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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905503/advancing-ovarian-folliculometry-with-selective-plane-illumination-microscopy
#1
Hsiao-Chun Amy Lin, Rahul Dutta, Subhamoy Mandal, Alexander Kind, Angelika Schnieke, Daniel Razansky
Determination of ovarian status and follicle monitoring are common methods of diagnosing female infertility. We evaluated the suitability of selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) for the study of ovarian follicles. The large field of view and fast acquisition speed of our SPIM system enables rendering of volumetric image stacks from intact whole porcine ovarian follicles, clearly visualizing follicular features including follicle volume and average diameter (70 μm-2.5 mm), their spherical asymmetry parameters, size of developing cumulus oophorus complexes (40 μm-110 μm), and follicular wall thickness (90 μm-120 μm)...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905300/intravital-imaging-of-mouse-urothelium-reveals-activation-of-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-by-stretch-induced-intravesical-release-of-atp
#2
Takeshi Sano, Takashi Kobayashi, Hiromitsu Negoro, Atsushi Sengiku, Takuya Hiratsuka, Yuji Kamioka, Louis S Liou, Osamu Ogawa, Michiyuki Matsuda
To better understand the roles played by signaling molecules in the bladder, we established a protocol of intravital imaging of the bladder of mice expressing a Förster/fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor for extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which plays critical roles not only in cell growth but also stress responses. With an upright two-photon excitation microscope and a vacuum-stabilized imaging window, cellular ERK activity was visualized in the whole bladder wall, from adventitia to urothelium...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904993/molecular-mechanisms-of-heart-failure-insights-from-drosophila
#3
Shasha Zhu, Zhe Han, Yan Luo, Yulin Chen, Qun Zeng, Xiushan Wu, Wuzhou Yuan
Heart failure places an enormous burden on health and economic systems worldwide. It is a complex disease that is profoundly influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Neither the molecular mechanisms underlying heart failure nor effective prevention strategies are fully understood. Fortunately, relevant aspects of human heart failure can be experimentally studied in tractable model animals, including the fruit fly, Drosophila, allowing the in vivo application of powerful and sophisticated molecular genetic and physiological approaches...
December 1, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904762/activin-receptor-like-kinases-a-diverse-family-playing-an-important-role-in-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Holli A Loomans, Claudia D Andl
The role and function of the members of the TGFβ superfamily has been a substantial area of research focus for the last several decades. During that time, it has become apparent that aberrations in TGFβ family signaling, whether through the BMP, Activin, or TGFβ arms of the pathway, can result in tumorigenesis or contribute to its progression. Downstream signaling regulates cellular growth under normal physiological conditions yet induces diverse processes during carcinogenesis, ranging from epithelial- to-mesenchymal transition to cell migration and invasion to angiogenesis...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904033/impact-of-slc6a-transporters-in-physiological-taurine-transport-at-the-blood-retinal-barrier-and-in-the-liver
#5
Yoshiyuki Kubo, Shin-Ichi Akanuma, Ken-Ichi Hosoya
Cumulative studies showed that taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) contributes to a variety of physiological events. Transport study suggested the cellular taurine transport in an Na(+)- and Cl(-)-dependent manner, and the several members of SLC6A family have been shown as taurine transporter. At the inner blood-retinal barrier (BRB), taurine transporter (TauT/SLC6A) is involved in the transport of taurine to the retina from the circulating blood. The involvement of TauT is also suggested in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport at the inner BRB, and its role is assumed in the elimination of GABA from the retinal interstitial fluid...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903874/life-history-characteristics-influence-physiological-strategies-to-cope-with-hypoxia-in-himalayan-birds
#6
S Barve, A A Dhondt, V B Mathur, Z A Cheviron
Hypobaric hypoxia at high elevation represents an important physiological stressor for montane organisms, but optimal physiological strategies to cope with hypoxia may vary among species with different life histories. Montane birds exhibit a range of migration patterns; elevational migrants breed at high elevations but winter at low elevations or migrate further south, while high-elevation residents inhabit the same elevation throughout the year. Optimal physiological strategies to cope with hypoxia might therefore differ between species that exhibit these two migratory patterns, because they differ in the amount time spent at high elevation...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903701/can-multi-generational-exposure-to-ocean-warming-and-acidification-lead-to-the-adaptation-of-life-history-and-physiology-in-a-marine-metazoan
#7
Emma M Gibbin, Leela J Chakravarti, Michael D Jarrold, Felix Christen, Vincent Turpin, Gloria Massamba N'Siala, Pierre U Blier, Piero Calosi
Ocean warming and acidification are concomitant global drivers that are currently threatening the survival of marine organisms. How species will respond to these changes depends on their capacity for plastic and adaptive responses. Little is known about the mechanisms that govern plasticity and adaptability or how global changes will influence these relationships across multiple generations. Here, we exposed the emerging model marine polychaete Ophryotrocha labronica to conditions simulating ocean warming and acidification, in isolation and in combination over five generations to identify: (i) how multiple versus single global change drivers alter both juvenile and adult life-traits; (ii) the mechanistic link between adult physiological and fitness-related life-history traits; (iii) whether observed phenotypic changes observed over multiple generations are of plastic and/or adaptive origin...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903627/the-role-of-the-antioxidant-system-during-intense-endurance-exercise-lessons-from-migrating-birds
#8
REVIEW
Clara Cooper-Mullin, Scott R McWilliams
During migration, birds substantially increase their metabolic rate and burn fats as fuel and yet somehow avoid succumbing to overwhelming oxidative damage. The physiological means by which vertebrates such as migrating birds can counteract an increased production of reactive species (RS) are rather limited: they can upregulate their endogenous antioxidant system and/or consume dietary antioxidants (prophylactically or therapeutically). Thus, birds can alter different components of their antioxidant system to respond to the demands of long-duration flights, but much remains to be discovered about the complexities of RS production and antioxidant protection throughout migration...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903610/nk-cells-converge-lytic-granules-to-promote-cytotoxicity-and-prevent-bystander-killing
#9
Hsiang-Ting Hsu, Emily M Mace, Alexandre F Carisey, Dixita I Viswanath, Athanasia E Christakou, Martin Wiklund, Björn Önfelt, Jordan S Orange
Natural killer (NK) cell activation triggers sequential cellular events leading to destruction of diseased cells. We previously identified lytic granule convergence, a dynein- and integrin signal-dependent movement of lysosome-related organelles to the microtubule-organizing center, as an early step in the cell biological process underlying NK cell cytotoxicity. Why lytic granules converge during NK cell cytotoxicity, however, remains unclear. We experimentally controlled the availability of human ligands to regulate NK cell signaling and promote granule convergence with either directed or nondirected degranulation...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903609/protein-sorting-at-the-er-golgi-interface
#10
REVIEW
Natalia Gomez-Navarro, Elizabeth Miller
Protein traffic is of critical importance for normal cellular physiology. In eukaryotes, spherical transport vesicles move proteins and lipids from one internal membrane-bound compartment to another within the secretory pathway. The process of directing each individual protein to a specific destination (known as protein sorting) is a crucial event that is intrinsically linked to vesicle biogenesis. In this review, we summarize the principles of cargo sorting by the vesicle traffic machinery and consider the diverse mechanisms by which cargo proteins are selected and captured into different transport vesicles...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903512/thyroid-hormone-stimulated-increases-in-pgc-1%C3%AE-and-ucp2-promote-life-history-specific-endocrine-changes-and-maintain-a-lipid-based-metabolism
#11
Bridget Martinez, José G Soñanez-Organis, Jose A Godoy-Lugo, Lillian Horin, Daniel E Crocker, Rudy M Ortiz
Thyroid hormones (TH) regulate metabolism, but are typically suppressed during times of stressful physiological conditions, including fasting. Interestingly, prolonged fasting in northern elephant seal pups is associated with reliance on a lipid-based metabolism and increased levels of circulating thyroid hormones that are partially attributed to active secretion as opposed to reduced clearance. This apparent paradox is coupled with complementary increases in cellular TH-mediated activity suggesting that in mammals naturally adapted to prolonged fasting TH are necessary to support metabolism...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903465/label-free-quantitative-phosphoproteomic-profiling-of-cellular-response-induced-by-an-insect-cytokine-paralytic-peptide
#12
Liang Song, Fei Wang, Zhaoming Dong, Xiaoting Hua, Qingyou Xia
: Paralytic peptide (PP) participates in diverse physiological processes as an insect cytokine, such as immunity control, paralysis induction, regulation of cell morphology and proliferation. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying those physiological activities, we systematically investigated the global phosphorylation events in fat body of silkworm larvae induced by PP through label-free quantitative phosphoproteomics. 2534 phosphosites were finally identified, of which the phosphorylation level of 620 phosphosites on 244 proteins was significantly up-regulated and 67 phosphosites on 43 proteins was down-regulated...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903243/analysis-of-rna-expression-of-normal-and-cancer-tissues-reveals-high-correlation-of-cop9-gene-expression-with-respiratory-chain-complex-components
#13
Christina A Wicker, Tadahide Izumi
BACKGROUND: The COP9 signalosome, composed of eight subunits, is implicated in cancer genetics with its deneddylase activity to modulate cellular concentration of oncogenic proteins such as IkB and TGFβ. However, its function in the normal cell physiology remains elusive. Primarily focusing on gene expression data of the normal tissues of the head and neck, the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database was used to identify groups of genes that were expressed synergistically with the COP9 genes, particularly with the COPS5 (CSN5), which possesses the catalytic activity of COP9...
December 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902841/dynamical-effects-of-calcium-sensitive-potassium-currents-on-voltage-and-calcium-alternans
#14
Matthew Kennedy, Donald M Bers, Nipavan Chiamvimonvat, Daisuke Sato
Cardiac alternans is a precursor to life-threatening arrhythmias. Alternans can be caused by instability of the membrane voltage (Vm ), instability of the intracellular Ca (Cai ) cycling, or both. Vm dynamics and Cai dynamics are coupled via Ca-sensitive currents. In cardiac myocytes, there are several Ca-sensitive potassium (K) currents such as the slowly activating delayed rectifier current (IKs ) and the small conductance Ca-activated potassium (SK) current (ISK ). However, the role of these currents in the development of arrhythmias is not well understood...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902743/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-spirulina-platensis-in-response-to-low-temperature-stress
#15
Qingye Li, Rong Chang, Yijun Sun, Bosheng Li
Low temperature (LT) is one of the most important abiotic stresses that can significantly reduce crop yield. To gain insight into how Spirulina responds to LT stress, comprehensive physiological and proteomic analyses were conducted in this study. Significant decreases in growth and pigment levels as well as excessive accumulation of compatible osmolytes were observed in response to LT stress. An isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics approach was used to identify changes in protein abundance in Spirulina under LT...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902697/a-novel-zebrafish-ret-heterozygous-model-of-hirschsprung-disease-identifies-a-functional-role-for-mapk10-as-a-modifier-of-enteric-nervous-system-phenotype-severity
#16
Tiffany A Heanue, Werend Boesmans, Donald M Bell, Koichi Kawakami, Pieter Vanden Berghe, Vassilis Pachnis
Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is characterized by absence of enteric neurons from the distal colon and severe intestinal dysmotility. To understand the pathophysiology and genetics of HSCR we developed a unique zebrafish model that allows combined genetic, developmental and in vivo physiological studies. We show that ret mutant zebrafish exhibit cellular, physiological and genetic features of HSCR, including absence of intestinal neurons, reduced peristalsis, and varying phenotype expressivity in the heterozygous state...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902303/arthrobacter-ginkgonis-sp-nov-a-novel-actinomycete-isolated-from-rhizosphere-of-ginkgo-biloba-l
#17
Juan Cheng, Meng-Yue Zhang, Jian-Chao Zhao, Huan Xu, Yu Zhang, Tian-Yuan Zhang, Ying-Ying Wu, Yi-Xuan Zhang
A Gram-staining-positive, aerobic and displaying a rod-coccus growth life cycle actinobacterial strain, designated as SYP-A7299T, was isolated from the rhizosphere of Ginkgo biloba L. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SYP-A7299T belongs to the genus Arthrobacter and most closely related to Arthrobacter halodurans JSM 078085T (97.4 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain SYP-A7299T and A. halodurans JSM 078085T was 37 % ± 2.9. The cell wall peptidoglycan was A4α, and with glucose and galactose as whole-cell sugars...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902300/kibdelosporangium-metalli-sp-nov-isolated-from-rare-earth-mine-of-bayan-obo-in-china
#18
Yan-Ru Cao, Wen-Qing Yang, Ya Dao, Bin Hu, Zhong-Kan He, Lian-Ming Liang
A Gram-positive, sporangium-like globular bodies forming, oxidase-negative, catalase-positive isolate from the rare earth mine of Bayan Obo in China, designated strain KC 266T, was subjected to a comprehensive taxonomic study. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain KC 266T represented a novel lineage within the genus Kibdelosporangium and showed highest 16S rRNA gene similarities to K. philippinense (98.5%), K. aridum subsp. largum (98.2%), K. aridum subsp. aridum (98.2%) and K. phytohabitans (98...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902295/kribbella-deserti-sp-nov-isolated-from-rhizosphere-soil-of-ammopiptanthus-mongolicus
#19
Ji-Quan Sun, Lian Xu, Yan Guo, Wei-Le Li, Zhong-Qiu Shao, Yuan-Liang Yang, Xiao-Lei Wu
A Gram-staining-positive, aerobic bacterial strain, designated SL15-1T was isolated from desert soil which sampled from the rhizosphere of Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, Hangjin Banner, Inner Mongolia, northern China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SL15-1T was clustered with Kribbella strains, sharing the highest similarity of 16S rRNA gene (96.97%) to Kribbella sandramycini DSM 15626T. Strain SL15-1T contained diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylcholine (PC), an unknown phospholipid (PL), an unknown lipid (L) and two unknown aminophospholipids (APL) as the major polar lipids...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902267/soortia-roseihalophila-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-new-taxon-isolated-from-a-travertine-spring-in-the-order-balneolales-and-description-of-soortiaceae-fam-nov
#20
Mohammad Ali Amoozegar, Javad Khansha, Maliheh Mehrshad, Seyed Abolhassan Shahzadeh Fazeli, Mohaddaseh Ramezani, Rafael de la Haba, Cristina Sánchez-Porro, Antonio Ventosa
A novel Gram-stain-negative, slightly halophilic motile curved rod with horseshoe shape, designated strain Bsw-2bT, was isolated from Badab-Soort travertine spring in Iran. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain Bsw-2bT belongs to the order Balneolales, showing 84.6% sequence similarity to Gracilimonas tropica DSM 19535T and 84.4 % and 83.9 % sequence similarity to Gracilimonas rosea CL-KR2T and Balneola vulgaris DSM 17893T, respectively. Besides, phenotypic and physiological features could clearly differentiate strain Bsw-2bT from species of the most closely related genera Gracilimonas, Balneola, Aliifodinibius and Fodinibius...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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