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neonatal update

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426160/assessment-and-support-during-early-labour-for-improving-birth-outcomes
#1
REVIEW
Shinobu Kobayashi, Nobutsugu Hanada, Masayo Matsuzaki, Kenji Takehara, Erika Ota, Hatoko Sasaki, Chie Nagata, Rintaro Mori
BACKGROUND: The progress of labour in the early or latent phase is usually slow and may include painful uterine contractions. Women may feel distressed and lose their confidence during this phase. Support and assessment interventions have been assessed in two previous Cochrane Reviews. This review updates and replaces these two reviews, which have become out of date. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of assessment and support interventions for women during early labour...
April 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412312/updates-to-a-13-c-metabolic-flux-analysis-model-for-evaluating-energy-metabolism-in-cultured-cerebellar-granule-neurons-from-neonatal-rats
#2
Mika B Jekabsons, Hoda M Gebril, Yan-Hong Wang, Bharathi Avula, Ikhlas A Khan
A hexose phosphate recycling model previously developed to infer fluxes through the major glucose consuming pathways in cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) from neonatal rats metabolizing [1,2-(13)C2]glucose was revised by considering reverse flux through the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and symmetrical succinate oxidation within the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The model adjusts three flux ratios to effect (13)C distribution in the hexose, pentose, and triose phosphate pools, and in TCA cycle malate to minimize the error between predicted and measured (13)C labeling in exported lactate (i...
April 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407219/multiple-micronutrient-supplementation-for-women-during-pregnancy
#3
REVIEW
Batool A Haider, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Multiple-micronutrient (MMN) deficiencies often coexist among women of reproductive age in low- to middle-income countries. They are exacerbated in pregnancy due to the increased demands, leading to potentially adverse effects on the mother and developing fetus. Though supplementation with MMNs has been recommended earlier because of the evidence of impact on pregnancy outcomes, a consensus is yet to be reached regarding the replacement of iron and folic acid supplementation with MMNs...
April 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398683/update-on-syphilis-and-pregnancy
#4
REVIEW
Michael E Tsimis, Jeanne S Sheffield
While the origins of syphilis remain unknown, it has long been recognized as an infectious entity with complex pathophysiology. In this review, we highlighted the epidemiology and risk factors associated with syphilis. The incidence of syphilis in most populations showed a consistent upward trend until the 1940s with the introduction of penicillin as the preferred treatment. The emergence of congenital syphilis and vertical transmission has been a direct result of heterosexual syphilis transmission. We also explore the microbiology and pathogenesis of Treponema pallidum as it directly correlates with its route of transmission and infectivity...
March 15, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394766/risks-and-benefits-of-swaddling-healthy-infants-an-integrative-review
#5
Antonia M Nelson
BACKGROUND: Swaddling has been practiced since antiquity; however, there is controversy about its safety. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this review is to update and build upon previous reviews and synthesize evidence on risks and benefits of swaddling in healthyterm, near-term, or older infants. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (1960-May 13, 2016) and CINAHL (1963-May 13, 2016) searches were conducted, relevant articles retrieved, and citation lists reviewed for other references...
April 7, 2017: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389438/management-and-investigation-of-neonatal-encephalopathy-2017-update
#6
Kathryn Martinello, Anthony R Hart, Sufin Yap, Subhabrata Mitra, Nicola J Robertson
This review discusses an approach to determining the cause of neonatal encephalopathy, as well as current evidence on resuscitation and subsequent management of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). Encephalopathy in neonates can be due to varied aetiologies in addition to hypoxic-ischaemia. A combination of careful history, examination and the judicious use of investigations can help determine the cause. Over the last 7 years, infants with moderate to severe HIE have benefited from the introduction of routine therapeutic hypothermia; the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome is 7 (95% CI 5 to 10)...
April 6, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358382/standardized-feeding-regimen-for-reducing-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-preterm-infants-an-updated-systematic-review
#7
B Jasani, S Patole
OBJECTIVE: A systematic review (2005) of observational studies has reported 87% reduction in the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) after introducing standardized feeding regimen (SFR) in preterm infants. Considering the many new studies in this field since 2005 and the continued health burden of NEC, we aimed to systematically review the incidence of NEC in preterm infants 'before' vs 'after' implementing a SFR. STUDY DESIGN: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and E-abstracts from the Pediatric Academic Society meetings and other pediatric and neonatal conference proceedings were searched in May 2016...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355995/new-advances-in-infant-feeding-new-products-and-novel-technologies
#8
M C Pina-Pérez, A Martínez, D Rodrigo
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is the best way to provide ideal food for infants. However, there are many situations in which breastfeeding is unviable (maternal illness, hygiene problems, intravenous feeding requirement, storage). Safe, efficient, and nutritious products should be offered by the industry to mothers and healthcare professionals as an alternative. OBJECTIVE: The present review aims to update the state of the art regarding the most innovative developments in infant feeding formulation and, the promising novel technologies that are being investigated to achieve a balance between the microbiological stability, organoleptic and nutritional value of babyfood...
March 28, 2017: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352624/monitoring-cerebral-oxygenation-in-neonates-an-update
#9
REVIEW
Laura Marie Louise Dix, Frank van Bel, Petra Maria Anna Lemmers
Cerebral oxygenation is not always reflected by systemic arterial oxygenation. Therefore, regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) monitoring with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is of added value in neonatal intensive care. rScO2 represents oxygen supply to the brain, while cerebral fractional tissue oxygen extraction, which is the ratio between rScO2 and systemic arterial oxygen saturation, reflects cerebral oxygen utilization. The balance between oxygen supply and utilization provides insight in neonatal cerebral (patho-)physiology...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349526/pushing-bearing-down-methods-for-the-second-stage-of-labour
#10
REVIEW
Andrea Lemos, Melania Mr Amorim, Armele Dornelas de Andrade, Ariani I de Souza, José Eulálio Cabral Filho, Jailson B Correia
BACKGROUND: Maternal pushing during the second stage of labour is an important and indispensable contributor to the involuntary expulsive force developed by uterine contraction. There is no consensus on an ideal strategy to facilitate these expulsive efforts and there are contradictory results about the influence on the mother and fetus. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the benefits and possible disadvantages of different kinds of techniques regarding maternal pushing/breathing during the expulsive stage of labour on maternal and fetal outcomes...
March 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343180/oxygen-saturation-trends-in-normal-healthy-term-newborns-normal-vaginal-delivery-vs-elective-cesarean-section
#11
Rashi Bhargava, Madhu Mathur, Jyoti Patodia
OBJECTIVES: To study the normal oxygen saturation trends and fetomaternal correlates in healthy term newborns within 30 min of life born by normal vaginal delivery (NVD) and elective cesarean section (CS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 healthy term newborns born by NVD and elective CS at a tertiary care centre. Routine care as per the Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) 2015 (Wyckoff MH, Aziz K, Escobedo MB, Kapadia VS, Kattwinkel J, Perlman JM, et al...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341439/restoring-pulmonary-surfactant-membranes-and-films-at-the-respiratory-surface
#12
REVIEW
Mercedes Echaide, Chiara Autilio, Raquel Arroyo, Jesus Perez-Gil
Pulmonary surfactant is a complex of lipids and proteins assembled and secreted by the alveolar epithelium into the thin layer of fluid coating the respiratory surface of lungs. There, surfactant forms interfacial films at the air-water interface, reducing dramatically surface tension and thus stabilizing the air-exposed interface to prevent alveolar collapse along respiratory mechanics. The absence or deficiency of surfactant produces severe lung pathologies. This review describes some of the most important surfactant-related pathologies, which are a cause of high morbidity and mortality in neonates and adults...
March 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338487/the-evolution-of-disease-chronic-lung-disease-of-infancy-and-pulmonary-hypertension
#13
Michael C Tracy, David N Cornfield
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or chronic lung disease of infancy BPD was originally described 50 years ago, in 1967 by Northway et al. This article possesses two fundamental objectives to provide: a brief historical perspective on BPD; and an update relative to current notions of epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and clinical management of BPD complicated by vascular disease. The review highlights areas of consensus and ongoing uncertainty. RECENT FINDINGS: The clinical cause and presentation of infants with BPD has evolved over the past several decades...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338486/congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-management-update
#14
Asma Khalil, Chrissie Jones, Yves Ville
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Until recently, management options in congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection have been either conservative or termination of pregnancy. However, medical therapies aimed at reducing the risk of infection and/or its severity have recently been investigated. RECENT FINDINGS: In a phase 2 open label, nonrandomized trial, valaciclovir (ValACV) was given to women carrying a CMV-infected fetus. ValACV was associated with a greater proportion of asymptomatic neonates when compared with a historical cohort (82 vs...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326198/could-perinatal-asphyxia-induce-a-synaptopathy-new-highlights-from-an-experimental-model
#15
REVIEW
María Inés Herrera, Matilde Otero-Losada, Lucas Daniel Udovin, Carlos Kusnier, Rodolfo Kölliker-Frers, Wanderley de Souza, Francisco Capani
Birth asphyxia also termed perinatal asphyxia is an obstetric complication that strongly affects brain structure and function. Central nervous system is highly susceptible to oxidative damage caused by perinatal asphyxia while activation and maturity of the proper pathways are relevant to avoiding abnormal neural development. Perinatal asphyxia is associated with high morbimortality in term and preterm neonates. Although several studies have demonstrated a variety of biochemical and molecular pathways involved in perinatal asphyxia physiopathology, little is known about the synaptic alterations induced by perinatal asphyxia...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321847/antenatal-corticosteroids-for-accelerating-fetal-lung-maturation-for-women-at-risk-of-preterm-birth
#16
REVIEW
Devender Roberts, Julie Brown, Nancy Medley, Stuart R Dalziel
BACKGROUND: Respiratory morbidity including respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a serious complication of preterm birth and the primary cause of early neonatal mortality and disability. While researching the effects of the steroid dexamethasone on premature parturition in fetal sheep in 1969, Liggins found that there was some inflation of the lungs of lambs born at gestations at which the lungs would be expected to be airless. Liggins and Howie published the first randomised controlled trial in humans in 1972 and many others followed...
March 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316266/differing-perspectives-on-parent-access-to-their-child-s-electronic-medical-record-during-neonatal-intensive-care-hospitalization-a-pilot-study
#17
Rebecca K Chung, Una Olivia Kim, Mir Abdul Basir
OBJECTIVE: To improve informed medical decision-making, principles for family-centered neonatal care recommends that parents have access to their child's medical record on an ongoing basis during neonatal intensive unit care (NICU) hospitalization. Currently many NICUs do not allow independent parent access to their child's electronic medical record (EMR) during hospitalization. We undertook a cross-sectional survey pilot study of medical professionals and parents to explore opinions regarding this practice...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304416/gynecologic-malignancies-in-pregnancy-balancing-fetal-risks-with-oncologic-safety
#18
REVIEW
Christina N Cordeiro, Mary L Gemignani
Importance: Cancer occurs in 0.05% to 0.1% of all pregnancies. Despite literature reporting good oncologic and fetal outcomes in women treated for cancer during pregnancy, as many as 44% of gynecologists would offer termination, and 37% would not administer chemotherapy or radiotherapy in pregnancy. Objectives: The aims of this study were to summarize current recommendations for the treatment of cervical and ovarian cancers in pregnancy and to review updates on existing knowledge regarding the safety of surgical and chemotherapeutic treatments in pregnancy, including both oncologic and fetal outcomes...
March 2017: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293923/infant-formulas-containing-hydrolysed-protein-for-prevention-of-allergic-disease-and-food-allergy
#19
REVIEW
David A Osborn, John Kh Sinn, Lisa J Jones
BACKGROUND: Allergy is common and may be associated with foods, including cow's milk formula (CMF). Formulas containing hydrolysed proteins have been used to treat infants with allergy. However, it is unclear whether hydrolysed formulas can be advocated for prevention of allergy in infants. OBJECTIVES: To compare effects on allergy and food allergy when infants are fed a hydrolysed formula versus CMF or human breast milk. If hydrolysed formulas are effective, to determine what type of hydrolysed formula is most effective, including extensively or partially hydrolysed formula (EHF/PHF)...
March 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291720/congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-pregnancy-and-the-neonate-consensus-recommendations-for-prevention-diagnosis-and-therapy
#20
REVIEW
William D Rawlinson, Suresh B Boppana, Karen B Fowler, David W Kimberlin, Tiziana Lazzarotto, Sophie Alain, Kate Daly, Sara Doutré, Laura Gibson, Michelle L Giles, Janelle Greenlee, Stuart T Hamilton, Gail J Harrison, Lisa Hui, Cheryl A Jones, Pamela Palasanthiran, Mark R Schleiss, Antonia W Shand, Wendy J van Zuylen
Congenital cytomegalovirus is the most frequent, yet under-recognised, infectious cause of newborn malformation in developed countries. Despite its clinical and public health importance, questions remain regarding the best diagnostic methods for identifying maternal and neonatal infection, and regarding optimal prevention and therapeutic strategies for infected mothers and neonates. The absence of guidelines impairs global efforts to decrease the effect of congenital cytomegalovirus. Data in the literature suggest that congenital cytomegalovirus infection remains a research priority, but data are yet to be translated into clinical practice...
March 10, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
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