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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087417/culture-media-based-selection-of-endothelial-cells-pericytes-and-perivascular-resident-macrophage-like-melanocytes-from-the-young-mouse-vestibular-system
#1
Jinhui Zhang, Songlin Chen, Jing Cai, Zhiqiang Hou, Xiaohan Wang, Allan Kachelmeier, Xiaorui Shi
The vestibular blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB) is comprised of perivascular-resident macrophage-like melanocytes (PVM/Ms) and pericytes (PCs), in addition to endothelial cells (ECs) and basement membrane (BM), and bears strong resemblance to the cochlear BLB in the stria vascularis. Over the past few decades, in vitro cell-based models have been widely used in blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-retina barrier (BRB) research, and have proved to be powerful tools for studying cell-cell interactions in their respective organs...
January 10, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087416/the-path-of-a-click-stimulus-from-ear-canal-to-umbo
#2
Mario Milazzo, Elika Fallah, Michael Carapezza, Nina S Kumar, Jason H Lei, Elizabeth S Olson
The tympanic membrane (TM) has a key role in transmitting sounds to the inner ear, but a concise description of how the TM performs this function remains elusive. This paper probes TM operation by applying a free field click stimulus to the gerbil ear and exploring the consequent motions of the TM and umbo. Motions of the TM were measured both on radial tracks starting close to the umbo and on a grid distal and adjacent to the umbo. The experimental results confirmed the high fidelity of sound transmission from the ear canal to the umbo...
January 10, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081534/enhanced-auditory-sensitivity-to-body-vibrations-in-superior-canal-dehiscence-syndrome
#3
Krister Brantberg, Luca Verrecchia, Magnus Westin
A key feature of superior canal dehiscence (SCD) syndrome is supranormal hearing of body sounds. The aim of the present study was to quantify this phenomenon and to ascertain whether auditory sensitivity to body vibrations can distinguish SCD patients. Hearing thresholds in response to vibration at the vertex, at the spinous process of the 7th cervical vertebra, and at the medial malleolus were tested in 10 SCD patients and 10 controls. Both patients and controls had insert earphones in both ears. The insert in the test ear was blocked while masking was presented to the other ear...
January 13, 2017: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077712/changes-in-properties-of-auditory-nerve-synapses-following-conductive-hearing-loss
#4
Xiaowen Zhuang, Wei Sun, Matthew A Xu-Friedman
: Auditory activity plays an important role in the development of the auditory system. Decreased activity can result from conductive hearing loss (CHL) associated with otitis media, which may lead to long-term perceptual deficits. The effects of CHL have been mainly studied at later stages of the auditory pathway, but early stages remain less examined. However, changes in early stages could be important because they would affect how information about sounds is conveyed to higher-order areas for further processing and localization...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054915/auditory-processing-disorder-as-the-sole-manifestation-of-a-cerebellopontine-and-internal-auditory-canal-lesion
#5
Vasiliki Vivian Iliadou, Nikos Eleftheriadis
BACKGROUND: Clinical importance of auditory processing disorder (APD) testing is often overlooked and regarded with skepticism given the challenging interpretation of results and the current growing debate of its nature and clinical entity. PURPOSE: Presentation of this case is highly educational as APD is the single clinical manifestation of a large cerebellopontine and internal auditory canal lesion. RESEARCH DESIGN: A case report. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The patient underwent a standard audiological evaluation with normal results...
January 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045835/normative-wideband-reflectance-equivalent-admittance-at-the-tympanic-membrane-and-acoustic-stapedius-reflex-threshold-in-adults
#6
M Patrick Feeney, Douglas H Keefe, Lisa L Hunter, Denis F Fitzpatrick, Angela C Garinis, Daniel B Putterman, Garnett P McMillan
OBJECTIVES: Wideband acoustic immittance (WAI) measures such as pressure reflectance, parameterized by absorbance and group delay, equivalent admittance at the tympanic membrane (TM), and acoustic stapedius reflex threshold (ASRT) describe middle ear function across a wide frequency range, compared with traditional tests employing a single frequency. The objective of this study was to obtain normative data using these tests for a group of normal-hearing adults and investigate test-retest reliability using a longitudinal design...
December 30, 2016: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045785/cold-thermal-irrigation-decreases-the-ipsilateral-gain-of-the-vestibulo-ocular-reflex
#7
Laszlo T Tamás, Konrad P Weber, Christopher J Bockisch, Dominik Straumann, David M Lasker, Béla Büki, Alexander A Tarnutzer
OBJECTIVES: During head rotations, neuronal firing rates increase in ipsilateral and decrease in contralateral vestibular afferents. At low accelerations, this "push-pull mechanism" is linear. At high accelerations, however, the change of firing rates is nonlinear in that the ipsilateral increase of firing rate is larger than the contralateral decrease. This mechanism of stronger ipsilateral excitation than contralateral inhibition during high-acceleration head rotation, known as Ewald's second law, is implemented within the nonlinear pathways...
December 27, 2016: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045591/clinical-practice-guideline-update
#8
Seth R Schwartz, Anthony E Magit, Richard M Rosenfeld, Bopanna B Ballachanda, Jesse M Hackell, Helene J Krouse, Claire M Lawlor, Kenneth Lin, Kourosh Parham, David R Stutz, Sandy Walsh, Erika A Woodson, Ken Yanagisawa, Eugene R Cunningham
Objective This update of the 2008 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation cerumen impaction clinical practice guideline provides evidence-based recommendations on managing cerumen impaction. Cerumen impaction is defined as an accumulation of cerumen that causes symptoms, prevents assessment of the ear, or both. Changes from the prior guideline include a consumer added to the development group; new evidence (3 guidelines, 5 systematic reviews, and 6 randomized controlled trials); enhanced information on patient education and counseling; a new algorithm to clarify action statement relationships; expanded action statement profiles to explicitly state quality improvement opportunities, confidence in the evidence, intentional vagueness, and differences of opinion; an enhanced external review process to include public comment and journal peer review; and 3 new key action statements on managing cerumen impaction that focus on primary prevention, contraindicated intervention, and referral and coordination of care...
January 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040016/quasilinear-reflection-as-a-possible-mechanism-for-suppressor-induced-otoacoustic-emission
#9
Yi-Wen Liu, Tzu-Chi Liu
A frequency-domain iterative approach is developed to compute the change in characteristic impedance in the cochlea due to the presence of a suppressor tone. Based on this approach, a small transient wave passing by the best place (BP) of the suppressor is predicted to be partially reflected because of the suppressor-induced impedance variation. This computational approach is tested on a nonlinear model of cochlear mechanics [Liu, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136, 1788-1796 (2014)]. When a 9-kHz suppressor at 60 dB sound pressure level is delivered to the model, the characteristic impedance decreases by ∼20% near its BP...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040002/occlusion-effect-on-compensatory-formant-production-and-voice-amplitude-in-response-to-real-time-perturbation
#10
Takashi Mitsuya, David W Purcell
The importance of auditory feedback for controlling speech articulation has been substantiated by the use of the real-time auditory perturbation paradigm. With this paradigm, speakers receive their own manipulated voice signal in real-time while they produce a simple speech segment. In response, they spontaneously compensate for the manipulation. In the case of vowel formant control, various studies have reported behavioral and neural mechanisms of how auditory feedback is processed for compensatory behavior...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035526/auditory-changes-in-acromegaly
#11
S Tabur, H Korkmaz, E Baysal, E Hatipoglu, I Aytac, E Akarsu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the changes involving auditory system in cases with acromegaly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Otological examinations of 41 cases with acromegaly (uncontrolled n = 22, controlled n = 19) were compared with those of age and gender-matched 24 healthy subjects. Whereas the cases with acromegaly underwent examination with pure tone audiometry (PTA), speech audiometry for speech discrimination (SD), tympanometry, stapedius reflex evaluation and otoacoustic emission tests, the control group did only have otological examination and PTA...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027715/enlarged-vestibular-aqueducts-and-other-inner-ear-abnormalities-in-patients-with-down-syndrome
#12
C M Clark, H H Patel, S G Kanekar, H Isildak
BACKGROUND: Histopathological anomalies of inner-ear structures in individuals with Down syndrome have been well documented; however, few studies have examined the radiological features. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted of temporal bone computed tomography images in 38 individuals (75 ears) with Down syndrome to evaluate the prevalence of inner-ear abnormalities and assess vestibular aqueduct widths. RESULTS: Inner-ear anomalies were identified in 20 of the 38 individuals (52...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024134/-acute-mastoiditis-with-retroauricular-abscess-a-report-of-two-cases
#13
Andrzej Misiak
Otogenic complications may occur as a result of both acute and chronic otitis media. The purpose of the diagnostic process and treatment of patients with otogenic complications is to identify and eliminate focal points of the infection. Due to general application of antibiotics, these complications are rarely observed. Retroauricular abscess may be the first symptom associated with the development of acute mastoiditis in patients with communication disturbances. Intravenous antibiotics and surgery have been successfully used for treatment in the two described cases...
December 22, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019663/stereotactic-radiosurgery-planning-of-vestibular-schwannomas-is-mri-at-3-tesla-geometrically-accurate
#14
M A Schmidt, E J Wells, K Davison, A M Riddell, L Welsh, F Saran
PURPOSE: MRI is a mandatory requirement to accurately plan Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) for Vestibular Schwannomas. However, MRI may be distorted due not only to inhomogeneity of the static magnetic field and gradients but also due to susceptibility-induced effects, which are more prominent at higher magnetic fields. We assess geometrical distortions around air spaces and consider MRI protocol requirements for SRS planning at 3T. METHODS: Hardware-related distortion and the effect of incorrect shimming were investigated with structured test objects...
December 26, 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017492/superior-canal-dehiscence-with-tegmen-defect-revealed-by-otoscopy-video-clip-demonstration-of-pulsatile-tympanic-membrane
#15
Andrea Castellucci, Cristina Brandolini, Gianluca Piras, Ignacio Javier Fernandez, Davide Giordano, Carmine Pernice, Giovanni Carlo Modugno, Antonio Pirodda, Gian Gaetano Ferri
Superior canal dehiscence is a pathologic condition of the otic capsule acting as aberrant window of the inner ear. It results in reduction of inner ear impedance and in abnormal exposure of the labyrinthine neuroepithelium to the action of the surrounding structures. The sum of these phenomena leads to the onset of typical cochleo-vestibular symptoms and signs. Among them, pulsatile tinnitus has been attributed to a direct transmission of intracranial vascular activities to labyrinthine fluids. We present the first video-otoscopic documentation of spontaneous pulse-synchronous movements of the tympanic membrane in two patients with superior canal dehiscence...
December 22, 2016: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012532/management-of-surgical-difficulties-during-cochlear-implant-with-inner-ear-anomalies
#16
Ahmad M Aldhafeeri, Abdulrahman A Alsanosi
OBJECTIVE: To review the difficulties that can occur during cochlear implant surgery in patients with inner ear abnormalities and the management thereof. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 316 patients who received cochlear implants was conducted. The data collected included the types of inner ear anomalies, intraoperative findings, and the clinical management strategies. A review of the literature was also performed. RESULTS: A total of 24 patients with inner ear malformations who underwent 28 total cochlear implant procedures were identified...
January 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012524/a-pearl-in-the-ear-intracranial-complications-of-pediatric-cholesteatomas
#17
Krystyne Basa, Jessica R Levi, Erin Field, Robert C O'Reilly
A nine-year-old male had a cholesteatoma of the mastoid and middle ear found incidentally after myringotomy tube placement. Associated asymptomatic sigmoid plate dehiscence with sinus invasion or thrombosis and ossicular chain destruction complicated his case. He had canal wall down tympanomastoidectomy and was followed for 4.5 years. Disease recurrence necessitated revision. Our case highlights an unusual clinical presentation, possible complications, and the aggressive quality of a benign lesion common in the pediatric population...
January 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012509/changes-in-the-inner-ear-structures-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#18
Henrique F Pauna, Rafael C Monsanto, Natsuko Kurata, Michael M Paparella, Sebahattin Cureoglu
OBJECTIVE: Although prolonged use of antibiotics is very common in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, no studies have assessed the changes in both cochlear and peripheral vestibular systems in this population. METHODS: We used human temporal bones to analyze the density of vestibular dark, transitional, and hair cells in specimens from CF patients who were exposed to several types of antibiotics, as compared with specimens from an age-matched control group with no history of ear disease or antibiotic use...
January 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010030/-basics-of-ear-surgery
#19
S Lailach, T Zahnert
The present article about the basics of ear surgery is a short overview of current indications, the required diagnostics and surgical procedures of common otologic diseases. In addition to plastic and reconstructive surgery of the auricle, principles of surgery of the external auditory canal, basics of middle ear surgery and the tumor surgery of the temporal bone are shown. Additionally, aspects of the surgical hearing rehabilitation (excluding implantable hearing systems) are presented considering current study results...
December 2016: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005908/a-machine-learning-approach-for-using-the-postmortem-skin-microbiome-to-estimate-the-postmortem-interval
#20
Hunter R Johnson, Donovan D Trinidad, Stephania Guzman, Zenab Khan, James V Parziale, Jennifer M DeBruyn, Nathan H Lents
Research on the human microbiome, the microbiota that live in, on, and around the human person, has revolutionized our understanding of the complex interactions between microbial life and human health and disease. The microbiome may also provide a valuable tool in forensic death investigations by helping to reveal the postmortem interval (PMI) of a decedent that is discovered after an unknown amount of time since death. Current methods of estimating PMI for cadavers discovered in uncontrolled, unstudied environments have substantial limitations, some of which may be overcome through the use of microbial indicators...
2016: PloS One
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