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Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis a multifactorial process

Rosalinda Posadas-Sánchez, Gilberto Vargas-Alarcón
Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, and multifactorial disease modulated by genetic and environmental factors. In recent years, the paradigm that explained atherosclerosis as resulting from a complex interaction between factors not accessible to medical intervention, and modifiable risk factors has changed. In this paradigm, alterations in lipid metabolism were the pivotal concept of atherosclerosis as a chronic degenerative disease. In the last years, an increasing number of observations have shown that the innate and adaptive immune responses to lipoprotein deposition and oxidation in the arterial wall significantly influence atherosclerosis...
2018: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
Cristiano Fava, Martina Montagnana
Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease triggered and sustained by different risk factors such as dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoke, etc. Since a couple of decades, a pivotal role for inflammation in its pathogenesis has been recognized and proved at molecular levels, and already described in many animal models. Despite all this knowledge, due to the complexity of the specific inflammatory process subtending atherosclerosis and to the fact that inflammation is also a protective response against microorganisms, no anti-inflammatory therapy has been rendered available in the therapeutic armamentarium against atherosclerosis and vascular events till 2017 when canakinumab in the first ad-hoc randomized clinical trial (RCT) proved for the first time that targeting specifically inflammation lowers cardiovascular (CV) events...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
M A Sazonova, V V Sinev, V P Karagodin, A I Ryzhkova, E V Galitsyna, V A Barinova, R I Zelinyĭ, N A Nikitina, A N Orekhov
Autophagy is a highly conservative process of degeneration during which intracellular components including soluble macromolecules (e. g., nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids) and dysfunctional organelles (e. g., mitochondria, peroxisomes, and the endoplasmatic reticulum) are degraded by a lysosome. Autophagy serves as a dynamic system of recycling proving cells with energy and building components. Because of it in cells of an organism new proteins and membranes can form contributing to survival of the individual under starvation conditions...
2017: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
Hui-Jie Zhang, Jing Wang, Hui-Fang Liu, Xiao-Na Zhang, Ming Zhan, Feng-Ling Chen
The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is multifactorial. The proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are significant in the genesis and development of atherosclerosis plaques, and the degradation of VSMCs plays a crucial role in the process. Mimecan is a member of the Keratan sulfate family of proteoglycans, which are leucine-rich proteoglycans. It has been demonstrated that mimecan is associated with arteriogenesis and atherosclerosis. In the present study, the effect of mimecan on the characteristics of cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) was investigated...
July 2015: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Izolde Bouloukaki, Charalampos Mermigkis, Eleftherios M Kallergis, Violeta Moniaki, Eleni Mauroudi, Sophia E Schiza
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common medical condition, associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of this association have not been completely understood and may be multifactorial in origin. A number of studies suggest that inflammatory processes have emerged critical in the pathogenesis of CVD in OSAS. A range of circulating inflammatory molecules has been identified and measured, with a view to assess inflammation and predict vascular damage risk, such as plasma cytokines, adhesion molecules, and C-reactive protein (CRP)...
May 20, 2015: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
Mai Nakayachi, Junta Ito, Chiyomi Hayashida, Yoko Ohyama, Akemi Kakino, Mari Okayasu, Takuya Sato, Toru Ogasawara, Toshio Kaneda, Naoto Suda, Tatsuya Sawamura, Yoshiyuki Hakeda
Inflammatory bone diseases have been attributed to increased bone resorption by augmented and activated bone-resorbing osteoclasts in response to inflammation. Although the production of diverse proinflammatory cytokines is induced at the inflamed sites, the inflammation also generates reactive oxygen species that modify many biological compounds, including lipids. Among the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), which is a key molecule in the pathogenesis of multifactorial inflammatory atherosclerosis, was downregulated with osteoclast differentiation...
June 2015: Bone
Pilar Formentín, María Alba, Ursula Catalán, Sara Fernández-Castillejo, Josep Pallarès, Rosà Solà, Lluís F Marsal
Human aortic endothelial cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, which is a common, progressive, and multifactorial disease that is the clinical endpoint of an inflammatory process and endothelial dysfunction. Study and development of new therapies against cardiovascular disease must be tested in vitro cell models, prior to be evaluated in vivo. To this aim, new cell culture platforms are developed that allow cells to grow and respond to their environment in a realistic manner. In this work, the cell adhesion and morphology of endothelial cells are investigated on functionalized porous silicon substrates with two different pore size configurations: macroporous and nanoporous silicon...
2014: Nanoscale Research Letters
Magdalena Krintus, Marek Kozinski, Jacek Kubica, Grazyna Sypniewska
Despite great progress in prevention strategies, pharmacotherapy and interventional treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD), cardiovascular events still constitute the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the modern world. Traditional risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, obesity, dyslipidemia, and positive family history account for the occurrence of the majority of these events, but not all of them. Adequate risk assessment remains the most challenging in individuals classified into low or intermediate risk categories...
October 2014: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Carolina Soriano-Tárraga, Jordi Jiménez-Conde, Eva Giralt-Steinhauer, Marina Mola, Angel Ois, Ana Rodríguez-Campello, Elisa Cuadrado-Godia, Israel Fernández-Cadenas, Caty Carrera, Joan Montaner, Roberto Elosua, Jaume Roquer
Ischemic stroke (IS), a heterogeneous multifactorial disorder, is among the leading causes of mortality and long-term disability in the western world. Epidemiological data provides evidence for a genetic component to the disease, but its epigenetic involvement is still largely unknown. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, change over time and may be associated with aging processes and with modulation of the risk of various pathologies, such as cardiovascular disease and stroke. We analyzed 2 independent cohorts of IS patients...
2014: PloS One
Rossana Scrivo, Massimiliano Vasile, Ulf Müller-Ladner, Elena Neumann, Guido Valesini
Inflammation has been recognized as a common trait in the pathogenesis of multifactorial diseases including obesity, where a low-grade inflammation has been established and may be responsible for the cardiovascular risk related to the disease. Obesity has also been associated with the increased incidence and a worse outcome of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). RA is characterized by systemic inflammation, which is thought to play a key role in accelerated atherosclerosis and in the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, an important comorbidity in patients with RA...
2013: Mediators of Inflammation
Danijela Vucević, Dorde Radak, Ivan Milovanović, Tatjana Radosavljević, Dusan Mladenović
INTRODUCTION: Atherosclerosis is a progressive, multifactorial, diffuse, multisystemic, chronic, inflammatory disease, which is manifested by disorders of vascular, immune and metabolic system. Pathogenesis of this disease is not fully understood. Accordingly, angiogenesis represents a special field of research due to its role in atherogenesis. STEPS OF ANGIOGENESIS: Angiogenesis is a complex biological process, which requires the precise coordination of its four steps (vasodilatation and permeability, vessel destabilization and matrix degradation, endothelial cell proliferation and migration, and lumen formation and vessel stabilization)...
July 2013: Medicinski Pregled
Matthias Barton
In 1913, exactly 100 years ago, Nikolai Nikolaevich Anichkov (1885-1964) and Semen Sergeevich Chalatov (1884-1951) discovered in St. Petersburg, Russia, that atherosclerosis of large arteries is critically dependent on cholesterol. The inflammatory nature of atherosclerosis was first observed and suggested by Rudolf Virchow in 1856. Today, we have orally active drugs at our disposition that not only lower cholesterol levels but also interfere with vascular inflammation and atherogenesis. The disease process is multifactorial and its development is accelerated by modifiable and given risk factors such as cigarette smoking, dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, estrogen deficiency, chronic renal disease, genetic predisposition, and the physiological aging process, among others...
April 2013: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Antoine Barbari
Arterial hypertension is prevalent among kidney transplant recipients. The multifactorial pathogenesis involves the interaction of the donor and the recipient's genetic backgrounds with several environmental parameters that may precede or follow the transplant procedure (eg, the nature of the renal disease, the duration of the chronic kidney disease phase and maintenance dialytic therapy, the commonly associated cardiovascular disease with atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis, the renal mass at implantation, the immunosuppressive regimen used, life of the graft, and de novo medical and surgical complications that may occur after a transplant)...
April 2013: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Danijela Vucević, Dorde Radak, Tatjana Radosavljević, Dusan Mladenović, Ivan Milovanović
UNLABELLED: INTRODUCTION. Atherosclerosis is a progressive, multifactorial, diffuse, multisystemic, chronic, inflammatory disease, which is manifested by disorders of vascular, immune and metabolic system. Pathogenesis of this disease is not fully understood. Endothelial Dysfunction and Inflammatory Process. Endothelial dysfunction is recognized as the crucial step in atherogenesis. A lot of studies have confirmed the involvement of various mediators of inflammation in initial proatherogenic processes, such as the upregulation of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells, binding of low density lipoproteins to endothelium, activation of macrophages and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells...
September 2012: Medicinski Pregled
N Papageorgiou, D Tousoulis, E Androulakis, G Siasos, A Briasoulis, G Vogiatzi, A-M Kampoli, E Tsiamis, C Tentolouris, C Stefanadis
Cardiovascular disease, which is multifactorial and can be influenced by a multitude of environmental and heritable risk factors, remains a major health problem, even though its pathophysiology is far from been elucidated. Discovered just over a decade ago, microRNAs comprise short, non-coding RNAs, which have evoked a great deal of interest, due to their importance for many aspects of homeostasis and disease. Hundreds of different microRNAs are constantly being reported in various organisms. According to a growing body of literature, they have been implicated in the regulation of human physiological processes...
2012: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Samira Ghourbani Gazar, Alireza Andalib, Mohamad Hashemi, Abbas Rezaei
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disorder with chronic inflammatory conditions in which immune cells play a significant role in its pathogenic process. Regulatory T cells (Treg), as a part of immune system, are involved in controlling auto-immune and inflammatory diseases. Tregs have been shown to play an atheroprotective role and may also promote plaque stabilization. OBJECTIVE: To assess if inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS) expression on one subtype of Treg cells with high suppressive potential correlates with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis...
March 2012: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
Sinan Altan Kocaman, Asife Sahinarslan, Tolga Kunak, Serhat Balcioğlu, Mustafa Cetin, Mustafa Cemri, Timur Timurkaynak, Bülent Boyaci, Atiye Cengel
OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is multifactorial, however the impact of inflammatory cells in this process is well known. Different traditional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) may have specifically different effects on leukocyte subtype. Thus, these special interactions may induce different vascular involvement forms due to the altered endothelial damage and vascular repair mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there is any specific relationship between the leukocyte subtypes and the traditional CVRFs and to evaluate the independency of possible relationships...
November 2011: Anadolu Kardiyoloji Dergisi: AKD, the Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Guanghua Wu, Guanghe Wei, Jian Huang, Shuchao Pang, Lixin Liu, Bo Yan
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a common and multifactorial arterial disease that is mainly caused by atherosclerosis. Macrophages, lymphocytes and neutrophils have been implicated in atherosclerotic plaque development. Autophagy, a highly conserved cellular process for the removal of long-lived protein and organelles, plays a variety of pathophysiological roles. However, the roles of autophagy in peripheral leucocytes in atherosclerosis and CAD have not been explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: LC3 is a marker gene for autophagy, and LC3-II, a conjugated form of LC3 protein, is a membrane marker for autophagosome and autophagolysosomes...
September 2011: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
M W Laschke, C Giebels, M D Menger
BACKGROUND; Endometriosis is a complex disease with a multifactorial pathogenesis, which is crucially dependent on the development of new blood vessels. Based on the current literature, the present review highlights the fact that the neovascularization of endometriotic lesions is not only driven by angiogenesis, but also involves de novo formation of microvessels from circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). This process, termed post-natal vasculogenesis, is a characteristic of various pathogenic conditions, such as tumour growth and atherosclerosis, and typically comprises the activation, mobilization and recruitment of bone marrow-derived EPCs to the sites of tissue hypoxia...
September 2011: Human Reproduction Update
J R Tan, Y X Koo, P Kaur, F Liu, A Armugam, P T-H Wong, K Jeyaseelan
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. There are two major types of stroke: cerebral ischemia caused by obstruction of blood vessels in the brain and haemorrhagic stroke that is triggered by the disruption of blood vessels. Thrombolytic therapy involving recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) has been shown to be beneficial only when used within 4.5 hours of onset of acute ischemic stroke. rtPA treatment beyond this time window has been found to be unsuitable and usually resulting in haemorrhagic transformation...
March 2011: Current Molecular Medicine
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