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neonatal update

Flaminia Bardanzellu, Maria Cristina Pintus, Valentina Masile, Vassilios Fanos, Maria Antonietta Marcialis
Nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD), first described in 2005, is a rare genetic X-linked disease, presenting with hyponatremia, hyposmolarity, euvolemia, inappropriately concentrated urine, increased natriuresis, and undetectable or very low arginine-vasopressine (AVP) circulating levels. It can occur in neonates, infants, or later in life. NSIAD must be early recognized and treated to prevent severe hyponatremia, which can show a dangerous impact on neonatal outcome. In fact, it potentially leads to death or, in case of survival, neurologic sequelae...
March 15, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Mosarrat J Qureshi, Manoj Kumar
BACKGROUND: Providing effective positive pressure ventilation is considered to be the single most important component of successful neonatal resuscitation. Ventilation is frequently initiated manually with bag and face mask (BMV) followed by endotracheal intubation if respiratory depression continues. These techniques may be difficult to perform successfully resulting in prolonged resuscitation or neonatal asphyxia. The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) may achieve initial ventilation and successful resuscitation faster than a bag-mask device or endotracheal intubation...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Claudia M Espinosa, Ravi Jhaveri
Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus have received a significant amount of attention in recent years, and both viruses share a significant amount of similarities with one another beyond just that they both primarily target the liver. In recent years, cases of both infections have been fueled by a nationwide epidemic of injection drug use. Most relevant to this audience, they are both transmitted from mother to child. The increased cases in young adults combined with mother to child transmission translate into more exposed infants that will need to be managed and followed...
March 8, 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
Kathryn A Patras, Victor Nizet
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonizes the gastrointestinal and vaginal epithelium of a significant percentage of healthy women, with potential for ascending intrauterine infection or transmission during parturition, creating a risk of serious disease in the vulnerable newborn. This review highlights new insights on the bacterial virulence determinants, host immune responses, and microbiome interactions that underpin GBS vaginal colonization, the proximal step in newborn infectious disease pathogenesis. From the pathogen perspective, the function GBS adhesins and biofilms, β-hemolysin/cytolysin toxin, immune resistance factors, sialic acid mimicry, and two-component transcriptional regulatory systems are reviewed...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Girish Gulab Meshram, Neeraj Kaur, Kanwaljeet Singh Hura
Giant congenital melanocytic nevi (GCMN) are a rare occurrence. Gain-of-function mutation in the NRAS gene is found to be associated with GCMN, causing abnormal proliferation of embryonic melanoblasts. The two major complications associated with GCMN are malignant melanoma and neurocutaneous melanosis. Treatment of GCMN has conventionally been surgical. However, the role of NRAS inhibitors and inactivation of nevus tissue by high hydrostatic pressure are being explored. We present a case of a 1-day-old neonate born with GCMN, along with a review of the literature...
January 2018: Case Reports in Dermatology
Cosby A Stone, Cindy T McEvoy, Judy L Aschner, Ashudee Kirk, Christian Rosas-Salazar, Joan M Cook-Mills, Paul E Moore, William F Walsh, Tina V Hartert
Vitamin E is obtained only through the diet and has a number of important biological activities, including functioning as an antioxidant. Evidence that free radicals may contribute to pathological processes such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a disease of prematurity associated with increased lung injury, inflammation and oxidative stress, led to trials of the antioxidant vitamin E (α-tocopherol) to prevent BPD with variable results. These trials were all conducted at supraphysiologic doses and 2 of these trials utilized a formulation containing a potentially harmful excipient...
March 7, 2018: Neonatology
Anne M Ambia, Jamie L Morgan, C Edward Wells, Scott W Roberts, Monika Sanghavi, David B Nelson, F Gary Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Adverse maternal outcomes associated with chronic hypertension include accelerated hypertension and resultant target organ damage. One example is long-standing hypertension leading to maternal cardiac dysfunction. Our group has previously identified that features of such injury manifest as cardiac remodeling with left ventricular hypertrophy. Moreover, these features of cardiac remodeling identified in women with chronic hypertension during pregnancy were associated with adverse perinatal outcomes...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Jean-Marie Saudubray, Àngels Garcia-Cazorla
The specialty of inherited metabolic disease is at the forefront of progress in medicine, with new methods in metabolomics and genomics identifying the molecular basis for a growing number of conditions and syndromes. This review presents an updated pathophysiologic classification of inborn errors of metabolism and a method of clinical screening in neonates, late-onset emergencies, neurologic deterioration, and other common clinical scenarios. When and how to investigate a metabolic disorder is presented to encourage physicians to use sophisticated biochemical investigations and not miss a treatable disorder...
April 2018: Pediatric Clinics of North America
S E Gellert, S E Pors, S G Kristensen, A M Bay-Bjørn, E Ernst, C Yding Andersen
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to review all peer-reviewed published reports of women receiving ovarian tissue transplantation (OTT) with frozen/thawed tissue (OTC) with respect to age, diagnosis, transplantation site, fertility outcome, and potential side effects, including data from all women in the Danish program. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed in PubMed combined with results from all patients who had received OTT in Denmark up to December 2017...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Yair J Blumenfeld, Michael A Belfort
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine updates in fetal spina bifida surgical repair, as well as promising results emerging from translational medicine. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the Management of Myelomeningocele Study sponsored by the National Institutes of Health helped establish the neonatal benefits of prenatal spina bifida repair via uterine hysterotomy, also known as 'open' fetal surgery, fetoscopic approaches may yield better maternal and obstetric outcomes. SUMMARY: Spina bifida is a severe congenital malformation associated with significant neonatal and childhood morbidity and mortality...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Ann L Jefferies
Early-onset neonatal bacterial sepsis (EOS) is sepsis occurring within the first 7 days of life. This statement provides updated recommendations for the care of term (≥37 weeks' gestational age) newborns at risk of EOS, during the first 24 hours of life. Maternal Group B streptococcus (GBS) colonization in the current pregnancy, GBS bacteriuria, a previous infant with invasive GBS disease, prolonged rupture of membranes (≥18 hours) and maternal fever (temperature ≥38°C) are the factors most commonly associated with EOS...
July 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
Emer Finan, Douglas M Campbell, Khalid Aziz, Patrick J McNamara
The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) Neonatal Task Force reviews available resuscitation science every 5 years and develops guidelines which are integrated into educational programs such as the Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP). The most recent ILCOR Neonatal Task Force consensus guidelines were published in October 2015. The Canadian Paediatric Society's NRP Steering Committee has reviewed ILCOR guidelines alongside the 7th edition (2016) NRP materials. Using a case-based approach, this practice point highlights the main changes relating to the delivery of NRP, within the Canadian context...
September 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
Antonio Malvasi, Simona Zaami, Andrea Tinelli, Giuseppe Trojano, Gianluca Montanari Vergallo, Enrico Marinelli
AIM: A significant amount of data concerning maternal-fetal damage arising from the exertion of Kristeller maneuvers (KMs) or fundal pressure (FP) go unreleased due to medicolegal implications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this reason, the paper gathers information as to the real magnitude of litigation related to FP-induced damages and injuries. The authors have undertaken a research in order to include general search engines (PubMed-Medline, Cochrane, Embase, Google, GyneWeb) and legal databases (De Jure, Italian database of jurisprudence daily update; Westlaw, Thomson Reuters, American ruling database and Bailii, UK Court Ruling Database)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Gabriella Comunián-Carrasco, Guiomar E Peña-Martí, Arturo J Martí-Carvajal
BACKGROUND: Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted infection that is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and is a major public health challenge today. N gonorrhoeae can be transmitted from the mother's genital tract to the newborn during birth, and can cause gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum as well as systemic neonatal infections. It can also cause endometritis and pelvic sepsis in the mother. This review updates and replaces an earlier Cochrane Review on antibiotics for treating this infectious condition...
February 21, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Victoria M Allen, Mark H Yudin
OBJECTIVE: To provide information regarding the management of group B streptococcal (GBS) bacteriuria to midwives, nurses, and physicians who are providing obstetrical care. OUTCOMES: The outcomes considered were neonatal GBS disease, preterm birth, pyelonephritis, chorioamnionitis, and recurrence of GBS colonization. EVIDENCE: Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane database were searched for articles published in English to December 2010 on the topic of GBS bacteriuria in pregnancy...
February 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Yoav Yinon, Dan Farine, Mark H Yudin
OBJECTIVES: To review the principles of prenatal diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and to describe the outcomes of the affected pregnancies. OUTCOMES: Effective management of fetal infection following primary and secondary maternal CMV infection during pregnancy. Neonatal signs include intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), microcephaly, hepatosplenomegaly, petechiae, jaundice, chorioretinitis, thrombocytopenia and anemia, and long-term sequelae consist of sensorineural hearing loss, mental retardation, delay of psychomotor development, and visual impairment...
February 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Linda M Biesty, Aoife M Egan, Fidelma Dunne, Valerie Smith, Pauline Meskell, Eugene Dempsey, G Meabh Ni Bhuinneain, Declan Devane
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes (Type 1 or Type 2) have increased rates of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Current clinical guidelines support elective birth, at or near term, because of increased perinatal mortality during the third trimester of pregnancy.This review replaces a review previously published in 2001 that included "diabetic pregnant women", which has now been split into two reviews. This current review focuses on pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes (Type 1 or Type 2) and a sister review focuses on women with gestational diabetes...
February 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Michelle Blanco Lemelman, Lisa Letourneau, Siri Atma W Greeley
Neonatal diabetes mellitus is likely to be due to an underlying monogenic defect when it occurs at less than 6 months of age. Early recognition and urgent genetic testing are important for predicting the clinical course and raising awareness of possible additional features. Early treatment of sulfonylurea-responsive types of neonatal diabetes may improve neurologic outcomes. It is important to distinguish neonatal diabetes mellitus from other causes of hyperglycemia in newborns. Other causes include infection, stress, inadequate pancreatic insulin production in preterm infants, among others...
March 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
H Torchin, J Rousseau, L Marchand-Martin, P Truffert, P-H Jarreau, P-Y Ancel
BACKGROUND: Several countries, including France, have restricted the indications for monoclonal antibodies directed against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) compared to the marketing authorization (MA). No new data concerning use of palivizumab on a national scale have been published since the 2007 update of the national guidelines. OBJECTIVES: To describe palivizumab administration for RSV prophylaxis during the first RSV season in infants born prematurely in France in 2011...
January 27, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Dianne Dash, Chelsea Dash, Sara Primrose, Lizbeth Hernandez-Ronquillo, Farzad Moien-Afshari, Lady D Ladino, Juan Pablo Appendino, Lindsay Mazepa, Christine Elliott, Seyed M Mirsattari, Paolo Federico, Esther Bui, Gary Hunter, Rajesh RamachandranNair, Rohit Sharma, Paula Melendres, Joanne Nikkel, Dang Khoa Nguyen, Salah Almubarak, Mike Rigby, Jose F Téllez-Zenteno
Surface electroencephalogram (EEG) recording remains the gold standard for noninvasive assessment of electrical brain activity. It is the most efficient way to diagnose and classify epilepsy syndromes as well as define the localization of the epileptogenic zone. The EEG is useful for management decisions and for establishing prognosis in some types of epilepsy. Electroencephalography is an evolving field in which new methods are being introduced. The Canadian Society of Clinical Neurophysiologists convened an expert panel to develop new national minimal guidelines...
November 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
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