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neonatal update

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539008/position-in-the-second-stage-of-labour-for-women-without-epidural-anaesthesia
#1
REVIEW
Janesh K Gupta, Akanksha Sood, G Justus Hofmeyr, Joshua P Vogel
BACKGROUND: For centuries, there has been controversy around whether being upright (sitting, birthing stools, chairs, squatting, kneeling) or lying down (lateral (Sim's) position, semi-recumbent, lithotomy position, Trendelenburg's position) have advantages for women giving birth to their babies. This is an update of a review previously published in 2012, 2004 and 1999. OBJECTIVES: To determine the possible benefits and risks of the use of different birth positions during the second stage of labour without epidural anaesthesia, on maternal, fetal, neonatal and caregiver outcomes...
May 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539007/videolaryngoscopy-versus-direct-laryngoscopy-for-tracheal-intubation-in-children-excluding-neonates
#2
REVIEW
Ibtihal S Abdelgadir, Robert S Phillips, Davinder Singh, Michael P Moncreiff, Joanne L Lumsden
BACKGROUND: Direct laryngoscopy is the method currently used for tracheal intubation in children. It occasionally offers unexpectedly poor laryngeal views. Indirect laryngoscopy involves visualizing the vocal cords by means other than obtaining a direct sight, with the potential to improve outcomes. We reviewed the current available literature and performed a meta-analysis to compare direct versus indirect laryngoscopy, or videolaryngoscopy, with regards to efficacy and adverse effects...
May 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524216/-update-on-congenital-and-neonatal-herpes-infections-infection-due-to-cytomegalovirus-and-herpes-simplex
#3
F Baquero-Artigao
Newborn infants are a population which is especially susceptible to viral infections that frequently affect the central nervous system. Herpes infections can be transmitted to the foetus and to the newborn infant, and give rise to severe clinical conditions with long-term sensory and cognitive deficits. Two thirds of newborn infants with encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus and half of the children with symptomatic congenital infection by cytomegalovirus develop sequelae, which results in high community health costs in the long term...
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521893/pulmonary-hypertension-in-infants-children-and-young-adults
#4
REVIEW
Georg Hansmann
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in neonates, infants, children, adolescents, and young adults is a complex condition that can be associated with several cardiac, pulmonary, and systemic diseases contributing to morbidity and mortality. The underlying pulmonary hypertensive vascular disease (PHVD) is characterized by inflammation, pulmonary vascular remodeling, and angio-obliteration leading to elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and resistance, right ventricular dysfunction, left ventricular compression, and subsequent heart failure...
May 23, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28519244/neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-update-on-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-strategies
#5
Genny Raffaeli, Giacomo Cavallaro, K Karel Allegaert, Enno Diederik Wildschut, Monica Fumagalli, Massimo Agosti, Dick Tibboel, Fabio Mosca
Substance use among pregnant women is a major public health issue. Both prescription opioid use and illicit opioid abuse have increased dramatically in recent years. Prolonged in utero drug exposure may result in neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), an acute multisystemic clinical entity that occurs in the first days of life. This syndrome is caused by abrupt discontinuation of fetal exposure to licit or illicit drugs chronically consumed by the mother during pregnancy and transmitted to the fetus through the placenta...
May 18, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509730/american-college-of-critical-care-medicine-clinical-practice-parameters-for-hemodynamic-support-of-pediatric-and-neonatal-septic-shock
#6
Alan L Davis, Joseph A Carcillo, Rajesh K Aneja, Andreas J Deymann, John C Lin, Trung C Nguyen, Regina S Okhuysen-Cawley, Monica S Relvas, Ranna A Rozenfeld, Peter W Skippen, Bonnie J Stojadinovic, Eric A Williams, Tim S Yeh, Fran Balamuth, Joe Brierley, Allan R de Caen, Ira M Cheifetz, Karen Choong, Edward Conway, Timothy Cornell, Allan Doctor, Marc-Andre Dugas, Jonathan D Feldman, Julie C Fitzgerald, Heidi R Flori, James D Fortenberry, Ana Lia Graciano, Bruce M Greenwald, Mark W Hall, Yong Yun Han, Lynn J Hernan, Jose E Irazuzta, Elizabeth Iselin, Elise W van der Jagt, Howard E Jeffries, Saraswati Kache, Chhavi Katyal, Niranjan Tex Kissoon, Alexander A Kon, Martha C Kutko, Graeme MacLaren, Timothy Maul, Renuka Mehta, Fola Odetola, Kristine Parbuoni, Raina Paul, Mark J Peters, Suchitra Ranjit, Karin E Reuter-Rice, Eduardo J Schnitzler, Halden F Scott, Adalberto Torres, Jacki Weingarten-Abrams, Scott L Weiss, Jerry J Zimmerman, Aaron L Zuckerberg
OBJECTIVES: The American College of Critical Care Medicine provided 2002 and 2007 guidelines for hemodynamic support of newborn and pediatric septic shock. Provide the 2014 update of the 2007 American College of Critical Care Medicine "Clinical Guidelines for Hemodynamic Support of Neonates and Children with Septic Shock." DESIGN: Society of Critical Care Medicine members were identified from general solicitation at Society of Critical Care Medicine Educational and Scientific Symposia (2006-2014)...
June 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499532/updates-on-the-recognition-prevention-and-management-of-hypertension-in-pregnancy
#7
REVIEW
Jessica R Jackson, Anthony R Gregg
Systematic reviews with meta-analysis represent the highest level of evidence used to guide clinical practice. The defining criteria used to diagnose preeclampsia have evolved, and will likely continue to evolve. Proteinuria is sufficient but not necessary when defining preeclampsia. Hypertension without proteinuria but with severe features is diagnostic. The methods used to measure urinary protein have changed. The gold standard remains the 24-hour urine test. The efficacy of low-dose aspirin in preventing preeclampsia is a function of baseline risk...
June 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485244/video-platform-updates-parents-of-newborns
#8
(no author information available yet)
Neonatal intensive care unit staff at Glasgow's Royal Hospital for Children are keeping parents up to date with their babies' progress by making personal videos.
May 9, 2017: Nursing Children and Young People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470131/implementation-strategies-for-guidelines-at-icus-a-systematic-review
#9
Portia Jordan, Ferestas Mpasa, Wilma Ten Ham-Baloyi, Candice Bowers
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to critically analyze empirical studies related to the implementation strategies for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) in intensive care units (ICUs). Design/methodology/approach A systematic review with a narrative synthesis adapted from Popay et al.'s method for a narrative synthesis was conducted. A search using CINAHL, Google Scholar, Academic search complete, Cochrane Register for Randomized Controlled Trials, MEDLINE via PUBMED and grey literature was conducted in 2014 and updated in 2016 (August)...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469532/neonatal-herpes-simplex-viral-infections-and-acyclovir-an-update
#10
REVIEW
John Brock Harris, Amy P Holmes
Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections have high morbidity and mortality rates. Optimization of treatment and prevention strategies are imperative to improve the care and outcomes of neonates infected with HSV. Management of HSV includes reducing neonatal transmission, treating acute infections, and limiting adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes and future cutaneous outbreaks after acute infections. Transmission risk may be affected by route of delivery and maternal suppressive therapy. Neonatal HSV infections are divided into 3 categories: localized skin, eyes, or mouth; localized central nervous system; or disseminated infections...
March 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465303/epidemiology-of-blindness-in-children
#11
REVIEW
Ameenat Lola Solebo, Lucinda Teoh, Jugnoo Rahi
An estimated 14 million of the world's children are blind. A blind child is more likely to live in socioeconomic deprivation, to be more frequently hospitalised during childhood and to die in childhood than a child not living with blindness. This update of a previous review on childhood visual impairment focuses on emerging therapies for children with severe visual disability (severe visual impairment and blindness or SVI/BL).For children in higher income countries, cerebral visual impairment and optic nerve anomalies remain the most common causes of SVI/BL, while retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and cataract are now the most common avoidable causes...
May 2, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456383/adult-onset-spinal-muscular-atrophy-an-update
#12
REVIEW
R Juntas Morales, N Pageot, G Taieb, W Camu
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) refers to a group of disorders affecting lower motor neurons. The age of onset of these disorders is variable, ranging from the neonatal period to adulthood. Over the last few years, there has been enormous progress in the description of new genes and phenotypes that throw new light on the molecular pathways involved in motor neuron degeneration. Advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of the most frequent forms, SMA linked to SMN1 gene mutations and Kennedy disease, has led to the development of therapeutic strategies currently being tested in clinical trials...
April 26, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426160/assessment-and-support-during-early-labour-for-improving-birth-outcomes
#13
REVIEW
Shinobu Kobayashi, Nobutsugu Hanada, Masayo Matsuzaki, Kenji Takehara, Erika Ota, Hatoko Sasaki, Chie Nagata, Rintaro Mori
BACKGROUND: The progress of labour in the early or latent phase is usually slow and may include painful uterine contractions. Women may feel distressed and lose their confidence during this phase. Support and assessment interventions have been assessed in two previous Cochrane Reviews. This review updates and replaces these two reviews, which have become out of date. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of assessment and support interventions for women during early labour...
April 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412312/updates-to-a-13-c-metabolic-flux-analysis-model-for-evaluating-energy-metabolism-in-cultured-cerebellar-granule-neurons-from-neonatal-rats
#14
Mika B Jekabsons, Hoda M Gebril, Yan-Hong Wang, Bharathi Avula, Ikhlas A Khan
A hexose phosphate recycling model previously developed to infer fluxes through the major glucose consuming pathways in cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) from neonatal rats metabolizing [1,2-(13)C2]glucose was revised by considering reverse flux through the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and symmetrical succinate oxidation within the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The model adjusts three flux ratios to effect (13)C distribution in the hexose, pentose, and triose phosphate pools, and in TCA cycle malate to minimize the error between predicted and measured (13)C labeling in exported lactate (i...
April 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407219/multiple-micronutrient-supplementation-for-women-during-pregnancy
#15
REVIEW
Batool A Haider, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Multiple-micronutrient (MMN) deficiencies often coexist among women of reproductive age in low- to middle-income countries. They are exacerbated in pregnancy due to the increased demands, leading to potentially adverse effects on the mother and developing fetus. Though supplementation with MMNs has been recommended earlier because of the evidence of impact on pregnancy outcomes, a consensus is yet to be reached regarding the replacement of iron and folic acid supplementation with MMNs...
April 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398683/update-on-syphilis-and-pregnancy
#16
REVIEW
Michael E Tsimis, Jeanne S Sheffield
While the origins of syphilis remain unknown, it has long been recognized as an infectious entity with complex pathophysiology. In this review, we highlighted the epidemiology and risk factors associated with syphilis. The incidence of syphilis in most populations showed a consistent upward trend until the 1940s with the introduction of penicillin as the preferred treatment. The emergence of congenital syphilis and vertical transmission has been a direct result of heterosexual syphilis transmission. We also explore the microbiology and pathogenesis of Treponema pallidum as it directly correlates with its route of transmission and infectivity...
March 15, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394766/risks-and-benefits-of-swaddling-healthy-infants-an-integrative-review
#17
Antonia M Nelson
BACKGROUND: Swaddling has been practiced since antiquity; however, there is controversy about its safety. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this review is to update and build upon previous reviews and synthesize evidence on risks and benefits of swaddling in healthyterm, near-term, or older infants. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (1960-May 13, 2016) and CINAHL (1963-May 13, 2016) searches were conducted, relevant articles retrieved, and citation lists reviewed for other references...
April 7, 2017: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389438/management-and-investigation-of-neonatal-encephalopathy-2017-update
#18
Kathryn Martinello, Anthony R Hart, Sufin Yap, Subhabrata Mitra, Nicola J Robertson
This review discusses an approach to determining the cause of neonatal encephalopathy, as well as current evidence on resuscitation and subsequent management of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). Encephalopathy in neonates can be due to varied aetiologies in addition to hypoxic-ischaemia. A combination of careful history, examination and the judicious use of investigations can help determine the cause. Over the last 7 years, infants with moderate to severe HIE have benefited from the introduction of routine therapeutic hypothermia; the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome is 7 (95% CI 5 to 10)...
April 6, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358382/standardized-feeding-regimen-for-reducing-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-preterm-infants-an-updated-systematic-review
#19
B Jasani, S Patole
OBJECTIVE: A systematic review (2005) of observational studies has reported 87% reduction in the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) after introducing standardized feeding regimen (SFR) in preterm infants. Considering the many new studies in this field since 2005 and the continued health burden of NEC, we aimed to systematically review the incidence of NEC in preterm infants 'before' vs 'after' implementing a SFR. STUDY DESIGN: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and E-abstracts from the Pediatric Academic Society meetings and other pediatric and neonatal conference proceedings were searched in May 2016...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355995/new-advances-in-infant-feeding-new-products-and-novel-technologies
#20
M C Pina-Pérez, A Martínez, D Rodrigo
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is the best way to provide ideal food for infants. However, there are many situations in which breastfeeding is unviable (maternal illness, hygiene problems, intravenous feeding requirement, storage). Safe, efficient, and nutritious products should be offered by the industry to mothers and healthcare professionals as an alternative. OBJECTIVE: The present review aims to update the state of the art regarding the most innovative developments in infant feeding formulation and, the promising novel technologies that are being investigated to achieve a balance between the microbiological stability, organoleptic and nutritional value of babyfood...
March 28, 2017: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
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