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Ji Zhu, Hui Zhao, Kai Wu, Chuan Lv, Hong-da Bi, Meng-Yan Sun, Yu-Chong Wang, Xin Xing, Chun-Yu Xue
Reconstruction of the auricular conchal cavity is relatively difficult because of its unique structure, shape, and location. We compared different methods of repair of the auricular concha to determine the method that would cause the least injury to the donor site.The method selected was based on the location and size of the defect. If the defect was located in the upper part of the concha, or if the defect was >15 mm in diameter, we used a post-auricular subcutaneous pedicle island flap that was pulled through a post-auricular sulcus tunnel to cover the wound...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Changyong Chen, Fei Fan, Wenzhi Li, Binbin Li, Jianjun You, Huan Wang
OBJECTIVE: There are many scaffold materials of repairing nasal alar cartilage defects. Auricuiar cartilage was used extensively in terms of its abundant tissues, good elasticity, little donor-site malformation, good plasticity etc. The authors dissected auricular cartilage and nasal alar cartilage, measured cartilage's morphous data and found some similar territories with nasal alar cartilage in the structure of auricular cartilage. METHOD: An anatomical study was performed using 10 adult cadavers acquired through Plastic Surgery Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China...
September 2015: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Gaoussou Toure, Jean-Philippe Foy, Christian Vacher
The trajectory of the parotid duct (PD) makes it vulnerable to injuries during facial trauma and facial rejuvenation procedures. The PD is usually represented as a straight line, although its description in the literature varies. Our objective was to study the trajectory of the PD and to define reliable cutaneous landmarks. We dissected 35 human cadaver half-heads. We defined three points: point I where the PD crossed a line (line 2) between point T (the intertragal incisura) and point C (the corner of the mouth), point S for the top of the PD, and point B where the PD penetrated the buccinator muscle...
May 2015: Clinical Anatomy
José Luís Pimentel do Rosário
INTRODUCTION: The study of posture is not an easy task, mainly because postural assessment is still scientifically inaccurate. Photographs of bipedalism in the frontal and sagittal planes are one of the most widely used methods for this assessment. The aim of this literature review was to determine which anatomical markers authors of scientific papers have taken to minimize the chances of error in measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Medline and Lilacs databases were searched for the period from 2002 to 2012, with the following keywords: "postura"; "posture" and "postural...
January 2014: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
A Chatellier, D Labbé, E Salamé, H Bénateau
PURPOSE: Direct access to the zygomatic branch of the facial nerve in the parotid is less invasive and more selective than first dissecting the nerve trunk and then finding the branches. The aim of this study was to confirm the point of reference on the skin which would give direct access to the zygomatic branch for the orbicularis oculi muscle. The skin reference point studied was on the intertragic notch/external canthus line, 2.5 cm in front of the intertragic notch. METHODS: Ten fresh cadavers, and thus 20 sides of faces were dissected...
April 2013: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Jason A Litner, Peter A Adamson
OBJECTIVE: To compare the intraoperative outcomes of superficial musculoaponeurotic system plication, imbrication, and deep-plane rhytidectomy techniques. METHODS: Thirty-two patients undergoing primary deep-plane rhytidectomy participated. Each hemiface in all patients was submitted sequentially to 3 progressively more extensive lifts, while other variables were standardized. Four major outcome measures were studied, including the extent of skin redundancy and the repositioning of soft tissues along the malar, mandibular, and cervical vectors of lift...
May 2006: Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery
R G Clark, R L Sanson, J W Donaldson, M X Motha, G J Knowles
AIMS: To investigate the relationship between loss of parts of the pinna in rabbits and rabbit haemorrhagic disease (MD). METHODS: A case-control study design was employed. Rabbits with ear lesions were shot on farms in various locations in the South Island of New Zealand. For each case, an attempt was made to obtain a sex and size-matched control rabbit from the same farm on the same day. Serum samples were collected immediately after shooting. The serum samples were tested for RHD titres from 1:lO to 1:640...
February 1999: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Hiroshi Iwai, Toshio Yamashita
The aim of this work is to establish a local excision procedure (LEP) and indications of this procedure for Warthin's tumor. Seventy-three patients (82 sides) with Warthin's tumor were studied. Point I was located 1 cm from the intertragal notch in the direction indicated by the notch. Point S was located 5 mm superior to the inferior end of the mandibular angle. The trunk of the facial nerve and the marginal mandibular branch run at the points I and S, respectively. In surgical maneuvers below the I-S line, the marginal mandibular and colli branches may exist within the surgical field, but the trunk and other peripheral branches of the facial nerve will not be encountered...
April 2005: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Arian Mowlavi, D Garth Meldrum, Bradon J Wilhelmi, Robert C Russell, Elvin G Zook
BACKGROUND: The "pixie" ear deformity can be recognized by its "stuck on" or "pulled" appearance, which is caused by the extrinsic pull of the medial cheek and jawline skin flaps at the earlobe attachment point, the otobasion inferius. The tension results in migration of the otobasion inferius from a posterior cephalad position to an anterior caudal position. Although this deformity has been described clinically, it has yet to be objectively defined. METHODS: Recently, the two components of the earlobe, the attached cephalic segment (intertragal to otobasion inferius distance) and the free caudal segment (otobasion inferius to subaurale distance), were shown to be essential in evaluating for earlobe ptosis and pseudoptosis...
April 2005: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Edward B Desciak, Yehuda D Eliezri
Secondary intention, primary closure, and full thickness skin grafts can handle the majority of ear closures. Transposition flaps work nicely at the root of the helix, the preauricular area, the intertragal notch and the postauricular area. Helical rim advancements and their variations are the workhorse for repairing and restoring the natural arch of the helix. Retroauricular 2-stage pedicle flaps with or without a cartilage graft will provide a nice cosmetic result for larger defects involving the helical rim...
2004: Advances in Dermatology
Arian Mowlavi, D Garth Meldrum, Bradon J Wilhelmi, Elvin G Zook
The authors have previously described a classification system for earlobe ptosis and established criteria for earlobe pseudoptosis. Earlobe heights were characterized on the basis of anatomic landmarks, including the intertragal notch, the otobasion inferius (the most caudal anterior attachment of the earlobe to the cheek skin), and the subaurale (the most caudal extension of the earlobe free margin). The classification system was derived from earlobe height preferences as determined by a survey of North American Caucasians and identified the ideal free caudal segment (otobasion inferius to subaurale distance) measuring 1 to 5 mm (grade I ptosis)...
September 15, 2004: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Arian Mowlavi, D Garth Meldrum, Bradon J Wilhelmi, Elvin G Zook
The authors have previously described a classification system for earlobe ptosis and have established a criterion for earlobe pseudoptosis. Earlobe heights were characterized based on anatomic landmarks, including the intertragal notch, the otobasion inferius (the most caudal anterior attachment of the earlobe to the cheek skin), and the subaurale (the most caudal extension of the earlobe free margin). The classification system was derived from earlobe height preferences as determined by a survey of North American Caucasians, and it identified the ideal free caudal lobule height range to measure 1 to 5 mm from otobasion inferius to subaurale (grade I ptosis)...
February 2004: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Arian Mowlavi, D Garth Meldrum, Bradon J Wilhelmi, Ashkan Ghavami, Elvin G Zook
North American Caucasian male subjects (n = 59) and female subjects (n = 72) were surveyed, to investigate earlobe height preferences that could serve as guidelines for aesthetic earlobe surgical procedures and reconstructions. Subjects were asked to rank their preferences for variously shaped earlobes in life-size-scaled sketched male and female profiles. Earlobe heights were varied on the basis of previously established anatomical landmarks, including the intertragal notch, the most caudal anterior attachment of the earlobe to the cheek skin (the otobasion inferius), and the most caudal extension of the earlobe-free margin (the subaurale)...
July 2003: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
C Park
This article presents an improved two-flap method for microtia reconstruction. In the first stage of this method, a tissue expander is inserted in the mastoid region through a subfascial pocket, after which the overlying fascia and skin are expanded simultaneously with saline infusion for about 5 months. In the second stage, the expanded fascial and skin layers are split and prepared as anteriorly based skin and fascial flaps defined by their vascularity. An erect, three-dimensional, contour-accentuated ear framework fabricated with autogenous rib cartilage is inserted between the two flaps...
December 2000: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
S Nagata
This new method for total reconstruction of the auricle is a two-stage operation in which the first stage involves fabrication and grafting of a three-dimensional costal cartilage framework and the second stage is the ear elevation operation. The three-dimensional frame was designed with emphasis on the fabrication of the helical crus, intertragic notch, and antitragus and by extending the crus helicis and fixing it to the undersurface of the base frame. The reconstructed auricle will have four different floors: the cymba and cavum conchae are the bottom (fourth) level, the crus helicis is the third level, the fossa triangularis and the scapha are the second level, and the helix, anthelix, tragus, and antitragus are the top level...
August 1993: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
J R Swearengen, C L Kittell, J A Davis, T G Raslear, D A Beblo, C A Colleton
A bilateral cochleotomized surgical rat model, needed for a study involving microwave effects, was developed, standardized, and assessed for reproducibility. After a review of the literature concerning attempts and approaches with various species, a technique involving an approach through the external auditory canal was chosen and modified. Using a stereomicroscope, a cutaneous incision in the intertragic notch was made and extended medially along the ventral aspect of the external auditory canal to the depth of the external auditory meatus...
September 1993: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
P Jeanty, R Romero, A Staudach, J C Hobbins
Real-time ultrasonography was used in this study to demonstrate details of the anatomy of the face and neck of the fetus. Details such as the ocular globe, vitreous body, lens, anterior chamber, rectus muscles, optic nerve and disc, and the ophthalmic artery are visible at the level of the eye. The helix, scaphoid fossa, triangular fossa, concha, antihelix, antitragus, intertragic incisure, and lobule can be seen at the level of the ear. The tip of the nose, the alae nasi, and the columna are also seen. The epiglottis is visible in the vestibulum of the larynx...
November 1986: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
A R Antonelli, F Bonfioli, P Nicolai, G Peretti
In a previous investigation the relationship between head size and main parameters of ABR, i.e. waves absolute latencies and interwave delays, was studied in 55 subjects (1). Significant and positive correlation coefficients were found between I-V I.P.I. and the sum of head circumference, nasion-inion, and intertragal distances in the age range 7 to 11 years only and not in adult age. The purpose of the present study was to verify whether in 11 adults a correlation could be demonstrated between ABR parameters and two axial measures of brainstem length, calculated on MRI views...
May 1988: Acta Oto-laryngologica
G Schwember, A Rodríguez
The direction followed by the facial nerve branches beyond their emergence from the ventral, cephalic, and caudal borders of the parotid gland up to the facial muscles has been studied by several anatomists, but no consistent description of them has been given so far. This research, based on the dissection of 30 hemifaces, studies the characteristics of those branches using three points of reference: the intertragal notch, the palpebral lateral commissure, and the labial commissure. Tables showing average length and number of branches have been computed with a statistical level of confidence of 99 percent...
February 1988: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
H Tolleth
All ears are different, and the degree of difference within the bounds of acceptability is remarkable. To that end, the keys to construction, reconstruction, or modification must be observed in order to mold an ear that "looks right." Simply stated, these keys are as follows: The ear is a flap approximately 50 to 60% as wide as it is high, sitting back one earlength (6.5 to 7.5 cm) from the lateral orbital rim, with the top of the ear level with the brow inclined approximately 20 degrees and protruding 1.5 to 2...
July 1978: Clinics in Plastic Surgery
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