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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332289/detection-of-reactive-oxygen-and-nitrogen-species-ros-rns-during-hypersensitive-cell-death
#1
Laura C Terrón-Camero, Eliana Molina-Moya, María Sanz-Fernández, Luisa M Sandalio, María C Romero-Puertas
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) are signaling molecules involved in a plethora of physiological processes in plants. Especially, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) are key players that are required for programmed cell death (PCD). The PCD associated with the hypersensitive response (HR) has been well characterized and the role of H2O2 and NO as key signaling molecules inducing HR has been established. Localization of ROS and NO production in plant tissues in response to pathogens can be imaged by confocal laser microscopy by using specific fluorescent probes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332268/methylmercury-intoxication-promotes-metallothionein-response-and-cell-damage-in-salivary-glands-of-rats
#2
Leidiane Alencar de Oliveira Lima, Leonardo Oliveira Bittencourt, Bruna Puty, Rafael Monteiro Fernandes, Priscila Cunha Nascimento, Marcia Cristina Freitas Silva, Sérgio Melo Alves-Junior, João de Jesus Viana Pinheiro, Rafael Rodrigues Lima
Environmental and occupational mercury exposure is considered a major public health issue. Despite being well known that MeHg exposure causes adverse effects in several physiologic functions, MeHg effects on salivary glands still not completely elucidated. Here, we investigated the cellular MeHg-induced damage in the three major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual) of adult rats after chronic, systemic and low doses of MeHg exposure. Rats were exposed by 0.04 mg/kg/day over 60 days. After that, animals were euthanized and all three glands were collected...
January 14, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332257/kynurenic-acid-and-its-derivatives-are-able-to-modulate-the-adhesion-and-locomotion-of-brain-endothelial-cells
#3
Eszter Lajkó, Bernadett Tuka, Ferenc Fülöp, István Krizbai, József Toldi, Kálmán Magyar, László Vécsei, László Kőhidai
The neuroprotective actions of kynurenic acid (KYNA) and its derivatives in several neurodegenerative disorders [characterized by damage to the cerebral endothelium and to the blood-brain barrier (BBB)] are well established. Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion is supposedly involved in recovery of impaired cerebral endothelium integrity (endothelial repair). The present work aimed to investigate the effects of KYNA and its synthetic derivatives on cellular behaviour (e.g. adhesion and locomotion) and on morphology of the GP8 rat brain endothelial cell line, modeling the BBB endothelium...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331649/friend-or-foe-reactive-oxygen-species-production-scavenging-and-signaling-in-plant-response-to-environmental-stresses
#4
Weronika Czarnocka, Stanisław Karpiński
In the natural environment, plants are exposed to a variety of biotic and abiotic stress conditions that trigger rapid changes in the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The production and scavenging of ROS is compartmentalized, which means that, depending on stimuli type, they can be generated and eliminated in different cellular compartments such as the apoplast, plasma membrane, chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and endoplasmic reticulum. Although the accumulation of ROS is generally harmful to cells, ROS play an important role in signaling pathways that regulate acclimatory and defense responses in plants, such as systemic acquired acclimation (SAA) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR)...
January 10, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331148/isolation-of-anti-extra-cellular-vesicle-single-domain-antibodies-by-direct-panning-on-vesicle-enriched-fractions
#5
Milica Popovic, Elisa Mazzega, Barbara Toffoletto, Ario de Marco
BACKGROUND: The thorough understanding of the physiological and pathological processes mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs) is challenged by purification methods which are cumbersome, not reproducible, or insufficient to yield homogeneous material. Chromatography based on both ion-exchange and immune-capture can represent an effective method to improve EV purification and successive analysis. METHODS: Cell culture supernatant was used as a model sample for assessing the capacity of anion-exchange chromatography to separate distinct EV fractions and to isolate nanobodies by direct panning on whole EVs to recover binders specific for the native conformation of EV-surface epitopes and suitable to develop EV immune-capture reagents...
January 13, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330807/evaluation-of-macrophage-polarization-in-pancreatic-cancer-microenvironment-under-hypoxia
#6
Kuldeep S Attri, Kamiya Mehla, Pankaj K Singh
Hypoxic microenvironment found in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and other solid tumors is central to physiological and metabolic alterations of immune cells that significantly impact tumor growth dynamics. Hypoxic adaptations in the immune cells are primarily mediated by the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), which regulates cellular metabolism by modulating glycolysis and other interconnected metabolic pathways. HIF-1α plays distinct roles in M1 and M2 macrophage polarization, which, in turn, regulates tumor cell immune escape and growth...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330790/transcriptional-profiling-using-rna-seq-to-study-hypoxia-mediated-gene-regulation
#7
Surendra K Shukla, Ryan J King, Pankaj K Singh
Exposing cells to a hypoxic environment leads to significant physiological and molecular alterations. Most of the hypoxic responses are regulated by the transcription factors known as hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). HIF1, a heterodimer of hypoxia-stabilized subunit HIF-1alpha and a constitutively expressed subunit HIF-1beta, serves as a key transcription factor that regulates gene expressions which are involved in cell growth, metabolism, and proliferation. The global expression patterns can be analyzed by utilizing RNA-Seq to understand the cellular alterations in hypoxia...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330752/evaluation-of-the-iron-regulatory-protein-1-interactome
#8
Gregory J Connell, Jando S Danial, Christian X Haastruthers
The interactions of iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) with mRNAs containing an iron-responsive element (IRE) is a major means through which intracellular iron homeostasis is maintained and integrated with cellular function. Although IRE-IRP interactions have been proposed to modulate the expression of a diverse number of mRNAs, a transcriptome analysis of the interactions that form within the native mRNA structure and cellular environment has not previously been described. An RNA-CLIP study is described here that identified IRP-1 interactions occurring within a primary cell line expressing physiologically relevant amounts of mRNA and protein...
January 12, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330498/replication-of-biocompatible-nanotopographic-surfaces
#9
Xiaoyu Sun, Matt J Hourwitz, Eleni M Baker, B U Sebastian Schmidt, Wolfgang Losert, John T Fourkas
The ability of cells to sense and respond to nanotopography is being implicated as a key element in many physiological processes such as cell differentiation, immune response, and wound healing, as well as in pathologies such as cancer metastasis. To understand how nanotopography affects cellular behaviors, new techniques are required for the mass production of biocompatible, rigid nanotopographic surfaces. Here we introduce a method for the rapid and reproducible production of biocompatible, rigid, acrylic nanotopographic surfaces, and for the functionalization of the surfaces with adhesion-promoting molecules for cell experiments...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330095/crosstalk-between-rac1-mediated-actin-regulation-and-ros-production
#10
REVIEW
Alejandro Acevedo, Christian González-Billault
The small RhoGTPase Rac1 is implicated in a variety of events related to actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. Remarkably, another event that is completely different from those related to actin regulation has the same relevance; the Rac1-mediated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through NADPH oxidases (NOX). Each outcome involves different Rac1 downstream effectors; on one hand, events related to the actin cytoskeleton require Rac1 to bind to WAVEs proteins and PAKs that ultimately promote actin branching and turnover, on the other, NOX-derived ROS production demands active Rac1 to be bound to a cytosolic activator of NOX...
January 9, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329987/quantitative-proteomics-in-friedreich-s-ataxia-b-lymphocytes-a-valuable-approach-to-decipher-the-biochemical-events-responsible-for-pathogenesis
#11
Lorène Télot, Elodie Rousseau, Emmanuel Lesuisse, Camille Garcia, Bastien Morlet, Thibaut Léger, Jean-Michel Camadro, Valérie Serre
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) represents the most frequent type of autosomal-recessively inherited ataxia and is caused by the deficiency of frataxin, a mitochondrial protein. It is known that frataxin-deficiency leads to alterations in cellular and mitochondrial iron metabolism and impacts in the cell physiology at several levels. Frataxin is thought to play a role in iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis and heme synthesis. Currently, cellular antioxidant defense is dysregulated when frataxin is deficient, which exacerbates oxidative damage in FRDA...
January 9, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329909/the-signaling-role-for-chloride-in-the-bidirectional-communication-between-neurons-and-astrocytes
#12
REVIEW
Corinne S Wilson, Alexander A Mongin
It is well known that the electrical signaling in neuronal networks is modulated by chloride (Cl-) fluxes via the inhibitory GABAA and glycine receptors. Here, we discuss the putative contribution of Cl- fluxes and intracellular Cl- to other forms of information transfer in the CNS, namely the bidirectional communication between neurons and astrocytes. The manuscript (i) summarizes the generic functions of Cl- in cellular physiology, (ii) recaps molecular identities and properties of Cl- transporters and channels in neurons and astrocytes, and (iii) analyzes emerging studies implicating Cl- in the modulation of neuroglial communication...
January 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328866/proteoglycans-as-immunomodulators-of-the-innate-immune-response-to-lung-infection
#13
Inkyung Kang, Mary Y Chang, Thomas N Wight, Charles W Frevert
Proteoglycans (PGs) are complex, multifaceted molecules that participate in diverse interactions vital for physiological and pathological processes. As structural components, they provide a scaffold for cells and structural organization that helps define tissue architecture. Through interactions with water, PGs enable molecular and cellular movement through tissues. Through selective ionic interactions with growth factors, chemokines, cytokines, and proteases, PGs facilitate the ability of these soluble ligands to regulate intracellular signaling events and to influence the inflammatory response...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325019/deep-molecular-phenotypes-link-complex-disorders-and-physiological-insult-to-cpg-methylation
#14
Shaza B Zaghlool, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Sara Kader, Nisha Stephan, Anna Halama, Rudolf Engelke, Hina Sarwath, Eman K Al-Dous, Yasmin A Mohamoud, Werner Roemisch-Margl, Jerzy Adamski, Gabi Kastenmüller, Nele Friedrich, Alessia Visconti, Pei-Chien Tsai, Tim Spector, Jordana Bell, Mario Falchi, Annika Wahl, Melanie Waldenberger, Annette Peters, Christian Gieger, Maija Pezer, Gordan Lauc, Johannes Graumann, Joel A Malek, Karsten Suhre
Epigenetic regulation of cellular function provides a mechanism for rapid organismal adaptation to changes in health, lifestyle, and environment. Associations of cytosine-guanine di-nucleotide (CpG) methylation with clinical endpoints that overlap with metabolic phenotypes suggest a regulatory role for these CpG sites in the body's response to disease or environmental stress. We previously identified 20 CpG sites in an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) with metabolomics that were also associated in recent EWASs with diabetes-, obesity-, and smoking-related endpoints...
January 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324395/effects-of-lanthanum-on-microcystis-aeruginosa-attention-to-the-changes-in-composition-and-content-of-cellular-microcystins
#15
Fei Shen, Lihong Wang, Qing Zhou, Xiaohua Huang
Algal blooms threaten human health and aquatic ecosystem through the production of microcystins (MCs) by toxic strains. The accumulation of rare earth elements (REEs) in water affects the growth and physiological activities of algae. However, whether or how REEs affect cellular microcystins (MCs) is largely unknown. In this study, the effects of lanthanum ion [La(III)], a type of REE, on the MCs in Microcystis aeruginosa were investigated, and the mechanism of the effect was analyzed using ecological stoichiometry...
January 6, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323721/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-modulates-cholesterol-homeostasis-and-apolipoprotein-e-synthesis-in-human-cell-models-of-astrocytes-and-neurons
#16
Maria Stefania Spagnuolo, Aldo Donizetti, Lucia Iannotta, Vincenza Aliperti, Chiara Cupidi, Amalia Cecilia Bruni, Luisa Cigliano
In the central nervous system, cholesterol is critical to maintain membrane plasticity, cellular function, and synaptic integrity. In recent years, much attention was focused on the role of cholesterol in brain since a breakdown of cholesterol metabolism has been associated with different diseases. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was previously reported to elicit cholesterol biosynthesis and promote the accumulation of presynaptic proteins in cholesterol-rich lipid rafts, but no data are available on its ability to modulate physiological mechanisms involved in cholesterol homeostasis...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322248/a-reversible-liquid-drop-aggregation-controls-glucose-response-in-yeast
#17
REVIEW
Kobi Simpson-Lavy, Martin Kupiec
Glucose is the preferred carbon of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Depletion of glucose activates SNF1 (yeast AMP-activated protein kinase-AMPK), allowing cells to switch from fermentation to respiration. We have recently characterized the mechanism by which SNF1 activity is regulated by the Std1 protein, and its regulator Sip5. The hitherto uncharacterized protein kinase Vhs1 phosphorylates Sip5 in response to glucose availability, disengaging it from Std1 and promoting the sequestering of the SNF1 activator out of the nucleus into cytoplasmic puncta...
January 10, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321956/an-amebic-protein-disulfide-isomerase-pdi-complements-the-yeast-pdi1-mutation-but-is-unable-to-support-cell-viability-under-er-or-thermal-stress
#18
Rosa E Mares, Marco A Ramos
In eukaryotic cells, protein disulfide isomerases (PDI) are oxidoreductases that catalyze the proper disulfide bond formation during protein folding. The pathobiology of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of human amebiasis, depends on secretion of several virulence factors, such as pore-forming peptides and cysteine proteinases. Although the native conformation of these factors is stabilized by disulfide bonds, there is little information regarding the molecular machinery involved in the oxidative folding of amebic proteins...
January 2018: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321952/fasciculation-and-elongation-zeta-1-protein-fez1-interacts-with-the-retinoic-acid-receptor-and-participates-in-transcriptional-regulation-of-the-hoxb4-gene
#19
Mariana Bertini Teixeira, Ana Carolina M Figueira, Ariane S Furlan, Bruno Aquino, Marcos R Alborghetti, Adriana F Paes Leme, Li-Na Wei, Jörg Kobarg
Fasciculation and elongation zeta-1 (FEZ1) protein is involved in axon outgrowth and is highly expressed in the brain. It has multiple interaction partners, with functions varying from the regulation of neuronal development and intracellular transport mechanisms to transcription regulation. One of its interactors is retinoic acid receptor (RAR), which is activated by retinoic acid and controls many target genes and physiological process. Based on previous evidence suggesting a possible nuclear role for FEZ1, we wanted to deepen our understanding of this function by addressing the FEZ1-RAR interaction...
January 2018: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321664/mitochondrial-fission-and-mitophagy-depend-on-cofilin-mediated-actin-depolymerization-activity-at-the-mitochondrial-fission-site
#20
Guo-Bing Li, Hong-Wei Zhang, Ruo-Qiu Fu, Xiao-Ye Hu, Lei Liu, Yu-Nong Li, Yan-Xia Liu, Xin Liu, Jin-Jiao Hu, Qin Deng, Qing-Song Luo, Rong Zhang, Ning Gao
Mitochondria fission and mitophagy are fundamentally crucial to cellular physiology and play important roles in cancer progression. Developing a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying mitochondrial fission and mitophagy will provide novel strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. Actin has been shown to participate in mitochondrial fission and mitophagy regulation. Cofilin is best known as an actin-depolymerizing factor. However, the molecular mechanism by which cofilin regulates mitochondrial fission and mitophagy remains largely unknown...
January 11, 2018: Oncogene
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