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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318880/highly-conformal-craniospinal-radiotherapy-techniques-can-underdose-the-cranial-clinical-target-volume-if-leptomeningeal-extension-through-skull-base-exit-foramina-is-not-contoured
#1
D J Noble, T Ajithkumar, J Lambert, I Gleeson, M V Williams, S J Jefferies
AIMS: Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) remains a crucial treatment for patients with medulloblastoma. There is uncertainty about how to manage meningeal surfaces and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that follows cranial nerves exiting skull base foramina. The purpose of this study was to assess plan quality and dose coverage of posterior cranial fossa foramina with both photon and proton therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed the radiotherapy plans of seven patients treated with CSI for medulloblastoma and primitive neuro-ectodermal tumours and three with ependymoma (total n = 10)...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278356/computational-fluid-dynamics-and-trigeminal-sensory-examinations-of-empty-nose-syndrome-patients
#2
Chengyu Li, Alexander A Farag, James Leach, Bhakthi Deshpande, Adam Jacobowitz, Kanghyun Kim, Bradley A Otto, Kai Zhao
OBJECTIVE: The precise pathogenesis of empty nose syndrome (ENS) remains unclear. Various factors such as nasal aerodynamics and sensorineural dysfunction have been suspected, although evidence is limited. This study reported the first examination of both nasal aerodynamics and trigeminal sensory factors in actual ENS patients. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective case control. METHODS: We enrolled six patients diagnosed with ENS. Three patients had pre- and post-inferior turbinate (IT) reduction computed tomography scans, which allowed comparison of their nasal aerodynamics changes through computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation...
March 9, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240982/inner-ear-excitation-in-normal-and-postmastoidectomy-participants-by-fluid-stimulation-in-the-absence-of-air-and-bone-conduction-mechanisms
#3
Ofri Ronen, Miriam Geal-Dor, Michal Kaufmann-Yehezkely, Ronen Perez, Shai Chordekar, Cahtia Adelman, Haim Sohmer
BACKGROUND: Hearing can be induced not only by airborne sounds (air conduction [AC]) and by the induction of skull vibrations by a bone vibrator (osseous bone conduction [BC]), but also by inducing vibrations of the soft tissues of the head, neck, and thorax. This hearing mode is called soft tissue conduction (STC) or nonosseous BC. PURPOSE: This study was designed to gain insight into the mechanism of STC auditory stimulation. RESEARCH DESIGN: Fluid was applied to the external auditory canal in normal participants and to the mastoidectomy common cavity in post-radical mastoidectomy patients...
February 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223248/endoscopic-intradural-subtemporal-keyhole-approach-with-neuronavigational-assistance-to-the-suprasellar-petroclival-and-ventrolateral-brainstem-regions-an-anatomic-study
#4
Zhemin Ding, Qing Wang, Xiaojie Lu, Xinwei Qian
OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of a purely endoscopic intradural approach to the suprasellar, petroclival and ventrolateral brainstem regions through a subtemporal keyhole and to assess the value of neuronavigational assistance in the Kawase approach. METHODS: Twenty endoscopic intradural subtemporal keyhole approaches were performed on 10 cadaveric heads. An intradural Kawase approach and a navigation-assisted intradural Kawase approach were then carried out on a random side of each specimen...
February 18, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178096/relative-location-of-fundus-meatus-acustici-interni-via-porus-acusticus-internus-in-facial-nerve-decompression
#5
Xu Liu, Haodong Wang, Kailiang Cheng, Youqiong Li
Facial neural edema is the pathophysiological base of Bell's palsy. The middle cranial fossa approach is used to relieve the oppression of facial nerve at its most narrow course in the facial canal. In this research, the authors mainly discussed the internal auditory canal segment of facial nerve, completely in the shadow of the bony structure, which is inconvenient for transmastoid decompression. Therefore, the objective was to explore the definite position of the fundus meatus acustici interni from internal acoustic pore...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149814/an-unusual-finding-of-the-auriculotemporal-nerve-possible-risk-factor-during-preauricular-skin-incisions
#6
Joe Iwanaga, Samuel L Bobek, Christian Fisahn, Ken Nakamura, Yoshihiro Miyazono, R Shane Tubbs
The auriculotemporal nerve (ATN) is a branch of the mandibular nerve and has been implicated for some migraines and its role in Frey's syndrome is well known. An adult cadaver was found to have a duplicated ATN. The anterior trunk ascended as the superficial temporal artery and gave off the branches to the temporomandibular joint, parotid gland, external acoustic meatus and temporal region and communicated with a posterior trunk of the ATN. The posterior trunk ascended via the subcutaneous tissues 1 mm anterior to the auricle and gave off the branches to the anterior auricular region, temporal region and communicated with the anterior trunk...
December 2016: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099268/vascular-nature-and-existence-of-anastomoses-of-extrinsic-postauricular-fascia-application-for-staged-auricular-reconstruction
#7
Suphalerk Lohasammakul, Chairat Turbpaiboon, Supin Chompoopong, Rosarin Ratanalekha, Chongdee Aojanepong
A staged auricular reconstruction in microtia patients was developed by using superficial mastoid fascia (as part of extrinsic postauricular fascia) to cover the cartilagenous framework due to its highly vascularized nature. Three branches of external carotid artery (superficial temporal artery, posterior auricular artery and occipital artery) were found to supply this fascia, this study was therefore aimed to investigate the dimension of blood supply from each vessel and also to demonstrate the existence of anastomoses among these arteries...
January 18, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890105/use-of-postmortem-computed-tomography-angiography-to-detect-vascular-injuries-accompanying-skull-base-fracture
#8
Hikaru Kuninaka, Yoichiro Takahashi, Rie Sano, Keiko Takahashi, Rieko Kubo, Yoshihiko Kominato, Hiroyuki Takei, Susumu Kobayashi, Takehiro Shimada, Hiroyuki Tokue, Sachiko Awata, Satoshi Hirasawa
A 58-year-old woman who had presented for upper gastrointestinal barium examination accidently slipped from the movable bed, and her head became compressed between the end of the bed and the side wall. She suffered massive bleeding from her nose and ear followed by cardiac arrest, and subsequent attempts at cardiopulmonary resuscitation failed. A medicolegal autopsy was performed to reveal the cause of death, as part of the investigation of the accident. During the autopsy, postmortem cerebral CT angiography was carried out by injection of 5% gelatin-barium emulsion as a radiopaque contrast medium into the bilateral common carotid arteries, demonstrating transudation of the contrast medium into the right acoustic meatus and the sphenoidal sinus cavity...
November 2016: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871574/cerebral-oxygenation-in-the-beach-chair-position-for-shoulder-surgery-in-regional-anesthesia-impact-on-cerebral-blood-flow-and-neurobehavioral-outcome
#9
José A Aguirre, Olivia Märzendorfer, Muriel Brada, Andrea Saporito, Alain Borgeat, Philipp Bühler
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Beach chair position is considered a potential risk factor for central neurological events particularly if combined with low blood pressure. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of regional anesthesia on cerebral blood flow and neurobehavioral outcome. DESIGN: This is a prospective, assessor-blinded observational study evaluating patients in the beach chair position undergoing shoulder surgery under regional anesthesia. SETTING: University hospital operating room...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762257/soft-tissue-conduction-as-a-possible-contributor-to-the-limited-attenuation-provided-by-hearing-protection-devices
#10
Shai Chordekar, Cahtia Adelman, Haim Sohmer, Liat Kishon-Rabin
CONTEXT: Damage to the auditory system by loud sounds can be avoided by hearing protection devices (HPDs) such as earmuffs, earplugs, or both for maximum attenuation. However, the attenuation can be limited by air conduction (AC) leakage around the earplugs and earmuffs by the occlusion effect (OE) and by skull vibrations initiating bone conduction (BC). AIMS: To assess maximum attenuation by HPDs and possible flanking pathways to the inner ear. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: AC attenuation and resulting thresholds were assessed using the real ear attenuation at threshold (REAT) procedure on 15 normal-hearing participants in four free-field conditions: (a) unprotected ears, (b) ears covered with earmuffs, (c) ears blocked with deeply inserted customized earplugs, and (d) ears blocked with both earplugs and earmuffs...
September 2016: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636022/fast-imaging-employing-steady-state-acquisition-fiesta-mri-to-investigate-cerebrospinal-fluid-csf-within-dural-reflections-of-posterior-fossa-cranial-nerves
#11
David J Noble, Daniel Scoffings, Thankamma Ajithkumar, Michael V Williams, Sarah J Jefferies
OBJECTIVE: There is no consensus approach to covering skull base meningeal reflections-and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) therein-of the posterior fossa cranial nerves (CNs VII-XII) when planning radiotherapy (RT) for medulloblastoma and ependymoma. We sought to determine whether MRI and specifically fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) sequences can answer this anatomical question and guide RT planning. METHODS: 96 posterior fossa FIESTA sequences were reviewed...
November 2016: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586750/auditory-sensitivity-to-local-stimulation-of-the-head-surface-in-a-beluga-whale-delphinapterus-leucas
#12
Vladimir V Popov, Evgeniya V Sysueva, Dmitry I Nechaev, Alena A Lemazina, Alexander Ya Supin
Using the auditory evoked response technique, sensitivity to local acoustic stimulation of the ventro-lateral head surface was investigated in a beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). The stimuli were tone pip trains of carrier frequencies ranging from 16 to 128 kHz with a pip rate of 1 kHz. For higher frequencies (90-128 kHz), the low-threshold point was located next to the medial side of the middle portion of the lower jaw. For middle (32-64 kHz) and lower (16-22.5 kHz) frequencies, the low-threshold point was located at the lateral side of the middle portion of the lower jaw...
August 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504269/incidence-of-foramen-of-huschke-in-south-andhra-population-of-india
#13
P Sharmila Bhanu, K Devi Sankar
INTRODUCTION: Foramen of Huschke (FH) is an opening present in anteroinferior wall of External Acoustic Meatus (EAM) on the tympanic plate of temporal bone. The developing tympanic ring normally gets closed by the age of 5 years, if not, leads to the persistence of FH, shows a communication between the EAM and mandibular fossa of temporal bone. AIM: The aim of the present study was to report on the incidence of FH in adult skulls and individual temporal bones, belonging to South Coastal Andhra population...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453796/the-outermost-dura-like-membrane-of-vestibular-schwannoma
#14
Ryosuke Tomio, Kazunari Yoshida, Maya Kohno, Dai Kamamoto, Shuji Mikami
BACKGROUND: The membranous structure of vestibular schwannoma is an important factor in its surgical treatment. Herein, we report intraoperative and microscopic findings relating to an outermost dura-like membrane in cases of vestibular schwannoma and the importance of these findings. METHODS: Intraoperative findings of 16 cases of vestibular schwannoma treated with an initial surgery were studied with an aim to determine if the cases had a dura-like membrane. Then we studied microscopic findings of the dura-like membrane using hematoxylin and eosin, Masson trichrome, and immunohistochemical staining in 2 cases...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27382675/-hrct-and-mri-image-of-bilateral-large-vestibular-aqueduct-syndrome
#15
Youyou Guo, Yongmei Li, Chun Zeng, Jingjie Wang, Yi Liu, Ping Yin, Dan Liao
OBJECTIVE: To explore. HRCT and MRI three-dimensional fast imaging employing steady state ac-quisition(3D-FIESTA) imaging features and clinical characteristics of bilateral large vestibular aqueduct syndrome(LVAS). METHOD: The imaging and clinical features of 14 cases of bilateral LVAS identified over a 5-year periodwere retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent HRCT and MRI 3D-FIESTA scanning of head and neck;MRI three dimensional reconstructions of internal acoustical meatus were also completed at the same time...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367342/-the-application-of-the-lyophilized-xenodermoimplants-for-the-plastic-correction-of-the-external-auditory-canal-and-nasal-septum-perforation
#16
V F Antoniv, V I Popadyuk, V M Aksenov, T V Antoniv, I A Korshunova
The objective of the present work was to improve the effectiveness of the treatment of atresia of the external auditory canal (EAC). Atresia of external acoustic meatus is a result of a mechanical or thermal injury but can also develop after a surgical intervention for the removal of foreign bodies, benign and malignant tumours. This condition is frequently associated with the narrowing and obliteration of EAC leading to the marked impairment of hearing despite preservation of the middle ear structures. Plastic correction of the external auditory canal for the purpose of its broadening does not always produce the desired result...
2016: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324400/angioarchitecture-and-morphology-of-temporomandibular-joint-of-monodelphis-domestica
#17
Matheus Silvestre Minucci, João Paulo Mardegan Issa, Fernando Yukio Yokoyama, Fernando José Dias, Daniela Mizusaki Iyomasa, Elaine Aparecida Del-Bel Belluz Guimarães, Ii-Sei Watanabe, Mamie Mizusaki Iyomasa
The opossum Monodelphis domestica presents movement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) reflecting adaptation to eating habits similar to movement in humans, but the structure of the TMJ is not yet known. Thus, nine young M. domestica, of both sexes were weighed, anesthetized with xylazine (10 mg kg(-1) ), and ketamine (70 mg kg(-1) ) and processed for: 1. The analyses of the macroscopic angioarchitecture after latex injection, as well as the topography of the TMJ; 2. The analysis of microvascularization after injection of Mercox resin and corrosion of soft tissue with NaOH using scanning electron microscopy and; 3...
September 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27161530/how-to-perform-the-skull-vibration-induced-nystagmus-test-svint
#18
G Dumas, P Perrin, E Ouedraogo, S Schmerber
The skull vibration-induced nystagmus test is a robust, nonintrusive and easy to perform test. This test acts as a vestibular Weber test and is performed as a bedside examination. It usually instantaneously reveals vibration-induced nystagmus (VIN) even in long standing or chronic compensated unilateral vestibular lesions. The test requires stimulation at 30, 60 or more efficiently at 100Hz. The vibrator is applied perpendicularly to the skin on a subject sitting up straight on the right and then the left mastoid (level with external acoustic meatus) and vertex...
November 2016: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27083131/exposing-the-fundus-of-the-internal-acoustic-meatus-without-entering-the-labyrinth-using-a-retrosigmoid-approach-is-it-possible
#19
Alba Scerrati, Jung-Shun Lee, Jun Zhang, Mario Ammirati
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility of performing a labyrinth-sparing neuronavigation-assisted retrosigmoid approach to the fundus of the internal acoustic meatus (IAM) and to describe the anatomy of the structures embedded in the posterior meatal wall. METHODS: Ten surgical dissections were performed bilaterally on 5 fresh cadavers. Cadavers were subjected to preoperative computed tomography scans and spatial coordinates of inner ear structures were recorded...
July 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27080668/responses-of-the-human-inner-ear-to-low-frequency-sound
#20
Markus Drexl, Eike Krause, Robert Gürkov, Lutz Wiegrebe
The perceptual insensitivity to low frequency (LF) sound in humans has led to an underestimation of the physiological impact of LF exposure on the inner ear. It is known, however, that intense, LF sound causes cyclic changes of indicators of inner ear function after LF stimulus offset, for which the term "Bounce" phenomenon has been coined.Here, we show that the mechanical amplification of hair cells (OHCs) is significantly affected after the presentation of LF sound. First, we show the Bounce phenomenon in slow level changes of quadratic, but not cubic, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs)...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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