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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145693/early-erythropoiesis-stimulating-agents-in-preterm-or-low-birth-weight-infants
#1
REVIEW
Arne Ohlsson, Sanjay M Aher
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants have low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO), providing a rationale for the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) to prevent or treat anaemia and to provide neuro protection and protection against necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). Darbepoetin (Darbe) and EPO are currently available ESAs. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of ESAs (erythropoietin (EPO) and/or Darbe) initiated early (before eight days after birth) compared with placebo or no intervention in reducing red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, adverse neurological outcomes, and feeding intolerance including necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm and/or low birth weight infants...
November 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144241/shifting-risks-and-conflicting-outcomes-ecmo-for-neonates-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-in-the-modern-era
#2
Joseph W Turek, Joseph R Nellis, Brenton G Sherwood, Meera Kotagal, Andrew L Mesher, Ravi R Thiagarajan, Sonali S Patel, Jeffrey R Avansino, Peter T Rycus, D Michael McMullan, Thomas V Brogan
OBJECTIVES: To update previously described trends for neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) receiving ECMO with changes in recommendations for care, and to determine how recent advancements in respiratory care have affected this patient population. STUDY DESIGN: This study is a retrospective review of more than 2500 neonates with CDH who received ECMO listed in the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry. Cochran-Armitage and multivariate regression analyses were used to analyze changes in the patient population over time and in mortality-related risk factors...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143622/lives-saved-tool-list-costing-a-module-to-examine-costs-and-prioritize-interventions
#3
Lori A Bollinger, Rachel Sanders, William Winfrey, Adebiyi Adesina
BACKGROUND: Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals will require careful allocation of resources in order to achieve the highest impact. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) has been used widely to calculate the impact of maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) interventions for program planning and multi-country estimation in several Lancet Series commissions. As use of the LiST model increases, many have expressed a desire to cost interventions within the model, in order to support budgeting and prioritization of interventions by countries...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129039/combined-diet-and-exercise-interventions-for-preventing-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#4
REVIEW
Emily Shepherd, Judith C Gomersall, Joanna Tieu, Shanshan Han, Caroline A Crowther, Philippa Middleton
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a wide range of adverse health consequences for women and their infants in the short and long term. With an increasing prevalence of GDM worldwide, there is an urgent need to assess strategies for GDM prevention, such as combined diet and exercise interventions. This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in 2015. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of diet interventions in combination with exercise interventions for pregnant women for preventing GDM, and associated adverse health consequences for the mother and her infant/child...
November 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123603/paediatric-appropriate-facilities-in-emergency-departments-of-community-hospitals-in-ontario-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Muhammad Akhter Hamid, Sohaib Siddiqui, Jabeen Fayyaz, Ayesha Chandna, Aliya Ariz, Joe Butchey, Elancheliyan Ambalavanar, Niraj Mistry, Aftab Muhammad Azad, Junaid A Bhatti, Dennis Scolnik
BACKGROUND: We assessed whether the paediatric-appropriate facilities were available at Emergency Departments (ED) in community hospitals in a Canadian province. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of EDs in community hospitals in Ontario, Canada that had inpatient paediatric facilities and a neonatal intensive care unit. Key informants were ED chiefs, clinical educators, or managers. The survey included questions about paediatric facilities related to environment, triage, training, and staff in EDs...
2017: World Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117326/infant-group-b-streptococcal-disease-incidence-and-serotypes-worldwide-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#6
Lola Madrid, Anna C Seale, Maya Kohli-Lynch, Karen M Edmond, Joy E Lawn, Paul T Heath, Shabir A Madhi, Carol J Baker, Linda Bartlett, Clare Cutland, Michael G Gravett, Margaret Ip, Kirsty Le Doare, Craig E Rubens, Samir K Saha, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Johan Vekemans, Stephanie Schrag
Background: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains a leading cause of neonatal sepsis in high-income contexts, despite declines due to intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP). Recent evidence suggests higher incidence in Africa, where IAP is rare. We investigated the global incidence of infant invasive GBS disease and the associated serotypes, updating previous estimates. Methods: We conducted systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS], World Health Organization Library Information System [WHOLIS], and Scopus) and sought unpublished data regarding invasive GBS disease in infants aged 0-89 days...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091782/ante-peri-and-postnatal-factors-associated-with-intraventricular-hemorrhage-in-very-premature-infants
#7
Martin Poryo, Judith Caroline Boeckh, Ludwig Gortner, Michael Zemlin, Perrine Duppré, Daniel Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Matthias Heckmann, Eva Mildenberger, Anne Hilgendorff, Andreas W Flemmer, Georg Frey, Sascha Meyer
BACKGROUND: Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is one of the most serious complications in preterm infants and is associated with neurological sequelae and mortality. Over the past few decades, the rate of IVH has decreased due to improved neonatal intensive care. However, up to 15-25% of very and extremely premature infants (<32 and <28weeks of pregnancy (WOP) respectively) still suffer from IVH. STUDY PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to perform an updated, multicenter analysis to identify ante-, peri, and postnatal factors other than gestational age/birth weight associated with IVH of any grade in a large cohort of very and extremely premature infants...
October 26, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080890/noninvasive-sampling-of-the-intrauterine-environment-in-women-with-preterm-labor-and-intact-membranes
#8
Teresa Cobo, Marian Kacerovsky, Bo Jacobsson
Spontaneous preterm birth has enormous consequences for newborns, children, and families. Intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI) is the leading cause of spontaneous preterm delivery, mainly at earlier gestational ages. Amniocentesis is the only method used to identify IAI in clinical practice. Although it is an invasive procedure with a very low risk of complications, many women and physicians are hesitant about amniocentesis on this indication. This has been an incentive to explore IAI and the intra-amniotic environment through noninvasive techniques, such as sampling cervical mucus, vaginal fluid, or maternal blood...
October 28, 2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078943/update-on-fetal-monitoring-overview-of-approaches-and-management-of-category-ii-tracings
#9
REVIEW
Nandini Raghuraman, Alison G Cahill
Electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) is widely used to assess fetal status in labor. Use of intrapartum continuous EFM is associated with a lower risk of neonatal seizures but a higher risk of cesarean or operative delivery. Category II fetal heart tracings (FHTs) are indeterminate in their ability to predict fetal acidemia. Certain patterns of decelerations and variability within this category may be predictive of neonatal morbidity. Adjunct tests of fetal well-being can be used during labor to further triage patients...
December 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074716/antimicrobial-resistance-in-uk-neonatal-units-neonin-infection-surveillance-network
#10
Benjamin Cailes, Christina Kortsalioudaki, Jim Buttery, Santosh Pattnayak, Anne Greenough, Jean Matthes, Alison Bedford Russell, Nigel Kennea, Paul T Heath
OBJECTIVE: To define the susceptibilities of the common causative pathogens of neonatal sepsis in the UK. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of the prospectively collected neonIN infection surveillance network data between 2005 and 2014. SETTING: 30 neonatal units in the UK. PATIENTS: Newborns admitted to participating neonatal units who return a positive blood, cerebrospinal fluid or urine culture and are treated with at least 5 days of appropriate antibiotics...
October 26, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070557/iron-status-of-north-american-pregnant-women-an-update-on-longitudinal-data-and-gaps-in-knowledge-from-the-united-states-and-canada
#11
REVIEW
Kimberly O O'Brien, Yuan Ru
Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to iron deficiency due to the high iron demands of pregnancy. To avoid the adverse birth outcomes that are associated with maternal iron deficiency anemia, both Canada and the United States recommend universal iron supplementation for pregnant women. Although the benefits of iron supplementation in anemic women are well recognized, insufficient data are currently available on the maternal and neonatal benefits and harms of universal iron supplementation in developed countries as evidenced by the recent conclusions of the US Preventive Services Task Force on the need for further data that address existing gaps...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063959/update-on-investigations-pertaining-to-the-pathogenesis-of-biliary-atresia
#12
REVIEW
Alexandra Kilgore, Cara L Mack
Biliary atresia is a devastating biliary disease of neonates that results in liver transplantation for the vast majority. The etiology of biliary atresia is unknown and is likely multifactorial, with components of genetic predisposition, environmental trigger and autoimmunity contributing to disease pathogenesis. This review highlights recent work related to investigations of disease pathogenesis in biliary atresia.
December 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063594/late-7-days-systemic-postnatal-corticosteroids-for-prevention-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-preterm-infants
#13
REVIEW
Lex W Doyle, Jeanie L Cheong, Richard A Ehrenkranz, Henry L Halliday
BACKGROUND: Many preterm infants who survive go on to develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia, probably as the result of persistent inflammation in the lungs. Corticosteroids have powerful anti-inflammatory effects and have been used to treat individuals with established bronchopulmonary dysplasia. However, it is unclear whether any beneficial effects outweigh the adverse effects of these drugs. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relative benefits and adverse effects of late systemic postnatal corticosteroid treatment (> 7 days) for preterm infants with evolving or established bronchopulmonary dysplasia...
October 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063585/early-8-days-systemic-postnatal-corticosteroids-for-prevention-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-preterm-infants
#14
REVIEW
Lex W Doyle, Jeanie L Cheong, Richard A Ehrenkranz, Henry L Halliday
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia remains a major problem in neonatal intensive care units. Persistent inflammation in the lungs is the most likely underlying pathogenesis. Corticosteroids have been used to prevent or treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia because of their potent anti-inflammatory effects. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relative benefits and adverse effects of systemic postnatal corticosteroids commenced within the first seven days of life for preterm infants at risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia...
October 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045765/oral-anti-diabetic-agents-for-women-with-established-diabetes-impaired-glucose-tolerance-or-previous-gestational-diabetes-planning-pregnancy-or-pregnant-women-with-pre-existing-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
Joanna Tieu, Suzette Coat, William Hague, Philippa Middleton, Emily Shepherd
BACKGROUND: While most guidance recommends the use of insulin in women whose pregnancies are affected by pre-existing diabetes, oral anti-diabetic agents may be more acceptable to women. The effects of these oral anti-diabetic agents on maternal and infant health outcomes need to be established in pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, as well as in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus preconceptionally or during a subsequent pregnancy. This review is an update of a review that was first published in 2010...
October 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042870/update-of-minimally-invasive-surfactant-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Gyu-Hong Shim
To date, preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) after birth have been managed with a combination of endotracheal intubation, surfactant instillation, and mechanical ventilation. It is now recognized that noninvasive ventilation (NIV) such as nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in preterm infants is a reasonable alternative to elective intubation after birth. Recently, a meta-analysis of large controlled trials comparing conventional methods and nasal CPAP suggested that CPAP decreased the risk of the combined outcome of bronchopulmonary dysplasia or death...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041034/inhaled-versus-systemic-corticosteroids-for-preventing-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-ventilated-very-low-birth-weight-preterm-neonates
#17
REVIEW
Sachin S Shah, Arne Ohlsson, Henry L Halliday, Vibhuti S Shah
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains an important cause of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants and inflammation plays a significant role in its pathogenesis. The use of inhaled corticosteroids may modulate the inflammatory process without concomitant high systemic steroid concentrations and less risk of adverse effects. This is an update of a review published in 2012 (Shah 2012). We recently updated the related review on "Inhaled versus systemic corticosteroids for treating bronchopulmonary dysplasia in ventilated very low birth weight preterm neonates"...
October 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036756/acupuncture-or-acupressure-for-induction-of-labour
#18
REVIEW
Caroline A Smith, Mike Armour, Hannah G Dahlen
BACKGROUND: This is one of a series of reviews of methods of cervical ripening and labour induction. The use of complementary therapies is increasing. Women may look to complementary therapies during pregnancy and childbirth to be used alongside conventional medical practice. Acupuncture involves the insertion of very fine needles into specific points of the body. Acupressure is using the thumbs or fingers to apply pressure to specific points. The limited observational studies to date suggest acupuncture for induction of labour has no known adverse effects to the fetus, and may be effective...
October 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035425/inhaled-versus-systemic-corticosteroids-for-the-treatment-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-ventilated-very-low-birth-weight-preterm-infants
#19
REVIEW
Sachin S Shah, Arne Ohlsson, Henry L Halliday, Vibhuti S Shah
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a review published in 2012. A related review "Inhaled versus systemic corticosteroids for preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia in ventilated very low birth weight preterm neonates" has been updated as well. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a serious and common problem among very low birth weight infants, despite the use of antenatal steroids and postnatal surfactant therapy to decrease the incidence and severity of respiratory distress syndrome. Due to their anti-inflammatory properties, corticosteroids have been widely used to treat or prevent BPD...
October 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033918/dna-sequence-based-typing-of-the-cronobacter-genus-using-mlst-crispr-cas-array-and-capsular-profiling
#20
Pauline Ogrodzki, Stephen J Forsythe
The Cronobacter genus is composed of seven species, within which a number of pathovars have been described. The most notable infections by Cronobacter spp. are of infants through the consumption of contaminated infant formula. The description of the genus has greatly improved in recent years through DNA sequencing techniques, and this has led to a robust means of identification. However some species are highly clonal and this limits the ability to discriminate between unrelated strains by some methods of genotyping...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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