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M F Griffin, Y Premakumar, A M Seifalian, M Szarko, P E M Butler
Currently, autologous cartilage provides the gold standard for auricular reconstruction. However, synthetic biomaterials offer a number of advantages for ear reconstruction including decreased donor site morbidity and earlier surgery. Critical to implant success is the material's mechanical properties as this affects biocompatibility and extrusion. The aim of this study was to determine the biomechanical properties of human auricular cartilage. Auricular cartilage from fifteen cadavers was indented with displacement of 1 mm/s and load of 300 g to obtain a Young's modulus in compression...
July 14, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Kaustubh Adhikari, Guillermo Reales, Andrew J P Smith, Esra Konka, Jutta Palmen, Mirsha Quinto-Sanchez, Victor Acuña-Alonzo, Claudia Jaramillo, William Arias, Macarena Fuentes, María Pizarro, Rodrigo Barquera Lozano, Gastón Macín Pérez, Jorge Gómez-Valdés, Hugo Villamil-Ramírez, Tábita Hunemeier, Virginia Ramallo, Caio C Silva de Cerqueira, Malena Hurtado, Valeria Villegas, Vanessa Granja, Carla Gallo, Giovanni Poletti, Lavinia Schuler-Faccini, Francisco M Salzano, Maria-Cátira Bortolini, Samuel Canizales-Quinteros, Francisco Rothhammer, Gabriel Bedoya, Rosario Calderón, Javier Rosique, Michael Cheeseman, Mahmood F Bhutta, Steve E Humphries, Rolando Gonzalez-José, Denis Headon, David Balding, Andrés Ruiz-Linares
Here we report a genome-wide association study for non-pathological pinna morphology in over 5,000 Latin Americans. We find genome-wide significant association at seven genomic regions affecting: lobe size and attachment, folding of antihelix, helix rolling, ear protrusion and antitragus size (linear regression P values 2 × 10(-8) to 3 × 10(-14)). Four traits are associated with a functional variant in the Ectodysplasin A receptor (EDAR) gene, a key regulator of embryonic skin appendage development. We confirm expression of Edar in the developing mouse ear and that Edar-deficient mice have an abnormally shaped pinna...
2015: Nature Communications
Richard Schmidt, David Conrad, Erin Field, Robert O'Reilly
First branchial cleft anomalies are uncommon lesions that often present as periauricular infections. They have high recurrence rates, due in part to scarring secondary to prior infections and their management. These lesions have a close relationship with the facial nerve, and most authors recommend its identification and dissection because of this relationship. Nonetheless, facial nerve palsy has been reported in up to 15% of cases. We describe a novel technique for the management of first branchial cleft anomalies...
June 2015: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Parham Mokhtari, Hironori Takemoto, Ryouichi Nishimura, Hiroaki Kato
The first (lowest) peak of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) is known to be a concha depth resonance and a spectral cue in human sound localization. However, there is still no established model to estimate its center-frequency F1 and amplitude A1 from pinna anthropometry. Here, with geometries of 38 pinnae measured and their median-plane HRTFs calculated by numerical simulation, linear regression models were evaluated in estimating F1 and A1 from 25 concha depth and aperture measurements. F1 was best estimated (correlation coefficient r = 0...
February 2015: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Daniela V Luquetti, Babette S Saltzman, Carrie L Heike, Kathleen C Sie, Craig B Birgfeld, Kelly N Evans, Brian G Leroux
The clinical presentation of microtia varies widely from minimal morphological abnormalities to complete absence of the ear. In this study we sought to identify and characterize sub-groups of microtia using a statistical and a clinical approach. Photographs of 86 ears were classified in relation to all the external ear components. We used cluster analysis and rater's clinical opinion to identify groups with similar phenotypes in two separate analyses. We used Cramer's Phi coefficient of association to assess the similarity among the clinician's groupings as well as among the statistical sub-phenotypic groups and each of the clinician's groupings...
April 2015: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Peter Claes, Jonas Reijniers, Mark D Shriver, Jonatan Snyders, Paul Suetens, Joachim Nielandt, Guy De Tré, Dirk Vandermeulen
The human external ears, or pinnae, have an intriguing shape and, like most parts of the human external body, bilateral symmetry is observed between left and right. It is a well-known part of our auditory sensory system and mediates the spatial localization of incoming sounds in 3D from monaural cues due to its shape-specific filtering as well as binaural cues due to the paired bilateral locations of the left and right ears. Another less broadly appreciated aspect of the human pinna shape is its uniqueness from one individual to another, which is on the level of what is seen in fingerprints and facial features...
January 2015: Journal of Anatomy
Su Young Jung, Myung Gu Kim, Sung Hyun Boo, Eun Kyung Yeo, Chul Kwon, Sun Kyu Lee, Seung Geun Yeo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Auricular masses are growths on the outer ear that have not been well characterized clinically. We assessed the clinical nature and treatment of auricular benign masses in patients at our institution. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified 63 patients with auricular benign masses who underwent excision and biopsy from May 1970 to April 2011. We determined the site, cause, size, pathology and postoperative results of these auricular masses...
April 2012: Korean Journal of Audiology
Mittu Pannala, Sajjad Zeinoddini Meymand, Rolf Müller
Horseshoe bats (family Rhinolophidae) have sophisticated biosonar systems with outer ears (pinnae) that are characterized by static local shape features as well as dynamic non-rigid changes to their overall shapes. Here, biomimetic prototypes fabricated from elastic rubber sheets have been used to study the impact of these static and dynamic features on the acoustic device characteristics. The basic shape of the prototypes was an obliquely truncated horn augmented with three static local shape features: vertical ridge, pinna-rim incision and frontal flap (antitragus)...
June 2013: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Pooran Chand, Kaushal K Agrawal, Gaurav Bhalla, Kamleshwar Singh, Sunit K Jurel, Prachi Goel, Saumyendra Vikram Singh
BACKGROUND: The craniofacial implants are used for retaining the prostheses although these are costly and often require complex laboratory procedures. The aim of this case report is to describe a case of successful rehabilitation of partial ear loss with long-term soft liner and mechanically retained by custom-made heat-cured acrylic attachment. CASE DESCRIPTION AND METHODS: A female patient underwent a scalp avulsion injury and lost major portion of her hair and upper part of the left ear till the antitragus...
December 2013: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
Tal Marom, Abraham Goldfarb, Yehudah Roth
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe a rare intra-auricular sinus. An otherwise healthy 15-year-old girl presented with recurrent infections in her right pinna from early infancy. Physical examination revealed a draining sinus which opened to the descending helical limb, while its cystic component was entrapped within the cartilaginous antitragus. Comprehensive surgical excision was performed after the tract and the more distal cyst was delineated. Surgical pathology revealed a true sinus, measuring 2 cm...
January 2013: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
B González-Sixto, A Pérez-Bustillo, M M Otero-Rivas, M Á Rodríguez-Prieto
The subcutaneous pedicled V-Y advancement flap is useful for the repair of small and medium-sized defects in areas where it is easy to obtain a good subcutaneous pedicle (upper lip, cheek, eyebrow, and nasal tip and ala). The almost complete absence of subcutaneous tissue on the anterior aspect of the auricle of the ear can limit the use of this approach in this region. We present 4 patients in whom subcutaneous pedicled V-Y advancement flaps were used to repair surgical defects of the helix, scaphoid fossa, and antitragus, achieving a good functional and aesthetic result in all cases...
May 2014: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
Benjamin Soukup, Syed A Mashhadi, Neil W Bulstrode
BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess the health-related quality-of-life benefit following auricular reconstruction using autologous costal cartilage in children. In addition, key aspects of the surgical reconstruction are assessed. METHODS: After auricular reconstruction, patients completed two questionnaires. The first was a postinterventional health-related quality-of-life assessment tool, the Glasgow Benefit Inventory. A score of 0 signifies no change in health-related quality-of-life, +100 indicates maximal improvement, and -100 indicates maximal negative impact...
March 2012: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Gianni Allais, Marco Romoli, Sara Rolando, Gisella Airola, Ilaria Castagnoli Gabellari, Rita Allais, Chiara Benedetto
Ear acupuncture can be a useful mean for controlling migraine pain. It has been shown that a technique called the Needle Contact Test (NCT) can identify the most efficacious ear acupoints for reducing current migraine pain through just a few seconds of needle contact. The majority of the points were located on the antero-internal part of the antitragus (area M) on the same side of pain. The aim of this study was to verify the therapeutic value of area M and to compare it with an area of the ear (representation of the sciatic nerve, area S) which probably does not have a therapeutic effect on migraine attacks...
May 2011: Neurological Sciences
André Ramalho Braga, Lucas Chagas Pereira, Marcio Grave, José Humberto Cardoso Resende, Diogo Almeida Lima, Acrysio Peixoto De Souza, Ricardo Morgental Zambenedetti
Ear reconstruction represents a challenge for plastic and reconstructive surgeons because of the complex anatomy of the ear. Reconstructive techniques vary, depending on both the location and extent of defects. This report describes a new option for antitragus and concha reconstruction after excision of skin malignancies.
March 2011: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
A Thallaj, P Marhofer, B Moriggl, B M Delvi, S C Kettner, M Almajed
This prospective, observational volunteer study aimed to describe the appearance of the great auricular nerve using ultrasound and its blockade under ultrasound guidance. An in-plane needle guidance technique was used for blockade of the great auricular nerve with 0.1 ml mepivacaine 1%. Sensory block was evaluated by pinprick testing in comparison with the contralateral area propriae. The great auricular nerve was successfully seen in all volunteers and the tail of the helix, antitragus, lobula and mandibular angle were blocked in all cases whereas the antihelix and concha were never blocked...
August 2010: Anaesthesia
Gianni Allais, Marco Romoli, Sara Rolando, Ilaria Castagnoli Gabellari, Chiara Benedetto
The needle contact test (NCT) is a diagnostic technique useful to identify, through the contact of the needle on the skin of the ear, the most efficacious points for reducing pain during a migraine attack. The aim of this study was to identify the most important auricular zones for pain control by applying the NCT in a group of 15 women during a unilateral attack of migraine without aura. We also assessed how effective the insertion of a semi-permanent needle in these zones was in reducing the migraine pain during the next 24 h...
June 2010: Neurological Sciences
Li Yu, Qing-Hua Yang, Hai-Yue Jiang, Bo Pan, Hong-Xing Zhuang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the application of the remnant in repairing the reconstructed ear in microtia. METHODS: From October 2000 to July 2006, 1,823 patients with reconstructed ear underwent the second operation for repairing. The remnants were used to reconstruct tragus, antitragus, crus of helix, concha cavum, or relax the adhesion between the reconstructed auricle and cranio wall, or insert into the reconstructed lobule or under the basement of the costal cartilage frame to restore the cranio-auricular angle or to the preauricular subcutaneous to correct the facial local depression...
May 2009: Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke za Zhi, Zhonghua Zhengxing Waike Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Plastic Surgery
Chul Park
BACKGROUND: During treatment of upper auricular malformations, the author found that patients with cryptotia and patients with solitary helical and/or antihelical adhesion malformations showed the same anatomical finding of cartilage adhesion. The author defined them together as upper auricular adhesion malformations. METHODS: Between March of 1992 and March of 2006, 194 upper auricular adhesion malformations were corrected in 137 patients. All of these cases were retrospectively studied and classified...
April 2009: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Vered Shkalim, Noam Eliaz, Nehama Linder, Paul Merlob, Lina Basel-Vanagaite
Question mark (Cosman) ear is an auricular abnormality characterized by a cleft between the lobule and the lower part of the helix, sometimes accompanied by a prominent or deficient upper part of the helix, shallow skin dimple on the posterior surface of the ear, or transposition of the ear lobe/antitragus. It can be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Only two families with more than one member with Question mark ear have been reported previously. Here we report on a female infant with bilateral isolated Question mark ear...
September 1, 2008: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
A Chadha, M Grob, M Soldin
The exact location and topography of defects resulting from surgical excision of cutaneous malignancies of the auricle demand a customized approach based on an awareness of locally redundant tissue. With advancing age, the earlobe becomes ideal for this reconstructive role and we describe an earlobe flap created along the longitudinal axis of lobular tissue. This reliable, simple, one-step procedure provides adequate tissue cover for defects of the antitragus and adjoining concha. Flap vascularity is satisfactory and although the overall size of the ear is reduced, this is accepted for a rejuvenated shape and minimal morbidity...
April 2009: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
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