela, Vincent Laizé
BACKGROUND: To better understand the complex mechanisms of bone formation it is fundamental that genes central to signaling/regulatory pathways and matrix formation are identified. Cell systems were used to analyze genes differentially expressed during extracellular matrix mineralization and bhmt3, coding for a betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase, was shown to be down-regulated in mineralizing gilthead seabream cells. METHODS: Levels and sites of bhmt3 expression were determined by qPCR and in situ hybridization throughout seabream development and in adult tissues...
July 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Kosuke Hirayama, Nozomi Iwanaga, Yasumori Izumi, Satoshi Yoshimura, Kazuhiro Kurohama, Mai Yamashita, Taichi Takahata, Ryuta Oku, Masahiro Ito, Atsushi Kawakami, Kiyoshi Migita
Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare autoimmune disease affecting the multiple organ system. Here, we describe a case of RP initially presenting with high fever. The patient was referred to our hospital for further examination of fever of unknown origin (FUO). On admission, the patient reported dry cough in addition to fever. On physical examination, her red, swollen ears were noted, attributed on histology to inflammation with auricular perichondritis. She was diagnosed with RP and treated with oral prednisone (50 mg/day); her fever and auricular inflammation resolved...
2016: Case Reports in Medicine
Roberta La Selva, Paolo Fava, Paola Savoia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Lucia Longo, Antonio Greco, Andrea Rea, Vincenza Rita Lo Vasco, Armando De Virgilio, Marco De Vincentiis
Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare connective tissue disease in which recurrent bouts of inflammation, involve the cartilage of the ears, nose, larynx, tracheobronchial tree and cardiovascular system. RP is generally observed in the fourth and fifth decades of life and occurs with equal frequency in both sexes. The cause of RP is still unknown. It is considered an immune-mediated disease, as there is an overlap between well documented RP with other rheumatic and autoimmune diseases. There is a significant association of RP with the antigen HLA-DR4...
June 2016: Autoimmunity Reviews
Soung Min Kim, Hoon Myoung, Sang Shin Lee, Yeon Sook Kim, Suk Keun Lee
BACKGROUND: Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (BPOP) is benign and usually occurs in the small tubular bones of the hands and feet, but it is extremely rare in the oral and maxillofacial region. METHODS: The present study compares a case of BPOP occurring in the lingual area of the right mandibular body with a representative case of osteochondroma occurring in the left mandibular condyle using immunohistochemical methods. RESULTS: BPOP showed no continuity to the cortical bone of the mandible on X-ray and was histologically composed of immature cartilage and bone tissues, whereas osteochondroma showed overgrowth of hypertrophic chondrocytes accompanied by mature bone with endochondral ossification...
February 11, 2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
S Christopher Man, Desmond A Nunez
UNLABELLED: The three well recognized tympanoplasty approaches: permeatal, postaural, and endaural, each have advantages and disadvantages. The permeatal approach is suitable only for ears with adequate canal size. The postaural approach limits visualization of the posterior eardrum margin. The endaural approach limits the view of the eardrum's anterior margin. This study describes a modified endaural approach, developed to overcome these limitations. A retrospective case series review and collection of a prospective cohort of patient reported outcome data were undertaken to assess the technique...
January 6, 2016: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Mohammed Iqbal Syed, Ophir Ilan, Jihad Nassar, John A Rutka
Meatoplasty refers to surgically altering the shape or size of the cartilaginous meatus of the external auditory canal and is an essential final step in a canal wall down mastoidectomy. An adequate meatus is essential to allow drainage, cleaning, aeration and epithelialisation of the mastoid cavity. The earliest recorded descriptions in literature of the procedure were in 1893 by Stacke and Shwartze [1]. Since then there have been multiple publications describing different techniques and modifications of the procedure albeit with few papers discussing complications of meatoplasty including granulation tissue formation, perichondritis and stenosis, often resulting in a chronically discharging mastoid cavity...
November 19, 2015: Clinical Otolaryngology
Nana Furuya, Toshiyuki Oshitari, Jiro Yotsukura, Takayuki Baba, Shuichi Yamamoto
We were presented with two cases of relapsing polychondritis (RP) associated with different types of ocular inflammation. The first case was a 35-year-old man who had bilateral hyperemic conjunctiva and ocular pain, and was referred to Chiba University Hospital with a diagnosis of episcleritis refractory. He was treated with dexamethasone eye drops. He developed tinnitus, deafness in both ears, and left auriculitis. A left auricular biopsy showed an infiltration of lymphocytes surrounding the cartilage. He was diagnosed with RP and treated with 30 mg/day oral prednisolone...
2015: International Medical Case Reports Journal
L A Vallejo-Valdezate, D Herrero-Calvo, M Garrosa-García
Knowledge of the vascularization of the malleus may help to better understand some unwanted effects occurred in those surgical techniques using the handle as an attachment site of ossicle-replacement prostheses. Our hypothesis is that vascular damage occurred in the long process of the malleus during tympanic membrane detachment before fastening a malleovestibulopexy (MVP) prosthesis promotes the lysis of this ossicle at the attachment site. To confirm this premise, we carried out an evolutive and descriptive study of ten MVP procedures as well as a morphological analysis of ten cadaveric mallei using both light and scanning electron microscopies...
September 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Zerina Johanson, Catherine Boisvert, Anton Maksimenko, Peter Currie, Kate Trinajstic
The synarcual is a structure incorporating multiple elements of two or more anterior vertebrae of the axial skeleton, forming immediately posterior to the cranium. It has been convergently acquired in the fossil group 'Placodermi', in Chondrichthyes (Holocephali, Batoidea), within the teleost group Syngnathiformes, and to varying degrees in a range of mammalian taxa. In addition, cervical vertebral fusion presents as an abnormal pathology in a variety of human disorders. Vertebrae develop from axially arranged somites, so that fusion could result from a failure of somite segmentation early in development, or from later heterotopic development of intervertebral bone or cartilage...
2015: PloS One
Kyu Sang Joeng, Fanxin Long
Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is an essential signal that regulates endochondral bone development. We have previously shown that Wnt7b promotes osteoblast differentiation during mouse embryogenesis, and that its expression in the perichondrium is dependent on Ihh signaling. To test the hypothesis that Wnt7b may mediate some aspects of Ihh function during endochondral bone development, we activated Wnt7b expression from the R26-Wnt7b allele with Col2-Cre in the Ihh(-/-) mouse. Artificial expression of Wnt7b rescued vascularization of the hypertrophic cartilage in the Ihh(-/-) mouse, but failed to restore orthotopic osteoblast differentiation in the perichondrium...
2014: Bone Research
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