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acoustic meatus

Shai Chordekar, Cahtia Adelman, Haim Sohmer, Liat Kishon-Rabin
CONTEXT: Damage to the auditory system by loud sounds can be avoided by hearing protection devices (HPDs) such as earmuffs, earplugs, or both for maximum attenuation. However, the attenuation can be limited by air conduction (AC) leakage around the earplugs and earmuffs by the occlusion effect (OE) and by skull vibrations initiating bone conduction (BC). AIMS: To assess maximum attenuation by HPDs and possible flanking pathways to the inner ear. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: AC attenuation and resulting thresholds were assessed using the real ear attenuation at threshold (REAT) procedure on 15 normal-hearing participants in four free-field conditions: (a) unprotected ears, (b) ears covered with earmuffs, (c) ears blocked with deeply inserted customized earplugs, and (d) ears blocked with both earplugs and earmuffs...
September 2016: Noise & Health
David J Noble, Daniel Scoffings, Thankamma Ajithkumar, Michael V Williams, Sarah J Jefferies
OBJECTIVE: There is no consensus approach to covering skull base meningeal reflections-and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) therein-of the posterior fossa cranial nerves (CNs VII-XII) when planning radiotherapy (RT) for medulloblastoma and ependymoma. We sought to determine whether MRI and specifically fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) sequences can answer this anatomical question and guide RT planning. METHODS: 96 posterior fossa FIESTA sequences were reviewed...
September 29, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Vladimir V Popov, Evgeniya V Sysueva, Dmitry I Nechaev, Alena A Lemazina, Alexander Ya Supin
Using the auditory evoked response technique, sensitivity to local acoustic stimulation of the ventro-lateral head surface was investigated in a beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). The stimuli were tone pip trains of carrier frequencies ranging from 16 to 128 kHz with a pip rate of 1 kHz. For higher frequencies (90-128 kHz), the low-threshold point was located next to the medial side of the middle portion of the lower jaw. For middle (32-64 kHz) and lower (16-22.5 kHz) frequencies, the low-threshold point was located at the lateral side of the middle portion of the lower jaw...
August 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
P Sharmila Bhanu, K Devi Sankar
INTRODUCTION: Foramen of Huschke (FH) is an opening present in anteroinferior wall of External Acoustic Meatus (EAM) on the tympanic plate of temporal bone. The developing tympanic ring normally gets closed by the age of 5 years, if not, leads to the persistence of FH, shows a communication between the EAM and mandibular fossa of temporal bone. AIM: The aim of the present study was to report on the incidence of FH in adult skulls and individual temporal bones, belonging to South Coastal Andhra population...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Ryosuke Tomio, Kazunari Yoshida, Maya Kohno, Dai Kamamoto, Shuji Mikami
BACKGROUND: The membranous structure of vestibular schwannoma is an important factor in its surgical treatment. Herein, we report intraoperative and microscopic findings relating to an outermost dura-like membrane in cases of vestibular schwannoma and the importance of these findings. METHODS: Intraoperative findings of 16 cases of vestibular schwannoma treated with an initial surgery were studied with an aim to determine if the cases had a dura-like membrane. Then we studied microscopic findings of the dura-like membrane using hematoxylin and eosin, Masson trichrome, and immunohistochemical staining in 2 cases...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
Youyou Guo, Yongmei Li, Chun Zeng, Jingjie Wang, Yi Liu, Ping Yin, Dan Liao
OBJECTIVE: To explore. HRCT and MRI three-dimensional fast imaging employing steady state ac-quisition(3D-FIESTA) imaging features and clinical characteristics of bilateral large vestibular aqueduct syndrome(LVAS). METHOD: The imaging and clinical features of 14 cases of bilateral LVAS identified over a 5-year periodwere retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent HRCT and MRI 3D-FIESTA scanning of head and neck;MRI three dimensional reconstructions of internal acoustical meatus were also completed at the same time...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
V F Antoniv, V I Popadyuk, V M Aksenov, T V Antoniv, I A Korshunova
The objective of the present work was to improve the effectiveness of the treatment of atresia of the external auditory canal (EAC). Atresia of external acoustic meatus is a result of a mechanical or thermal injury but can also develop after a surgical intervention for the removal of foreign bodies, benign and malignant tumours. This condition is frequently associated with the narrowing and obliteration of EAC leading to the marked impairment of hearing despite preservation of the middle ear structures. Plastic correction of the external auditory canal for the purpose of its broadening does not always produce the desired result...
2016: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
Matheus Silvestre Minucci, João Paulo Mardegan Issa, Fernando Yukio Yokoyama, Fernando José Dias, Daniela Mizusaki Iyomasa, Elaine Aparecida Del-Bel Belluz Guimarães, Ii-Sei Watanabe, Mamie Mizusaki Iyomasa
The opossum Monodelphis domestica presents movement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) reflecting adaptation to eating habits similar to movement in humans, but the structure of the TMJ is not yet known. Thus, nine young M. domestica, of both sexes were weighed, anesthetized with xylazine (10 mg kg(-1) ), and ketamine (70 mg kg(-1) ) and processed for: 1. The analyses of the macroscopic angioarchitecture after latex injection, as well as the topography of the TMJ; 2. The analysis of microvascularization after injection of Mercox resin and corrosion of soft tissue with NaOH using scanning electron microscopy and; 3...
September 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
G Dumas, P Perrin, E Ouedraogo, S Schmerber
The skull vibration-induced nystagmus test is a robust, nonintrusive and easy to perform test. This test acts as a vestibular Weber test and is performed as a bedside examination. It usually instantaneously reveals vibration-induced nystagmus (VIN) even in long standing or chronic compensated unilateral vestibular lesions. The test requires stimulation at 30, 60 or more efficiently at 100Hz. The vibrator is applied perpendicularly to the skin on a subject sitting up straight on the right and then the left mastoid (level with external acoustic meatus) and vertex...
May 6, 2016: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
Alba Scerrati, Jung-Shun Lee, Jun Zhang, Mario Ammirati
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility of performing a labyrinth-sparing neuronavigation-assisted retrosigmoid approach to the fundus of the internal acoustic meatus (IAM) and to describe the anatomy of the structures embedded in the posterior meatal wall. METHODS: Ten surgical dissections were performed bilaterally on 5 fresh cadavers. Cadavers were subjected to preoperative computed tomography scans and spatial coordinates of inner ear structures were recorded...
July 2016: World Neurosurgery
Markus Drexl, Eike Krause, Robert Gürkov, Lutz Wiegrebe
The perceptual insensitivity to low frequency (LF) sound in humans has led to an underestimation of the physiological impact of LF exposure on the inner ear. It is known, however, that intense, LF sound causes cyclic changes of indicators of inner ear function after LF stimulus offset, for which the term "Bounce" phenomenon has been coined.Here, we show that the mechanical amplification of hair cells (OHCs) is significantly affected after the presentation of LF sound. First, we show the Bounce phenomenon in slow level changes of quadratic, but not cubic, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs)...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Allison P Gremba, Seth M Weinberg, J Douglas Swarts, Margaretha L Casselbrant
OBJECTIVES: Past studies using traditional morphometric approaches have reported a handful of differences in craniofacial dimensions between individuals with and without otitis media (OM). In this study, a geometric morphometry (GM) approach was used to determine if craniofacial shape is different among children with no history of OM and a history of recurrent acute OM (RAOM) at two different ages. METHODS: Nineteen standard landmarks were identified on lateral cephalometric radiographs from 79 children (41 Control, 38 RAOM) at 4 years and 52 children (27 Control, 25 RAOM) at 6 years of age...
May 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Alba Scerrati, Jung-Shun Lee, Jun Zhang, Mario Ammirati
HYPOTHESIS: To show via a retrosigmoid approach the bony labyrinth anatomy and its relationship with the internal acoustic meatus so as to provide guidelines for a safer drilling to the fundus using this approach. BACKGROUND: Few studies deal with the complex anatomy of petrous bone structures as observed by a retrosigmoid approach. METHODS: Ten retrosigmoid approaches were performed bilaterally on five fresh cadaveric heads. Afterward high-resolution computed tomographic scans were obtained...
June 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Kamil Krystkiewicz, Tymon Skadorwa, Paweł Szaro, Bogdan Ciszek
PURPOSE: During vestibular schwannoma surgery there is a risk of endolymphatic duct and sac injury, which may cause a loss or a deterioration of hearing. The goal of the study was to evaluate the empirical utility of presurgical planning using CT with the bone window for the hearing preservation surgery. METHODS: The study was performed on 14 human temporal bones. CT scans with the bone window were obtained in the standard position. Safe drilling line was evaluated and after that drilling distances were analysed: the lateral drilling distance, total length of internal acoustic meatus, drilled length of internal acoustic meatus...
March 22, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
N L Kunel'skaya, A N Yatskovsky, V V Mishchenko
The objective of the present study was to elucidate the topographic features of the nerve fibers belonging to the acoustic and vestibular analyzers located in the intracranial cranial segment of human vestibulocochlear nerve (VCN). A total of 16 samples of the intracranial cranial segment of the human vestibulocochlear nerve isolated from the region enclosed between the exit of VCN from the brainstem and its entrance into the internal acoustic meatus were available for the investigation. Prior to fixation of the samples, the VCN segments were marked in correspondence with their intravital anatomical location in the posterior cranial fossa...
2016: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
Anjali Singla, Tulika Gupta, Daisy Sahni, Anjali Aggarwal, Ashok Gupta
PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to compare the rate of high jugular bulb (HJB) in relation to internal acoustic meatus (IAM), round window (RW) and endolymphatic sac and to study their clinical implications. METHODS: Eighty-seven cadaveric non-pathologic human temporal bones were micro-dissected to expose the jugular fossa (JF) and RW. The minimum distance of JF from RW was measured. On the inner surface of petrous part of temporal bone, minimum vertical distance of JF from IAM and saccus endolymphaticus (E sac) was also measured...
October 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Denise S Haddad, Marcos L Brioschi, Marina G Baladi, Emiko S Arita
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the facial areas defined by thermal gradient, in individuals compatible with the pattern of normality, and to quantify and describe them anatomically. METHODS: The sample consisted of 161 volunteers, of both genders, aged between 26 and 84 years (63 ± 15 years). RESULTS: The results demonstrated that the thermal gradient areas suggested for the study were present in at least 95% of the thermograms evaluated and that there is significant difference in temperature between the genders, racial group and variables "odontalgia", "dental prothesis" and "history of migraine" (p < 0...
2016: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
Gaoussou Touré, Evelyne Anzouan-Kacou
PURPOSE: In humans, the styloauricularis is a rare muscle extending from the tragal cartilage of the auricle to the styloid process. When it contracts, by bearing on the styloid process, it increases the cephalo-auricular angle. It can be a landmark for the facial nerve. We report a case with bilateral presence of the styloauricularis. METHODS: Bilateral presence of the styloauricularis was discovered during routine dissection of the head and neck. RESULTS: In the presented case, styloauricularis muscles arose from the cartilage of the external acoustic meatus on both sides of the head, crossing halfway along the facial nerve trunk and inserting the styloid process...
October 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Jian Wang, Fumitaka Yoshioka, Wonil Joo, Noritaka Komune, Vicent Quilis-Quesada, Albert L Rhoton
OBJECTIVE The object of this study was to examine the relationships of the cochlea as a guide for avoiding both cochlear damage with loss of hearing in middle fossa approaches and injury to adjacent structures in approaches directed through the cochlea. METHODS Twenty adult cadaveric middle fossae were examined using magnifications of ×3 to ×40. RESULTS The cochlea sits below the floor of the middle fossa in the area between and below the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve and greater petrosal nerve (GPN) and adjacent to the lateral genu of the petrous carotid...
January 29, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Ronen Perez, Cahtia Adelman, Haim Sohmer
Conclusion Cochlea can be directly excited by fluid (soft-tissue) stimulation. Objective To determine whether there is no difference in auditory-nerve-brainstem evoked response (ABR) thresholds to fluid stimulation between normal and animal models of post radical-mastoidectomy, as seen in a previous human study. Background It has been shown in humans that hearing can be elicited with stimulation to fluid in the external auditory meatus (EAM), and radical-mastoidectomy cavity. These groups differed in age, initial hearing, and drilling exposure...
2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
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