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Charbel Karam, Sally Lord, Rohan Gett, Alan P Meagher
BACKGROUND: Leak rates of over 5% following anastomoses between the ileum and colon continue to be reported in large series and are associated with substantial morbidity and with mortality rates of 10-20%. In 1994, we began performing circumferentially oversewn inverted stapled anastomoses in patients undergoing ileo-colic anastomoses or ileostomy closure. It has become increasingly apparent that this method is associated with a low risk of leakage, which we should report. METHODS: The anastomotic technique described was used in all patients undergoing ileo-colic anastomosis or closure of ileostomy by surgeon 1 (1994-2015) and in all ileo-colic anastomoses by surgeon 2 (2007-2015)...
October 20, 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Yanfen Fang, Yannan Kong, Jianbei Xi, Mengli Zhu, Tong Zhu, Tongtong Jiang, Wenhao Hu, Mingliang Ma, Xiongwen Zhang
NEK2 is a conserved mitotic regulator critical for cell cycle progression. Aberrant expression of NEK2 has been found in a variety of human cancers, making it an attractive molecular target for the design of novel anticancer therapeutics. In the present study, we have identified a novel compound MBM-5, which was found to bind to NEK2 with high affinity by docking simulations study. MBM-5 potently inhibited NEK2 kinase activity in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. MBM-5 also suppressed cellular NEK2 kinase activity, as evidenced by the decreased phosphorylation of its substrate Hec1 on S165 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner...
October 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Jana Jakubikova, Danka Cholujova, Teru Hideshima, Paulina Gronesova, Andrea Soltysova, Takeshi Harada, Jungnam Joo, Sun-Young Kong, Raphael E Szalat, Paul G Richardson, Nikhil C Munshi, David M Dorfman, Kenneth C Anderson
Specific niches within the tumor bone marrow (BM) microenvironment afford a sanctuary for multiple myeloma (MM) clones due to stromal cell-tumor cell interactions, which confer survival advantage and drug resistance. Defining the sequelae of tumor cell interactions within the MM niches on an individualized basis may provide the rationale for personalized therapies. To mimic the MM niche, we here describe a new 3D co-culture ex-vivo model in which primary MM patient BM cells are co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in a hydrogel 3D system...
October 13, 2016: Oncotarget
Ya-Qin Tan, Jing Zhang, Gang Zhou
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a conserved lysosomal degradation process essential for cell physiology and human health. By regulating apoptosis, inflammation, pathogen clearance, immune response and other cellular processes, autophagy acts as a modulator of pathogenesis and is a potential therapeutic target in diverse diseases. With regard to oral disease, autophagy can be problematic either when it is activated or impaired, because this process is involved in diverse functions, depending on the specific disease and its level of progression...
October 20, 2016: Autophagy
Indu Jose Thoompumkal, Krishnan Rehna, Kumaraswamy Anbarasu, Sundarasamy Mahalingam
Guanine nucleotide binding protein-like 3-like (GNL3L) is an evolutionarily conserved putative nucleolar GTPase belonging to the HSR1-MMR1 family. In the present study, using protein-protein interaction assays, we show that Leucine Zipper Down-regulated in Cancer-1 (LDOC1) is a novel interacting partner of GNL3L. Furthermore, our results reveal that ectopic expression of LDOC1 destabilizes endogenous GNL3L levels and down modulates GNL3L-induced cell proliferation, in contrast, the knockdown of LDOC1 potentiates cell proliferation upon GNL3L expression...
October 20, 2016: Cell Cycle
Suman Kumar Nandy, Alpana Seal
Cystatin superfamily is a large group of evolutionarily related proteins involved in numerous physiological activities through their inhibitory activity towards cysteine proteases. Despite sharing the same cystatin fold, and inhibiting cysteine proteases through the same tripartite edge involving highly conserved N-terminal region, L1 and L2 loop; cystatins differ widely in their inhibitory affinity towards C1 family of cysteine proteases and molecular details of these interactions are still elusive. In this study, inhibitory interactions of human family 1 & 2 cystatins with cathepsin L1 are predicted and their stability and viability are verified through protein docking & comparative molecular dynamics...
2016: PloS One
Lisai Zhu, Haibing Lu, Yufeng Cao, Xiaochun Gai, Changming Guo, Yajing Liu, Jiaxu Liu, Xinping Wang
As one of the major pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus caused a significant economic loss to the livestock industry worldwide. Although BVDV infections have increasingly been reported in China in recent years, the molecular aspects of those BVDV strains were barely characterized. In this study, we reported the identification and characterization of a novel BVDV isolate designated as SD-15 from cattle, which is associated with an outbreak characterized by severe hemorrhagic and mucous diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality in Shandong, China...
2016: PloS One
Luis Figueroa-Yañez, Alejandro Pereira-Santana, Ana Arroyo-Herrera, Ulises Rodriguez-Corona, Felipe Sanchez-Teyer, Jorge Espadas-Alcocer, Francisco Espadas-Gil, Felipe Barredo-Pool, Enrique Castaño, Luis Carlos Rodriguez-Zapata
Plants respond to stress through metabolic and morphological changes that increase their ability to survive and grow. To this end, several transcription factor families are responsible for transmitting the signals that are required for these changes. Here, we studied the transcription factor superfamily AP2/ERF, particularly, RAP2.4 from Carica papaya cv. Maradol. We isolated four genes (CpRap2.4a, CpRAap2.4b, CpRap2.1 and CpRap2.10), and an in silico analysis showed that the four genes encode proteins that contain a conserved APETALA2 (AP2) domain located within group I and II transcription factors of the AP2/ERF superfamily...
2016: PloS One
Thomas Briese, David T Williams, Vishal Kapoor, Sinead M Diviney, Andrea Certoma, Jianning Wang, Cheryl A Johansen, Rashmi Chowdhary, John S Mackenzie, W Ian Lipkin
The Mapputta group comprises antigenically related viruses indigenous to Australia and Papua New Guinea that are included in the family Bunyaviridae but not currently assigned to a specific genus. We determined and analyzed the genome sequences of five Australian viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected during routine arbovirus surveillance in Western Australia (K10441, SW27571, K13190, and K42904) and New South Wales (12005). Based on matching sequences of all three genome segments to prototype MRM3630 of Trubanaman virus (TRUV), NB6057 of Gan Gan virus (GGV), and MK7532 of Maprik virus (MPKV), isolates K13190 and SW27571 were identified as TRUV, 12005 as GGV, and K42904 as a Mapputta group virus from Western Australia linking GGV and MPKV...
2016: PloS One
Ruijie Liu, Hadi Khalil, Suh-Chin J Lin, Michelle A Sargent, Allen J York, Jeffery D Molkentin
Nemo-like kinase (NLK) is an evolutionary conserved serine/threonine protein kinase implicated in development, proliferation and apoptosis regulation. Here we identified NLK as a gene product induced in the hearts of mice subjected to pressure overload or myocardial infarction injury, suggesting a potential regulatory role with pathological stimulation to this organ. To examine the potential functional consequences of increased NLK levels, cardiac-specific transgenic mice with inducible expression of this gene product were generated, as well as cardiac-specific Nlk gene-deleted mice...
2016: PloS One
Robert G Hahn, Nina Grankvist, Camilla Krizhanovskii
OBJECTIVE: Renal conservation (retention) of fluid might affect the outcome of hospital care and can be indicated by increased urinary concentrations of metabolic waste products. We obtained a reference material for further studies by exploring the prevalence of fluid retention in a healthy population. METHODS: Spot urine sampling was performed in 300 healthy hospital workers. A previously validated algorithm summarized the urine-specific gravity, osmolality, creatinine, and color to a fluid retention index (FRI), where 4...
2016: PloS One
Kazuo Kobayashi, Yu Kanesaki, Hirofumi Yoshikawa
Bacteria have developed various motility mechanisms to adapt to a variety of solid surfaces. A rhizosphere isolate, Paenibacillus sp. NAIST15-1, exhibited unusual motility behavior. When spotted onto 1.5% agar media, Paenibacillus sp. formed many colonies, each of which moved around actively at a speed of 3.6 μm/sec. As their density increased, each moving colony began to spiral, finally forming a static round colony. Despite its unusual motility behavior, draft genome sequencing revealed that both the composition and organization of flagellar genes in Paenibacillus sp...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Hiroyoshi Hagiwara, Takashi Ajiki, Suguru Hagiwara, Naoya Sugimoto, Katsushi Takeshita
We present a case of simultaneous ipsilateral fractures at the intra-articular second metacarpal head, intra-articular fourth metacarpal base, and ulnar styloid. These fractures were caused by the peculiar condition of a blow to the fist during an ice hockey game; the hand was struck while it was gripping a stick. The specific combination of these fractures has not been previously reported in the literature. In this incident, axial compression force was transmitted from the second and fourth metacarpal heads while skipping the third metacarpal head to the ulnar side of the wrist via the carpometacarpal joints and carpal bones...
July 27, 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
C Andres Benatti, Natalie A Afshari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review updates the mechanisms, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of Descemet membrane detachment after cataract surgery, particularly during cataract surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: The advent of new imaging techniques like the anterior segment optical coherence tomography and a better comprehension of the clinical and pathological aspects of detachment, has improved the diagnosis and treatment of this complication to the extent that the first algorithms and protocols have been proposed...
October 19, 2016: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Anne-Lise Chaber, Gabriele Cozzi, Femke Broekhuis, Robyn Hartley, John W McNutt
The recent increase in the creation of transboundary protected areas and wildlife corridors between them lends importance to information on pathogen prevalence and transmission among wildlife species that will become connected. One such initiative is the Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area of which Botswana's Okavango Delta constitutes a major contribution for wildlife and ecosystems. Between 2008 and 2011, we collected serum samples from 14 lions ( Panthera leo ), four leopards ( Panthera pardus ), 19 spotted hyenas ( Crocuta crocuta ), and six cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus ) in the Okavango...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Shu Yang, Anne Rosenwald
Macroautophagy, a highly conserved process in eukaryotic cells, is initiated in response to stress, especially nutrient starvation. Macroautophagy helps cells survive by engulfing proteins and organelles into an unusual double-membraned structure called the autophagosome, which then fuses with the lysosome. Upon degradation of the engulfed contents, the building blocks are recycled for synthesis of new macromolecules. Recent work has demonstrated that construction of the autophagosome requires a variety of small GTPases in variations of their normal roles in membrane traffic...
October 20, 2016: Small GTPases
Christine L Madliger, Oliver P Love
The application of physiological measures to conservation monitoring has been gaining momentum and, while a suite of physiological traits are available to ascertain disturbance and condition in wildlife populations, glucocorticoids (i.e., GCs; cortisol and corticosterone) are the most heavily employed. The interpretation of GC levels as sensitive indicators of population change necessitates that GCs and metrics of population persistence are linked. However, the relationship between GCs and fitness may be highly context-dependent, changing direction, or significance, depending on the GC measure, fitness metric, life history stage, or other intrinsic and extrinsic contexts considered...
July 27, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Yoshiaki Tsuda, Vladimir Semerikov, Federico Sebastiani, Giovanni Giuseppe Vendramin, Martin Lascoux
Boreal and cool temperate forests are the major land cover of northern Eurasia and information about continental-scale genetic structure and past demographic history of forest species is important from an evolutionary perspective and has conservation implications. However, although many population genetics studies of forest tree species have been conducted in Europe or Eastern Asia, continental-scale genetic structure and past demographic history remain poorly known. Here, we focus on the birch genus Betula, which is commonly distributed in boreal and cool temperate forests, and examine 129 populations of 2 tetraploid and 4 diploid species collected from Iceland to Japan...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Ecology
O Strobel, S Brangs, U Hinz, T Pausch, F J Hüttner, M K Diener, L Schneider, T Hackert, M W Büchler
BACKGROUND: Chyle leak is a well known but poorly characterized complication after pancreatic surgery. Available data on incidence, risk factors and clinical significance of chyle leak are highly heterogeneous. METHODS: For this cohort study all patients who underwent pancreatic surgery between January 2008 and December 2012 were identified from a prospective database. Chyle leak was defined as any drainage output with triglyceride content of 110 mg/dl or more...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Surgery
Laura Rivino, Mei Qiu Lim
Dengue (DENV) and Zika viruses (ZIKV) are rapidly emerging mosquito-borne flaviviruses which represent a public health concern. Understanding host protective immunity to these viruses is critical for the design of optimal vaccines. Over a decade of research has highlighted a significant contribution of the T cell response to both protection and/or disease enhancement during dengue infection, the latter being mainly associated with sub-optimal cross-reactive T cell responses during secondary infections. Phase IIb/III clinical trials of the first licensed tetravalent dengue vaccine highlight increased vaccine efficacy in dengue-immune as opposed to dengue-naïve vaccinees, suggesting a possible immunoprotective role of pre-existing DENV-specific T cells that are boosted upon vaccination...
October 20, 2016: Immunology
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