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Mugurel Constantin Rusu, Mihai Săndulescu, Cristine Julieta Sava, Dănuț Dincă
The lateral nasal wall contains the nasal turbinates (conchæ) which are used as landmarks during functional endoscopic surgery. Various morphological possibilities of turbinates were reported, such as bifidity of the inferior turbinate, and extra middle turbinates, such as the secondary middle turbinate. During a retrospective Cone Beam Computed Tomography study of nasal turbinates in a patient we found previously unreported variants of the superior nasal turbinates. These had, bilaterally, ethmoidal and sphenoidal insertions...
May 26, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Jean-Marie Volland, Paco Bustamante, Dalila Aldana Aranda, Olivier Gros
Crypt cells-one of the three cell types composing Strombidae digestive tubules-are characterized by the presence of numerous metal-containing phosphate granules termed spherocrystals. We explored the bioaccumulation and detoxification of metals in Strombidae by exposing wild fighting conch Strombus pugilis for 9 days to waterborne CuSO4 and ZnSO4 . The total amount of Cu and Zn was determined in the digestive gland and in the rest of the body by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analyses. The digestive gland spherocrystal metal content was investigated based on the semi-quantitative energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) elemental analysis...
May 16, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Katie Tiley, Mark A Freeman, Michelle M Dennis
Queen conch, Lobatus gigas, are one of the largest commercial fisheries in the Caribbean and are severely depleted due to overharvesting. Dwindling and fragmented populations are at high risk to stochastic events such as disease epidemics; however, there is a paucity of literature regarding queen conch disease. A histopathological survey was conducted to assess the disease status of St. Kitts' queen conch populations, and contribute to the little information known about L. gigas pathology. Using a standard dissection and sampling protocol, pathology status was assessed in 61 L...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Jaison H Cuartas, Juan F Alzate, Claudia X Moreno-Herrera, Edna J Marquez
The endangered marine gastropod, Lobatus gigas, is an important fishery resource in the Caribbean region. Microbiological and parasitological research of this species have been poorly addressed despite its role in ecological fitness, conservation status and prevention of potential pathogenic infections. This study identified taxonomic groups associated with orange colored protrusions in the muscle of queen conchs using histological analysis, 454 pyrosequencing, and a combination of PCR amplification and automated Sanger sequencing...
2018: PeerJ
Nur-Fauzana Azmi, Mazlan Abd Ghaffar, Hassan Hj Mohd Daud, Zaidi Che Cob
The tropical conch, Laevistrombus canarium (Linnaeus, 1758) and Canarium urceus (Linneaus, 1758) are ecologically and economically important shellfish species in Malaysia and neighboring region. Their populations, however are currently declining and this histopathological study investigates the aspect of parasitism and diseases that may affect their well-being. Conch samples were randomly collected from their natural habitat and histological sections (4-5 µm) of various organs and tissues were examined under light microscope...
February 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Amane Tajika, Alexander Nützel, Christian Klug
Owing to their great diversity and abundance, ammonites and belemnites represented key elements in Mesozoic food webs. Because of their extreme ontogenetic size increase by up to three orders of magnitude, their position in the food webs likely changed during ontogeny. Here, we reconstruct the number of eggs laid by large adult females of these cephalopods and discuss developmental shifts in their ecologic roles. Based on similarities in conch morphology, size, habitat and abundance, we suggest that similar niches occupied in the Cretaceous by juvenile ammonites and belemnites were vacated during the extinction and later partially filled by holoplanktonic gastropods...
2018: PeerJ
Rajya L Gurung
Purpose: Valsalva hemorrhagic retinopathy is a form of preretinal hemorrhage that develops after a valsalva maneuver, leading to rupture of the superficial retinal capillaries. Here, we report a case of valsalva retinopathy secondary to blowing a conch, the first case report of its kind. The patient blew conch, which was part of his daily ritual to pray to God as he was a Hindu priest. Observations: A 58-year-man developed an acute decrease in vision to 5/60 in his right eye after blowing the conch while performing "Puja," which is the act of praying to God in Hindu culture...
September 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Carla D Di Mattia, Giampiero Sacchetti, Dino Mastrocola, Mauro Serafini
Chocolate is a product processed from cocoa rich in flavonoids, antioxidant compounds, and bioactive ingredients that have been associated with both its healthy and sensory properties. Chocolate production consists of a multistep process which, starting from cocoa beans, involves fermentation, drying, roasting, nib grinding and refining, conching, and tempering. During cocoa processing, the naturally occurring antioxidants (flavonoids) are lost, while others, such as Maillard reaction products, are formed. The final content of antioxidant compounds and the antioxidant activity of chocolate is a function of several variables, some related to the raw material and others related to processing and formulation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Julia Stilkerich, Trisha A Smrecak, Kenneth De Baets
We herein examine the only known non-planispirally coiled early Devonian ammonoid, the holotype specimen of Ivoites opitzi, to investigate if the host was encrusted in vivo and if these sclerobionts were responsible for the trochospiral coiling observed in this unique specimen. To test if the presence of runner-like sclerobionts infested the historically collected specimen of Ivoites opitzi during its life, we used microCT to produce a three-dimensional model of the surface of the specimen. Our results indicate that sclerobionts grew across the outer rim (venter) on both sides of the ammonoid conch at exactly the location where the deviation from the planispiral was recognized, and where subsequent ammonoid growth would likely preclude encrustation...
2017: PeerJ
Grace X Gu, Mahdi Takaffoli, Markus J Buehler
An order of magnitude tougher than nacre, conch shells are known for being one of the toughest body armors in nature. However, the complexity of the conch shell architecture creates a barrier to emulating its cross-lamellar structure in synthetic materials. Here, a 3D biomimetic conch shell prototype is presented, which can replicate the crack arresting mechanisms embedded in the natural architecture. Through an integrated approach combining simulation, additive manufacturing, and drop tower testing, the function of hierarchy in conch shell's multiscale microarchitectures is explicated...
May 26, 2017: Advanced Materials
Sushmita Chakraborty, Bianca Kloos, Ulrike Harre, Georg Schett, Katharina F Kubatzky
Bone remodeling is a continuous process to retain the structural integrity and function of the skeleton. A tight coupling is maintained between osteoclast-mediated resorption of old or damaged bones and osteoblast-mediated formation of new bones for bone homeostasis. While osteoblasts differentiate from mesenchymal stem cells, osteoclasts are hematopoietic in origin and derived from myeloid precursor cells. Osteoclast differentiation is driven by two cytokines, cytokine receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), and macrophage colony-stimulating factor...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Larisa A Doguzhaeva, Stefan Bengtson, Marcelo A Reguero, Thomas Mörs
BACKGROUND: The Subclass Coleoidea (Class Cephalopoda) accommodates the diverse present-day internally shelled cephalopod mollusks (Spirula, Sepia and octopuses, squids, Vampyroteuthis) and also extinct internally shelled cephalopods. Recent Spirula represents a unique coleoid retaining shell structures, a narrow marginal siphuncle and globular protoconch that signify the ancestry of the subclass Coleoidea from the Paleozoic subclass Bactritoidea. This hypothesis has been recently supported by newly recorded diverse bactritoid-like coleoids from the Carboniferous of the USA, but prior to this study no fossil cephalopod indicative of an endochochleate branch with an origin independent from subclass Bactritoidea has been reported...
2017: PloS One
Sue-Ann Watson, Jennifer B Fields, Philip L Munday
Ocean acidification poses a range of threats to marine invertebrates; however, the emerging and likely widespread effects of rising carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on marine invertebrate behaviour are still little understood. Here, we show that ocean acidification alters and impairs key ecological behaviours of the predatory cone snail Conus marmoreus Projected near-future seawater CO2 levels (975 µatm) increased activity in this coral reef molluscivore more than threefold (from less than 4 to more than 12 mm min(-1)) and decreased the time spent buried to less than one-third when compared with the present-day control conditions (390 µatm)...
February 2017: Biology Letters
Qing Yang, Zewei Wang, Lixia Yang, Yonghua Xu, Li Min Chen
This study aims to characterize the psychological wellbeing of chronic headache (CH) patients, to identify cortical structural abnormalities and any associations of those abnormalities with resting state functional connectivity (rsFC), and to determine whether such rsFC abnormality is specific to CH patients. Compared with healthy controls (CONCH ), CH patients suffered from mild depression, sleep disturbances, and relatively poor quality of life. CH patients also exhibited widespread cortical thickness (CT) abnormalities in left premotor (BA6), right primary somatosensory (S1) and right prefrontal (BA10) cortices, as well as in regions of default mode and executive control networks...
April 2017: Human Brain Mapping
Zewei Wang, Qing Yang, Li Min Chen
The goals of this study are to characterize the temporal dynamics of inter-regional connectivity of the brain in chronic headache (CH) patients versus their age/gender matched controls (CONCH , n=28 pairs), and to determine whether dynamic measures reveal additional features to static functional connectivity and correlate with psychometric scores. Cortical thickness and inter-regional resting state fMRI connectivity were quantified and compared between CH and CONCH groups. Six cortical regions of interest (ROI) pairs that exhibited correlated cortical thickness and static functional connectivity abnormalities were selected for temporal dynamic analysis...
February 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Rui-Wen Zong, Ruo-Ying Fan, Yi-Ming Gong
A nautiloid conch containing many disarticulated exoskeletons of Omegops cornelius (Phacopidae, Trilobita) was found in the Upper Devonian Hongguleleng Formation of the northwestern margin of the Junggar Basin, NW China. The similar number of cephala, thoraces and pygidia, unbroken thoraces, explicit exuviae, and lack of other macrofossils in the conch, indicate that at least seven individual trilobites had moulted within the nautiloid living chamber, using the vacant chamber of a dead nautiloid as a communal place for ecdysis...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ian M R Wright, Joanna L Latter, Rebecca M Dyson, Chris R Levi, Vicki L Clifton
The perinatal period remains a time of significant risk of death or disability. Increasing evidence suggests that this depends on microcirculatory behavior. Sidestream dark-field orthogonal polarized light videomicroscopy (OPS) has emerged as a useful assessment of adult microcirculation but the values derived are not delineated for the newborn. We aimed to define these parameters in well term newborn infants. Demographic details were collected prospectively on 42 healthy term neonates (n = 20 females, n = 22 males)...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
H Iwasaki
The nutrition of the free-living phase of Conchocelis of P. tenera was studied axenically. Conch-ocelis preferred NO3 , as nitrogen source. Urea and NH4 in low concentration, asparagine, and lysine were very good N sources. Several other amino acids were also utilized but growth was less abundant. Inorganic and organic phosphates were utilized; they were required at relatively low concentrations. Glycerophosphate gave excellent growth in a comparatively wide range of concentrations (0.1-5 mg P %). The optimal Ca concentration was 10-100 mg %...
March 1967: Journal of Phycology
Diogo R Couto, Philippe Bouchet, Yuri I Kantor, Luiz R L Simone, Gonzalo Giribet
The neogastropod family Fasciolariidae Gray, 1853 - tulips, horse-conchs, spindles, etc., comprises important representatives of tropical and subtropical molluscan assemblages, with over 500 species in the subfamilies Fasciolariinae Gray, 1853, Fusininae Wrigley, 1927 and Peristerniinae Tryon, 1880. Fasciolariids have had a rather complicated taxonomical history, with several genus names for a long time used as waste baskets to group many unrelated species; based on shell characters, recent taxonomic revisions have, however, began to set some order in its taxonomy...
June 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
S Bauer, H Baier, C Baumgartner, K Bohlmann, S Fauser, W Graf, B Hillenbrand, M Hirsch, C Last, H Lerche, T Mayer, A Schulze-Bonhage, B J Steinhoff, Y Weber, A Hartlep, F Rosenow, H M Hamer
BACKGROUND: Various brain stimulation techniques are in use to treat epilepsy. These methods usually require surgical implantation procedures. Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) is a non-invasive technique to stimulate the left auricular branch of the vagus nerve at the ear conch. OBJECTIVE: We performed a randomized, double-blind controlled trial (cMPsE02) to assess efficacy and safety of tVNS vs. control stimulation in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy...
May 2016: Brain Stimulation
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