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Sophia A Hussen, Rana Chakraborty, Andres Camacho-Gonzalez, Berthine Njiemoun, Emily Grossniklaus, Emma Goodstein, Rob Stephenson, Carlos Del Rio
Healthcare transition (HCT) from pediatric to adult-oriented healthcare is ideally conceptualized as a planned, continuous process characterized by communication between multiple stakeholders. However, empirical data is lacking regarding processes through which youth living with HIV (YLHIV) are actually transitioned to adult care. We conducted a qualitative study to gain a more comprehensive understanding of both pediatric and adult provider perspectives on the HCT process for YLHIV. Our study included focus groups discussions with 24 (11 pediatric and 13 adult) providers at a comprehensive HIV care center in the Southeastern United States...
June 13, 2018: AIDS Care
Okikiolu A Badejo, William N A Menson, Nadia A Sam-Agudu, Jennifer Pharr, Salome Erekaha, Tamara Bruno, Gift Nwanne, Olabanjo Ogunsola, Jude Ilozumba, Olusegun Busari, Echezona E Ezeanolue
INTRODUCTION: The period of transition from pediatric to adult care has been associated with poor health outcomes among 10-19 year old adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV). This has prompted a focus on the quality of transition services, especially in high ALHIV-burden countries. Due to lack of guidelines, there are no healthcare transition standards for Nigeria's estimated 240,000 ALHIV. We conducted a nationwide survey to characterize routine transition procedures for Nigerian ALHIV...
2018: PloS One
Shiraz Khan, George Liomba, Nora E Rosenberg, Christopher Stanley, Cocxilly Kampani, Bal Mukunda Dhungel, Mina C Hosseinipour
BACKGROUND: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been widely accepted to be a safe, accurate, prompt and inexpensive procedure for diagnosis of both neoplastic and infectious diseases in adult and pediatric populations. Despite its value for diagnosis, FNAC is underutilized in resource limited countries. We reviewed the utilization of FNAC after it was introduced at Kamuzu Central Hospital (KCH). METHODS: A retrospective review of all FNAC performed at KCH laboratory during the period of January 2012 to July 2014 was conducted using an electronic database from KCH laboratory...
2018: PloS One
Qiang Xia, Bisrat Abraham, Dipal Shah, Chitra Ramaswamy, Sarah L Braunstein, Lucia V Torian
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the transition process from pediatric to adult care among persons with perinatal HIV infection in New York City (NYC). DESIGN: A retrospective pre-post study and a matched exposed/unexposed nested cohort study. METHODS: Using data from the NYC HIV registry, a retrospective pre-post study was performed among persons who transitioned from pediatric to adult care to assess pre- and post-transition retention in care (≥1 CD4/viral load in a 12-month period), CD4 count, and viral suppression (≤200 copies/mL)...
June 11, 2018: AIDS
Amanda E Tanner, Morgan M Philbin, Brittany D Chambers, Alice Ma, Sophia Hussen, Samuella Ware, Sonia Lee, J Dennis Fortenberry
PURPOSE: Youth living with HIV (YLHIV) in the United States (U.S.) account for nearly one-third of new HIV infections and face significant barriers to care engagement; only 25% are virally suppressed. Healthcare transition (HCT) from pediatric/adolescent to adult-oriented care can be particularly disruptive. Accordingly, we prospectively examined HCT processes at 14 distinct geographical sites across the U.S. METHODS: We collected Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviews data and abstracted electronic medical records from 135 HCT-eligible YLHIV at baseline and 9-month follow-up...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Dickens Otieno Onyango, Courtney M Yuen, Enos Masini, Martien Willem Borgdorff
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of childhood tuberculosis (TB) in Kenya, assess the magnitude of TB/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection and identify risk factors for mortality during TB treatment. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Kenyan national TB program data for patients enrolled from 2013 through 2015. A total of 23 753 children aged less than 15 years were included in the analysis. Survival analysis was performed with censorship at 9 months and mortality was the main outcome...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Abebe Sorsa
Background: Antiretroviral Therapy(ART) remarkably reduced HIV-1 infection-related mortality in children. The efficacy and safety of different ART regimen in pediatric age groups remained issues of debates and available evidence were scarce especially among children taking the of one the two prototypes (NVP or EFV) Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor(NNRTI) as backbone of ART regimen.Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare clinical, immunological and virological responses of zidovudine-lamivudine-nevirapine (AZT+3TC+ NVP) versus zidovudine-lamivudine-efavirenz (AZT+3TC+EFV) ART regimen among HIV-1 infected children...
2018: Open Medical Informatics Journal
Bereket Gebremichael, Tsega-Ab Abebaw, Tsedey Moges, Admas Abera Abaerei, Nadia Worede
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is among the top ten cause of death (9th) from a single infectious agent worldwide. It even ranks above HIV/AIDS. It is among the top 10 causes of death among children. Globally there are estimates of one million cases of TB in children, 76% occur in 22 high-burden countries among which Ethiopia ranked 8th. Despite this fact, children with TB are given low priority in most national health programs. Moreover reports on childhood TB and its predictors are very limited...
June 4, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Julie Alperen, Julie Davidson, Suzanne Siminski, George R Seage
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Linda Aurpibul, Azar Kariminia, Ung Vibol, Moy Siew Fong, Oanh Ngoc Le, Rawiwan Hansudewechakul, Torsak Bunupuradah, Nia Kurniati, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Dewi Kumara Wati, Nik Khairulddin Nik Yusoff, Kamarul Azahar Mhd Razali, Revathy A Nallusamy, Annette H Sohn, Pagakrong Lumbiganon
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B (HBV)-HIV coinfection is associated with liver inflammation, which can progress to liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We determined HBV seroprevalence in children and adolescents participating in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database. METHODS: A multi-site cross-sectional study was conducted in HIV-infected patients currently aged <25 years receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) who had HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), and/or HBV surface antibody (anti-HBs), and/or HBV core antibody (anti-HBc) tested during 2012-2013...
January 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Sabin Nsanzimana, Flannery McArdle, Eric Remera, Augustin Mulindabigwi, Muhayimpundu Ribakare, Patrick Ndimubanzi, Eugenie Kayirangwa, Cyprien Baribwira, David J Riedel, Joseph Ntaganira
Rwanda has made significant progress in expanding pediatric antiretroviral treatment(ART) coverage. This was a nationwide, cross-sectional study of pediatric HIV suppression rates. Of 292 children on ART ≥12 months, 68.8% achieved viral suppression <40 copies/ml, respectively. Rwanda achieved good pediatric viral suppression rates, comparable to those from other resource-limited settings(RLS), yet more efforts are needed to achieve the UNAIDS 90-90-90 target.
May 21, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Kengo Inagaki, Chad Blackshear, Charlotte V Hobbs
BACKGROUND: Although the epidemiology of immunocompromising condition in children has evolved over time, updated epidemiology of pediatric pneumocystis infection in the US is not available. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis using the Kids' Inpatient Database, a nationally representative sample of US pediatric hospital discharges collected in 1997, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012. pneumocystis cases were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 136...
May 21, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Amanda Burrage, Monita Patel, Kelsey Mirkovic, Eric Dziuban, Wondimu Teferi, Laura Broyles, Emilia Rivadeneira
Rapid disease progression and associated opportunistic infections contribute to high mortality rates among children aged <15 years with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (1). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has decreased childhood HIV-associated morbidity and mortality rates over the past decade (2). As accumulating evidence revealed lower HIV-associated mortality with early ART initiation, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines broadened ART eligibility for children with HIV infection (2)...
May 18, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Satish Gopal, Thomas G Gross
Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is the most common pediatric cancer in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and also occurs frequently among adolescents and young adults (AYA), often associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Treating BL in SSA poses particular challenges. Although highly effective, high-intensity cytotoxic treatments used in resource-rich settings are usually not feasible, and lower-intensity continuous infusion approaches are impractical. In this paper, based on evidence from the region, we review management strategies for SSA focused on diagnosis, use of pre-phase, and definitive treatment...
May 16, 2018: Blood
Eneida Rached Campos, Djalma de Carvalho Moreira-Filho, Marcos Tadeu Nolasco da Silva
Scores to predict treatment outcomes have earned a well-deserved place in healthcare practice. However, when used to help achieve excellence in the care of a given disease, scores should also take into account organizational and social aspects. This article aims to create scores to obtain key variables and its application in the management of care of a given disease. We present a method called Epidemiological Planning for Patient Care Trajectory (PELC) and its application in a research of HIV pediatric patients...
May 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Rocio Martín-Cañavate, Michela Sonego, Maria Jose Sagrado, Gustavo Escobar, Estefanie Rivas, Sandra Ayala, Luis Castaneda, Pilar Aparicio, Estefania Custodio
INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to assess the nutritional status, the dietary patterns and its associated factors in the HIV-infected population of children and adolescents on antiretroviral treatment at the El Salvador reference center for pediatric HIV care (CENID). METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out between December 2010 and December 2011. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were collected from 307 children and adolescents aged 2-18 years and receiving antiretroviral therapy...
2018: PloS One
Josephine Etowa, Shannan MacDonald, Jean Hannan, J Craig Phillips, Nana Yaa Boadu, Seye Babatunde
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The World Health Organizations (WHO) strategy is to eliminate pediatric HIV. HIV prevention guidelines in high-income countries recommend mothers living with HIV avoid breastfeeding. Yet, breastfeeding is promoted as the normal and unequalled method of feeding infants. This creates a paradox for mothers coming from cultures where breastfeeding is an expectation and formula feeding suggests illness. Therefore, the purpose of this literature review is to examine the context influencing infant feeding among African immigrant women living with HIV to develop interventions to reduce the risk of HIV mother-to-child transmission...
April 2018: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
Christopher J Goodenough, Kunjal Patel, Russell B Van Dyke
Cases of mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) in the PHACS SMARTT study were identified from 2007-2015. Among 2123 births, 9 infants were HIV-infected, giving a MTCT rate of 0.5% (95% CI: 0.3-1.0%). PHIV mothers had a higher MTCT rate (1.1%, 95% CI: 0.3-4.3) than mothers without PHIV (0.4%, 95% CI: 0.2-1.0%), associated with a greater likelihood of detectable viral load at delivery.
May 4, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Sophie Desmonde, Franck Tanser, Rachel Vreeman, Elom Takassi, Andrew Edmonds, Pagakrong Lumbiganon, Jorge Pinto, Karen Malateste, Catherine McGowan, Azar Kariminia, Marcel Yotebieng, Fatoumata Dicko, Constantin Yiannoutsos, Mwangelwa Mubiana-Mbewe, Kara Wools-Kaloustian, Mary-Ann Davies, Valériane Leroy
INTRODUCTION: Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a global priority. However, the attrition across the continuum of care for HIV-infected children between their HIV diagnosis and ART initiation is not well known. We analyzed the time from enrollment into HIV care to ART initiation in HIV-infected children within the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Global Cohort Consortium. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We included 135,479 HIV-1-infected children, aged 0-19 years and ART-naïve at enrollment, between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2015, in IeDEA cohorts from Central Africa (3 countries; n = 4,948), East Africa (3 countries; n = 22,827), West Africa (7 countries; n = 7,372), Southern Africa (6 countries; n = 93,799), Asia-Pacific (6 countries; n = 4,045), and Latin America (7 countries; n = 2,488)...
May 2018: PLoS Medicine
Nader Kim El-Mallawany, Casey L McAtee, Liane R Campbell, Peter N Kazembe
The global experience with pediatric Kaposi sarcoma (KS) has evolved immensely since the onset of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). In this review, current perspectives on childhood KS are discussed in the context of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Endemic (HIV-unrelated) KS was first described over 50 years ago in central and eastern Africa, regions where human herpesvirus-8, the causative agent of KS, is endemic. With the alarming rise in HIV prevalence over the past few decades, KS has become not only the most common HIV-related malignancy in Africa, but also one of the most common overall childhood cancers throughout the central, eastern, and southern regions of the continent...
2018: Pediatric Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
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