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Chunxia Yang, Aixia Zhang, Aixiang Jia, Jack X Ma, Ning Sun, Yanfang Wang, Xinrong Li, Zhifen Liu, Sha Liu, Yong Xu, Kerang Zhang
This study aims to identify and characterize neurobiological markers for major depressive disorder (MDD) from resting-state brain functional MRI. We examined the abnormality in the regional homogeneity (ReHo) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in first-episode, drug-naive major depressive disorder (fMDD), and remitted major depressive disorder (rMDD) and correlated these fluctuations with clinical markers of MDD. We conducted a retrospective study and reviewed the medical records of 43 patients with fMDD...
June 15, 2018: Neuroreport
Chun Jing Ye, Jiang Wang, Yi Fan Yang, Zhen Shen, Gong Chen, Yan Lei Huang, Yi Jie Zheng, Rui Dong, Shan Zheng
OBJECTIVES:  Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive inflammatory obstructive cholangiopathy in infants. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is known to play an important role as a late mediator of inflammation. However, it is not clear whether HMGB1 levels are of clinical significance in patients with BA. The aim of this study was to determine correlations between serum HMGB1 levels and the clinicopathologic features of BA. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  Serum samples were collected from 19 infants with BA, 7 infants with anicteric choledochal cysts (CC) and normal liver function, and 8 healthy controls...
June 17, 2018: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Kristen K Ellard, Aishwarya G Gosai, Emily E Bernstein, Navneet Kaur, Lousia G Sylvia, Joan A Camprodon, Darin D Dougherty, Andrew A Nierenberg, Thilo Deckersbach
BACKGROUND: Anxiety in bipolar disorder (BD) exacerbates emotion dysregulation and reduces treatment response. We recently conducted a pilot trial of transdiagnostic CBT to target anxiety and emotion dysregulation in BD adjunctive to pharmacotherapy. Reductions in depression and anxiety symptoms were significantly predicted by baseline levels of neuroticism and perceived affective control, as well as changes over time in emotion regulation skills. The present study investigates mechanism of treatment response by examining the relationship between baseline emotion regulation-related neural circuitry and trial outcomes...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jidan Zhong, David Qixiang Chen, Peter S P Hung, Dave J Hayes, Kevin E Liang, Karen D Davis, Mojgan Hodaie
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a severe form of chronic facial neuropathic pain. Increasing interest in the neuroimaging of pain has highlighted changes in the root entry zone in TN, but also group level CNS grey and white matter abnormalities. Group differences in neuroimaging data are frequently evaluated with univariate statistics, however this approach is limited because it is based on single, or clusters of, voxels. In contrast, multivariate pattern analyses consider all the model's neuroanatomical features to capture a specific distributed spatial pattern...
June 13, 2018: Pain
Kara Fitzgerald, Paul J Sanchirico, David C Pfeiffer
We describe a case of a 57-year-old man referred to an oral maxillofacial surgeon for a nontender, large intramuscular tongue mass. A computed tomography scan with contrast showed a homogenous right tongue intramuscular fatty mass measuring 3.8 cm × 2.8 cm in the axial dimension and 2.2 cm in the craniocaudal dimension. Histologic examination revealed multiple lobulated sections of mature adipocytes and occasional entrapped skeletal muscle fibers. The final pathologic diagnosis was intramuscular lipoma...
April 2018: Radiology case reports
Catherine J Stoodley, Jeremy D Schmahmann
Accumulating evidence points to a critical role for the human cerebellum in both motor and nonmotor behaviors. A core tenet of this new understanding of cerebellar function is the existence of functional subregions within the cerebellum that differentially support motor, cognitive, and affective behaviors. This cerebellar functional topography - based on converging evidence from neuroanatomic, neuroimaging, and clinical studies - is evident in both adult and pediatric populations. The sensorimotor homunculi in the anterior lobe and lobule VIII established in early tract tracing and electrophysiologic studies are evident in both task-based and resting-state human functional imaging studies...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Reiko Ashida, Nadia L Cerminara, Jon Brooks, Richard Apps
In this chapter, we compare current understanding of the anatomy and functional compartmentation of the human cerebellum with detailed knowledge in nonhuman species. The anatomy of the cerebellum is highly conserved across mammals and comparison of functional data suggests that similar principles of organization also hold true for somatotopy. In particular, there is a dual representation of the limbs in the cerebellar cortex in rat, ferret, cat, monkey, and human. In animals, a key organizing principle of the cerebellum is its division into a series of longitudinally oriented olivocorticonuclear modules that are narrow in the mediolateral axis but extend across multiple cerebellar lobules in the rostrocaudal plane...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Mario Manto
More than a century after the description of its cardinal components, the cerebellar motor syndrome (CMS) remains a cornerstone of daily clinical ataxiology, in both children and adults. Anatomically, motor cerebellum involves lobules I-V, VI, and VIII. CMS is typically associated with errors in the metrics of voluntary movements and a lack of coordination. Symptoms and motor signs consist of speech deficits, impairments of limb movements, and abnormalities of posture/gait. Ataxic dysarthria has a typical scanning (explosive with staccato) feature, voice has a nasal character, and speech is slurred...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Silvia P Gennari, Rebecca E Millman, Mark Hymers, Sven L Mattys
Perceiving speech while performing another task is a common challenge in everyday life. How the brain controls resource allocation during speech perception remains poorly understood. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the effect of cognitive load on speech perception by examining brain responses of participants performing a phoneme discrimination task and a visual working memory task simultaneously. The visual task involved holding either a single meaningless image in working memory (low cognitive load) or four different images (high cognitive load)...
June 11, 2018: NeuroImage
Mario Manto, Thierry A G M Huisman
The cerebellum is now at the forefront of research in neuroscience. This is not just a coincidence, occurring about 250 years after the first description of the human cerebellum. The cerebellum contains the majority of neurons in the central nervous system and it is heavily connected with almost all cortical and subcortical areas of the supratentorial region as well as with the brainstem and the spinal cord. Cerebellar circuits are embedded in large-scale networks contributing to motor control and neurocognition...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Giuseppina Rizzo, Demetrio Milardi, Salvatore Bertino, Gianpaolo Antonio Basile, Debora Di Mauro, Alessandro Calamuneri, Gaetana Chillemi, Giuseppe Silvestri, Giuseppe Anastasi, Alessia Bramanti, Alberto Cacciola
The amygdala plays a key role in gathering social cues to context-appropriate responses that require refined motor behaviour, involving either direct or indirect connections with sensorimotor-related areas. Although, several studies investigated the structural and functional limbic connectivity of the amygdala both in animals and in humans, less is known about the limbic modulation on sensorimotor-related areas. However, recent evidences suggest the amygdala as a possible cornerstone in the limbic-motor interface...
June 8, 2018: Neuroscience
Keyvan Eghbal, Amirreza Dehghanian, Fariborz Ghaffarpasand
STUYD DESIGN: Case Report OBJECTIVE.: To report surgical resection of multiple ventral cervical and thoracic lesion being diagnosed as whorling-sclerosing variant meningioma (WSM) and subsequent stabilization of cervicothoracic spine. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: WSM is a rare histopathology variant of meningioma which is mostly reported in brain and only one case of cervical spine WSM has been reported. Because of the rarity of WSM, there is a paucity of information regarding the clinical, radiological and histopathologic characteristics...
June 8, 2018: Spine
Juro Kawachi
The anatomical uniqueness of Einstein's brain is thought to be the seat of his intellectual prowess. Einstein's brain has been reported to contain: a higher neuron/glia ratio in the left inferior parietal lobule, greater neuron density in the frontal lobe, a larger expansion of the inferior parietal lobule, complex gyrification in many parts of the cerebral cortex, and a thick corpus callosum, especially the splenium. Individual differences in brain anatomy and current brain research were used to test the validity of these assertions...
June 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Mozhgan Parsaee, Hamidreza Pouraliakbar, Behshid Ghadrdoost, Jamal Moosavi, Mohaddeseh Behjati
The most commonly reported collateral systems in the setting of superior vena cava obstruction are azygos venous system, vertebral venous system, external and internal thoracic venous system based on McLntire and Sykes classification. A 49-year-old female with renal disease complained dyspnea on exertion. Transesophageal echocardiography showed significant mitral annular calcification, large multi-lobulated mass at posterior aspect of RA, and complete obstruction of superior vena cava by thrombus formation...
June 10, 2018: Echocardiography
Johanna Inhyang Kim, Yun-Hyong Kang, Jong-Min Lee, Jungho Cha, Yeong-Hun Park, Kuk-Ju Kweon, Bung-Nyun Kim
The purpose of this study was to investigate the neural correlates of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for externalizing behavior problems in perpetrators of school bullying using assessments of brain activity and behavior. Twenty-five adolescent bullies participated in an 8-session intervention. Prior to and after participation, 24 adolescents were evaluated using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and 23 completed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Changes in the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and scores on the CBCL were analyzed...
June 6, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Andrew Schrepf, Chelsea M Kaplan, Eric Ichesco, Tony Larkin, Steven E Harte, Richard E Harris, Alison D Murray, Gordon D Waiter, Daniel J Clauw, Neil Basu
It is unknown how chronic inflammation impacts the brain. Here, we examined whether higher levels of peripheral inflammation were associated with brain connectivity and structure in 54 rheumatoid arthritis patients using functional and structural MRI. We show that higher levels of inflammation are associated with more positive connections between the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), medial prefrontal cortex, and multiple brain networks, as well as reduced IPL grey matter, and that these patterns of connectivity predicted fatigue, pain and cognitive dysfunction...
June 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Zening Fu, Yiheng Tu, Xin Di, Yuhui Du, Jing Sui, Bharat B Biswal, Zhiguo Zhang, N de Lacy, V D Calhoun
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with social communication deficits and restricted/repetitive behaviors and is characterized by large-scale atypical subcortical-cortical connectivity, including impaired resting-state functional connectivity between thalamic and sensory regions. Previous studies have typically focused on the abnormal static connectivity in ASD and overlooked potential valuable dynamic patterns in brain connectivity. However, resting-state brain connectivity is indeed highly dynamic, and abnormalities in dynamic brain connectivity have been widely identified in psychiatric disorders...
June 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Ziliang Wang, Lingdan Wu, Kai Yuan, Yanbo Hu, Hui Zheng, Xiaoxia Du, Guangheng Dong
Although online gaming may lead to Internet gaming disorder (IGD), most players are recreational game users (RGUs) who do not develop IGD. Thus far, little is known about brain structural abnormalities in IGD subjects relative to RGUs. The inclusion of RGUs as a control group could minimize the potential effects of gaming experience and gaming-related cue familiarity on the neural mechanism of IGD subjects. In the current study, structural magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 38 IGD subjects and 66 RGUs with comparable age, gender, and educational level...
June 8, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Malcolm R Alison
In the latter half of the 20th century, our understanding of mammalian liver regeneration was shaped by the manner of compensatory hyperplasia occurring after a partial rat liver resection. This response involves almost all hepatocytes and thus is unlikely to be the outcome of the multiple cycling of a small stem cell population. It was most intense in the outer third of lobule, the location closest to the afferent arterial blood supply. With the advent of heritable genetic labelling techniques, usually applied to mice, hitherto unrecognized hepatocytes with clonogenic potential have been discovered, contributing to homoeostatic renewal and/or regenerative responses after tissue loss...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
Valentina Ciullo, Daniela Vecchio, Tommaso Gili, Gianfranco Spalletta, Federica Piras
The ability to generate probabilistic expectancies regarding when and where sensory stimuli will occur, is critical to derive timely and accurate inferences about updating contexts. However, the existence of specialized neural networks for inferring predictive relationships between events is still debated. Using graph theoretical analysis applied to structural connectivity data, we tested the extent of brain connectivity properties associated with spatio-temporal predictive performance across 29 healthy subjects...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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