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submarine psychology

Charles H Van Wijk
The inability of a submarine to surface must rate as one of greatest risks to sailors in peacetime. To prepare for such emergencies, many navies provide training to master the procedures required to escape successfully from disabled submarines. This paper provides a brief overview of some of the psychological principles in simulated submarine escape training. It further discusses applicable psychological constructs such as positive outcome expectancies, the role of anxiety, and other personal factors mediating outcomes of such training...
2017: International Maritime Health
James Rapley, John Chin, Brian McCue, Mathew Rariden
INTRODUCTION: Psychological fitness is an important component to operational unit readiness and success. Embedding behavioral health providers can reduce unplanned personnel losses (UPL) as a result of psychological stress. The U.S. Submarine Forces implemented the Submarine Squadron 6 (CSS-6) Embedded Mental Health Pilot (EMHP) Program to address this type of UPL, which is classified as a Code 2 loss. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the EMHP Program at reducing UPL by improving psychological readiness through expedited access to care...
July 2017: Military Medicine
John Leach
Our cognitive system has adapted to support goal-directed behaviour within a normal environment. An abnormal environment is one to which we are not optimally adapted but can accommodate through the development of coping strategies. These abnormal environments can be 'exceptional', e.g., polar base, space station, submarine, prison, intensive care unit, isolation ward etc.; 'extreme', marked by more intense environmental stimuli and a real or perceived lack of control over the situation, e.g., surviving at sea in a life-raft, harsh prison camp etc...
2016: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
A S Kalmanov, A A Pisarev, Yu R Khankevich, I A Bloshchinskii, A V Valskii
Short-time sea submarine raids (from a few days to a few weeks), performed during one working cycle, negatively influence on the functional state of the submariners organism. Upon returning to the point of basing the crew involved in the maintenance of the material and performs preparations for further access to the sea. Due to the high workload and lack of time personnel are not held in any correctional and rehabilitation activities, and therefore the time for the next release in the sea functional condition and functional reserves of the body does not have time to fully recover...
October 2015: Voenno-medit︠s︡inskiĭ Zhurnal
Catherine Theys, Jan Wouters, Pol Ghesquière
Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques such as Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional MRI (rfMRI) are widely used to study structural and functional neural connectivity. However, as these techniques are highly sensitive to motion artifacts and require a considerable amount of time for image acquisition, successful acquisition of these images can be challenging to complete with certain populations. This is especially true for young children. This paper describes a new approach termed the 'submarine protocol', designed to prepare 5- and 6-year-old children for advanced MRI scanning...
2014: PloS One
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 20, 1959: Report—U. S. Naval Medical Research Laboratory
A A Pawar, C B Chikkanna, M S Rote, R J Singh, G Bhanot, Anil Pillai, R R Pisharody
BACKGROUND: Data show that naval personnel have a high incidence of stress related disorders. A high prevalence of occupational stress was seen in a previous survey carried out on Indian Naval personnel. However, the role of social support in reducing occupational stress was not studied. To study occupational stress in Indian Naval personnel and to study the effect of social support on occupational stress. METHODS: 5077 naval personnel were surveyed using study questionnaires which included Occupational Stress Inventory, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 item version as a measure of psychological health...
October 2012: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
K S Brasher, K F Sparshott, A B C Weir, A J Day, R S Bridger
BACKGROUND: Submariners are an occupational group within the Royal Navy (RN) who work in isolated and extreme conditions. This preliminary study forms part of a longitudinal study of occupational stress in the RN. AIMS: To compare stress prevalence in submariners with matched controls and to identify predictors of occupational stress in submariners over a 2 year follow-up period. METHODS: Participants completed a Work and Well-Being Questionnaire to measure occupational stressors and the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) to measure stress at time point 1, and a follow-up GHQ-12 2 years later...
October 2012: Occupational Medicine
E I Puchkova, N V Alishev, B A Drabkin, V M Shubik
This article presents the data about state of health and immunity in veterans of extra risk divisions. The increased morbidity and immunity infringement in the remote terms after nuclear tests, and also while liquidation of consequences of radiating failures on nuclear submarines are shown. Changes of humoral factors of nonspecific protection, concentration of immunoglobulinums, in blood whey, a sensitization of lymphocytes to respiratory viruses, humoral and cellular autoimmune shifts are registered. Some of the revealed changes (complement, lysozyme, concentration of immunoglobulinums) are a consequence of advanced age and accompanying diseases in the people surveyed, and others (autoimmune shifts, a sensitization to respiratory viruses) can be connected with carrying out of tests of the nuclear weapon...
2011: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
Anil N Shah, Michael J Arnold
By the end of calendar year 2010, a total smoking ban on submarines is expected to be implemented throughout the submarine force because of the negative health effects of environmental tobacco smoke and the recently demonstrated exposure of nonsmoking submariners to measurable levels of nicotine during submarine deployments. Historically, smoking has been highly prevalent in the military, but new data on the negative health effects of tobacco have led the military to change its policies, restricting its use in certain environments...
February 2011: Military Medicine
Seth A Reini
Cortisol is a stress-response hormone that is important for survivability in fight or flight situations. Hypercortisolism is a state of chronically elevated cortisol levels due to a failure to return to, or maintain baseline levels. It is a condition that is often undiagnosed and can aid in the development of many physiological and psychological health problems. Some of the health ailments associated with hypercortisolism include metabolic syndrome, decreases in bone mineral density, and depression. Chronic stress and sleep deprivation are two common causes of hypercortisolism, both areas of concern within the submarine community...
December 2010: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
Nele Gläser, Sven Wieskotten, Christian Otter, Guido Dehnhardt, Wolf Hanke
The mystacial vibrissae of pinnipeds constitute a sensory system for active touch and detection of hydrodynamic events. Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) can both detect hydrodynamic stimuli caused by a small sphere vibrating in the water (hydrodynamic dipole stimuli). Hydrodynamic trail following has only been shown in harbour seals. Hydrodynamical and biomechanical studies of single vibrissae of the two species showed that the specialized undulated structure of harbour seal vibrissae, as opposed to the smooth structure of sea lion vibrissae, suppresses self-generated noise in the actively moving animal...
February 2011: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Kate S Brasher, Angela B C Dew, Shaun G Kilminster, Robert S Bridger
This study aimed to identify work-related and personal factors associated with occupational stress in submariners. Work and well-being questionnaires were distributed to 219 male submariners (mean age 34 years), as part of a larger cohort study involving a stratified sample of 4951 Royal Navy (RN) personnel. The stress rate in submariners was 40%; significantly higher than the stress rate in the general RN, although once demographic factors were controlled for in a matched control sample, this difference was no longer significant...
March 2010: Ergonomics
Marion Trousselard, Corinne Cian, Pierre-Alain Barraud, Ouamar Ferhani, Alain Roux, Damien Claverie, Frederic Canini, Patrice Baert
INTRODUCTION: The stress effects induced by diverse military scenarios are usually studied under tightly controlled conditions, while only limited research has addressed realistic scenarios. This study was designed to compare the effects of two levels of realism in stressful training for escape from a sunken submarine. METHODS: Thirteen qualified submariners served as subjects. All had previously participated in underwater escape training using a simulated submarine in a land-based tank submerged at a depth of 6 m; for this study, they repeated the simulator escape, following which six of them executed escape from an actual submarine lying at a depth of 30 m on the sea floor...
October 2009: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
N V Alishev, V N Tsygan, B A Drabkin, V Ia Apchel, N A Nikolaeva, A V Tarumov, A D Fesiun, V M Fedoseev
Participants of nuclear-powered submarine accident liquidation and special risk units' veterans participating in surface nuclear weapon tests as well as in liquidation of their consequences have been examined. It has been established that functional state of this category of people is difficult to interpret only in the context of radioactive irradiation effect or injuring stress factor exposure. This state is determined by a complex of psychotraumatic factors tending to become aggravated and characterizing by their individual significance and absolute or relative insolvability...
2008: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
Christopher John Jankosky
On January 8, 2005, the U.S.S. SAN FRANCISCO (SSN 711), a nuclear-powered submarine, collided with a seamount in a remote Pacific Ocean location. The high-speed impact resulted in injuries to 90% of the crew. Subsequent emergency medical response is described as well as the 3-month physical and psychological morbidity. Recommendations for medical training, equipment, and policy for workers in isolated environments are discussed.
August 2008: Military Medicine
P N Uchakin, O N Uchakina, B V Morukov, I M Larina, N B Bogdanova, m V Mezentseva, B V Tobin, F I Ershov
Confinement is one of the stress-inducing factors which humans face in such terrestrial environments as those in polar winter-over expeditions, submarines, and is inevitable in space flights. Confinement regime (CR) itself includes a number of stress factors (e.g. psychological compatibility between crew members, microbiological contamination etc.), which have been shown to alter human immunity. Two groups of total seven subjects spent 110 days in closed-habitat chamber as part of SFINCSS (Stimulation of Flight of International Crew on Space Station) study...
2006: Vestnik Rossiĭskoĭ Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk
Judith K Sluiter
High-demand jobs include 'specific' job demands that are not preventable with state of the art ergonomics knowledge and may overburden the bodily capacities, safety or health of workers. An interesting question is whether the age of the worker is an important factor in explanations of diversity in work ability in the context of high-demand jobs. In this paper, the work ability of ageing workers is addressed according to aspects of diversity in specific job demands and the research methods that are needed to shed light upon the relevant associated questions...
July 2006: Applied Ergonomics
G Daniel Steel
Stress has been a central interest for researchers of human behavior in extreme and unusual environments and also for those who are responsible for planning and carrying out expeditions involving such environments. This paper compares the actuarial and case study methods for predicting reactions to stress. Actuarial studies are useful, but do not tap enough variables to allow us to predict how a specific individual will cope with the rigors of an individual mission. Case histories provide a wealth of detail, but few investigators understand the challenges of properly applying this method...
June 2005: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
Tamiyasu Shimamiya, Nobuyuki Terada, Sonoe Wakabayashi, Motohiko Mohri
INTRODUCTION: Stress is a known factor that causes changes in leukocyte distribution or depression in lymphocyte proliferation. We reported previously that a 10-d confinement caused changes in immune status. Here we report the relationship between mood changes and immune parameters in the subjects confined for 10-d. METHODS: There were 10 subjects (age 20-27 yr, mean 22.8 yr) who participated in a 10-d confinement study. They were divided into 2 groups with regard to their psychological aspects and their immune parameters were then compared...
May 2005: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
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