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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350982/micrornas-make-a-difference-in-cardiovascular-robustness
#1
Rachael Bakker, Richard W Carthew
Invertebrate microRNAs (miRNAs) can suppress developmental variability that is caused by environmental and genetic variation. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Kasper et al. (2017) show that zebrafish miRNAs suppress variability in cardiovascular development during embryogenesis, providing insight into the conserved link between miRNAs and robustness.
March 27, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350956/improving-the-performance-of-hybrid-functional-based-molecular-dynamics-simulation-through-screening-of-hartree-fock-exchange-forces
#2
Guido Falk von Rudorff, Rasmus Jakobsen, Kevin M Rosso, Jochen Blumberger
Density functional theory-based molecular dynamics calculations of condensed phase systems often benefit from the use of hybrid functionals. However, their use is computationally very demanding and severely limits the system size and time scale that can be simulated. Several methods have been introduced to accelerate hybrid functional molecular dynamics including Schwarz screening and the auxiliary density matrix method (ADMM). Here we present a simple screening scheme that can be applied in addition to these methods...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350856/a-fat-derived-metabolite-regulates-a-peptidergic-feeding-circuit-in-drosophila
#3
Do-Hyoung Kim, Minjung Shin, Sung-Hwan Jung, Young-Joon Kim, Walton D Jones
Here, we show that the enzymatic cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) inhibits feeding in Drosophila. BH4 biosynthesis requires the sequential action of the conserved enzymes Punch, Purple, and Sepiapterin Reductase (Sptr). Although we observe increased feeding upon loss of Punch and Purple in the adult fat body, loss of Sptr must occur in the brain. We found Sptr expression is required in four adult neurons that express neuropeptide F (NPF), the fly homologue of the vertebrate appetite regulator neuropeptide Y (NPY)...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350844/isolation-and-characterization-of-alternatively-spliced-variants-of-the-mouse-sigma1-receptor-gene-sigmar1
#4
Ling Pan, David A Pasternak, Jin Xu, Mingming Xu, Zhigang Lu, Gavril W Pasternak, Ying-Xian Pan
The sigma1 receptor acts as a chaperone at the endoplasmic reticulum, associates with multiple proteins in various cellular systems, and involves in a number of diseases, such as addiction, pain, cancer and psychiatric disorders. The sigma1 receptor is encoded by the single copy SIGMAR1 gene. The current study identifies five alternatively spliced variants of the mouse sigma1 receptor gene using a polymerase chain reaction cloning approach. All the splice variants are generated by exon skipping or alternative 3' or 5' splicing, producing the truncated sigma1 receptor...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350825/antarctica-and-the-strategic-plan-for-biodiversity
#5
Steven L Chown, Cassandra M Brooks, Aleks Terauds, Céline Le Bohec, Céline van Klaveren-Impagliazzo, Jason D Whittington, Stuart H M Butchart, Bernard W T Coetzee, Ben Collen, Peter Convey, Kevin J Gaston, Neil Gilbert, Mike Gill, Robert Höft, Sam Johnston, Mahlon C Kennicutt, Hannah J Kriesell, Yvon Le Maho, Heather J Lynch, Maria Palomares, Roser Puig-Marcó, Peter Stoett, Melodie A McGeoch
The Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, adopted under the auspices of the Convention on Biological Diversity, provides the basis for taking effective action to curb biodiversity loss across the planet by 2020-an urgent imperative. Yet, Antarctica and the Southern Ocean, which encompass 10% of the planet's surface, are excluded from assessments of progress against the Strategic Plan. The situation is a lost opportunity for biodiversity conservation globally. We provide such an assessment. Our evidence suggests, surprisingly, that for a region so remote and apparently pristine as the Antarctic, the biodiversity outlook is similar to that for the rest of the planet...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350703/rf-safety-analysis-of-a-novel-ultra-wideband-fetal-monitoring-system
#6
Jerrold T Bushberg, J Paul Tupin
The LifeWave Ultra-Wideband RF sensor (LWUWBS) is a monitoring solution for a variety of physiologic assessment applications, including maternal fetal monitoring in both the antepartum and intrapartum periods. The system uses extremely low power radio frequency (RF) ultra-wide band (UWB) signals to provide continuous fetal heart rate and contractions monitoring during labor and delivery. Even with the incorporation of three very conservative assumptions, (1) concentration of the RF energy in 1 cm, (2) minimal (2...
May 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350680/airway-and-feeding-outcomes-of-mandibular-distraction-tongue-lip-adhesion-and-conservative-management-in-pierre-robin-sequence-a-prospective-study
#7
Ibrahim Khansa, Courtney Hall, Lauren L Madhoun, Mark Splaingard, Adriane Baylis, Richard E Kirschner, Gregory D Pearson
BACKGROUND: Pierre Robin sequence is characterized by mandibular retrognathia and glossoptosis resulting in airway obstruction and feeding difficulties. When conservative management fails, mandibular distraction osteogenesis or tongue-lip adhesion may be required to avoid tracheostomy. The authors' goal was to prospectively evaluate the airway and feeding outcomes of their comprehensive approach to Pierre Robin sequence, which includes conservative management, mandibular distraction osteogenesis, and tongue-lip adhesion...
April 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350586/predictors-of-outcome-in-conservative-and-minimally-invasive-surgical-management-of-pain-originating-from-the-sacroiliac-joint-a-pooled-analysis
#8
Julius Dengler, Bradley Duhon, Peter Whang, Clay Frank, John Glaser, Bengt Sturesson, Steven Garfin, Daniel Cher, Aaron Rendahl, David Polly
STUDY DESIGN: A pooled patient-level analysis of two multicenter randomized controlled trials and one multicenter single-arm prospective trial. OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of outcome of conservative and minimally invasive surgical management of pain originating from the sacroiliac joint (SIJ). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Three recently published prospective trials have shown that minimally invasive SIJ fusion (SIJF) using triangular titanium implants produces better outcomes than conservative management for patients with pain originating from the SIJ...
March 27, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350512/high-prevalence-of-prion-protein-genotype-associated-with-resistance-to-chronic-wasting-disease-in-one-alberta-woodland-caribou-population
#9
Yo Ching Cheng, Marco Musiani, Maria Cavedon, Sabine Gilch
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease found in deer, elk and moose in North America and since recently, wild reindeer in Norway. Caribou are at-risk to encounter CWD in areas such as Alberta, Canada, where the disease spreads towards caribou habitats. CWD susceptibility is modulated by species-specific polymorphisms in the prion protein gene (Prnp). We sequenced Prnp of woodland caribou from nine Albertan populations. In one population (Chinchaga) a significantly higher frequency of the 138N allele linked to reduced CWD susceptibility was observed...
March 28, 2017: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350495/out-group-threat-responses-in-group-bias-and-nonapeptide-involvement-are-conserved-across-vertebrates-a-comment-on-bruintjes-et-al-out-group-threat-promotes-within-group-affiliation-in-a-cooperative-fish
#10
Martin Kavaliers, Elena Choleris
The challenges and threats posed by out-groups have major effects on human social behavior and how individuals interact with one another. We briefly review evidence here that out-group threat similarly affects nonhuman animal behavior. Actual and potential threats posed by out-group individuals (unfamiliar and genetically nonrelated individuals of the same species) affect social behavior promoting "out-group" avoidance and "in-group" bias and enhancing in-group (familiar and/or genetically related individuals) affiliation and interactions...
April 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350494/expanding-the-link-between-out-group-threats-and-in-group-behavior-a-reply-to-kavaliers-and-choleris
#11
Andrew N Radford, Rick Bruintjes
In social species, groups and their members face a variety of threats from conspecific outsiders. Such out-group conflict is predicted to influence within-group behavior, with empirical work demonstrating this link in humans, primates, and birds. In our note "Out-Group Threat Promotes Within-Group Affiliation in a Cooperative Fish," appearing in The American Naturalist in February 2016, we provided experimental evidence that simulated territorial intrusions result in subsequent increases in affiliation among groupmates in a cichlid fish (Neolamprologus pulcher)...
April 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350445/structural-changes-in-an-anion-channelrhodopsin-formation-of-the-k-and-l-intermediates-at-80-k
#12
Adrian Yi, Hai Li, Natalia V Mamaeva, Roberto F de Cordoba, Johan Lugtenburg, Willem J DeGrip, John L Spudich, Kenneth J Rothschild
A recently discovered natural family of light-gated anion channelrhodopsins (ACRs) from cryptophyte algae provides an effective means of optogenetically silencing neurons. The most extensively studied ACR is from Guillardia theta (GtACR1). Earlier studies of GtACR1 have established a correlation between formation of a blue-shifted L-like intermediate and the anion channel "open" state. To study structural changes of GtACR1 in the K and L intermediates of the photocycle, a combination of low-temperature FTIR and UV-visible absorption difference spectroscopy was used along with stable-isotope retinal labeling and site-directed mutagenesis...
March 28, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346955/nonischemic-priapism-in-childhood-a-case-series-and-review-of-literature
#13
Hans-Walter Hacker, Marcus G Schwoebel, Philipp O Szavay
Introduction Nonischemic priapism (NIP) in childhood is a very rare affection. In the literature, patients with NIP are described mainly incidental after perineal trauma. Many of them underwent embolization of either internal pudendal artery or bulbocavernosal arteries. Patients and Methods We report on six boys between 4 and 13 years of age with NIP, treated at our institution between 2008 and 2014. Color Doppler ultrasound (CDU) was performed in all patients as emergency diagnostic evaluation. Patients were treated conservatively, including bed rest, local cooling, and perineal compression...
March 27, 2017: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346911/conserved-patterns-of-trigeminal-somatosensory-system-organization-in-mammals
#14
Eva K Sawyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346822/sensitivity-analysis-for-matched-pair-analysis-of-binary-data-from-worst-case-to-average-case-analysis
#15
Raiden Hasegawa, Dylan Small
In matched observational studies where treatment assignment is not randomized, sensitivity analysis helps investigators determine how sensitive their estimated treatment effect is to some unmeasured confounder. The standard approach calibrates the sensitivity analysis according to the worst case bias in a pair. This approach will result in a conservative sensitivity analysis if the worst case bias does not hold in every pair. In this paper, we show that for binary data, the standard approach can be calibrated in terms of the average bias in a pair rather than worst case bias...
March 27, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346724/acclimation-of-bloom-forming-and-perennial-seaweeds-to-elevated-pco2-conserved-across-levels-of-environmental-complexity
#16
Dong Xu, C-Elisa Schaum, Fan Lin, Ke Sun, James R Munroe, Xiao W Zhang, Xiao Fan, Lin H Teng, Yi T Wang, Zhi Z Zhuang, Nai H Ye
Macroalgae contribute approximately 15% of the primary productivity in coastal marine ecosystems, fix up to 27.4 Tg of carbon per year, and provide important structural components for life in coastal waters. Despite this ecological and commercial importance, direct measurements and comparisons of the short-term responses to elevated pCO2 in seaweeds with different life-history strategies are scarce. Here, we cultured several seaweed species (bloom-forming/non-bloom-forming/perennial/annual) in the laboratory, in tanks in an in-door mesocosm facility, and in coastal mesocosms under pCO2 levels ranging from 400 μatm to 2000 μatm...
March 27, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346706/tooth-loss-in-generalized-aggressive-periodontitis-prognostic-factors-after-17-years-of-supportive-periodontal-treatment
#17
Christian Graetz, Sonja Sälzer, Anna Plaumann, Peter Schlattmann, Maren Kahl, Claudia Springer, Christof Dörfer, Falk Schwendicke
AIM: This retrospective longitudinal study assessed the risk of and prognostic factors for tooth loss in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) after periodontal treatment in a university setting. METHODS: 57 patients (1505 teeth) were examined before (T0) and after active periodontal therapy (APT, T1) as well as after 17.4±4.8 [range: 9-28] years of supportive periodontal therapy (SPT, T2). Descriptive statistics and a Cox-proportional-hazards shared-frailty model were applied...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346704/the-chloroplast-rna-helicase-ise2-is-required-for-multiple-chloroplast-rna-processing-steps-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#18
Krzysztof Bobik, Tyra N McCray, Ben Ernest, Jessica C Fernandez, Katharine A Howell, Thomas Lane, Margaret Staton, Tessa M Burch-Smith
INCREASED SIZE EXCLUSION LIMIT2 (ISE2) is a chloroplast-localized RNA helicase that is indispensable for proper plant development. Chloroplasts in leaves with reduced ISE2 expression have previously been shown to exhibit reduced thylakoid contents and increased stromal volume, indicative of defective development. It has recently been reported that ISE2 is required for the splicing of group II introns from chloroplast transcripts. The current study extends these findings, and presents evidence for ISE2's role in multiple aspects of chloroplast RNA processing beyond group II intron splicing...
March 27, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346688/how-far-do-neotropical-primates-disperse-seeds
#19
Lisieux F Fuzessy, Charles H Janson, Fernando A O Silveira
Seed dispersal distance (SDD) is a vital component of vertebrate-mediated seed dispersal process: the average distance at which seeds are deposited away from the parent plant represents the starting template of plant regeneration. We present a simple model to explain and predict observed measures of average dispersal distance and we hypothesize that it is a consequence of how long seeds are retained in the disperser's gut, how rapidly the disperser moves per unit time and how twisted the animal travel path is relative to the straight-line distance moved away from the seed source...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346537/deep-mutational-scanning-identifies-sites-in-influenza-nucleoprotein-that-affect-viral-inhibition-by-mxa
#20
Orr Ashenberg, Jai Padmakumar, Michael B Doud, Jesse D Bloom
The innate-immune restriction factor MxA inhibits influenza replication by targeting the viral nucleoprotein (NP). Human influenza virus is more resistant than avian influenza virus to inhibition by human MxA, and prior work has compared human and avian viral strains to identify amino-acid differences in NP that affect sensitivity to MxA. However, this strategy is limited to identifying sites in NP where mutations that affect MxA sensitivity have fixed during the small number of documented zoonotic transmissions of influenza to humans...
March 27, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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