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Cellular physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738600/quantification-of-intercellular-adhesion-forces-measured-by-fluid-force-microscopy
#1
Noa Cohen, Saheli Sarkar, Evangelia Hondroulis, Pooja Sabhachandani, Tania Konry
The mechanics of cancer cell adhesion to its neighboring cells, homotypic or heterotypic, have significant impact on tumor progression and metastasis. Intercellular adhesion has been quantified previously using atomic force microscopy-based methods. Here we show the feasibility of the recently developed fluidic force microscopy (FluidFM) to measure adhesive forces exerted by breast cancer cells. Multiple cell pairs were assessed at precisely controlled, increasing contact durations by pressure-dependent immobilization of a cell at the probe tip...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737113/micrornas-roles-in-regulating-neuroinflammation
#2
Andrew D Gaudet, Laura K Fonken, Linda R Watkins, Randy J Nelson, Phillip G Popovich
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that broadly affect cellular and physiological function in all multicellular organisms. Here, the role of miRNAs in neuroinflammation is considered. miRNAs are 21- to 23-oligonucleotide RNAs that regulate translation of specific RNAs by binding to complementary regulatory RNA sequences, thereby causing mRNA degradation or sequestration. More than 5000 miRNAs likely exist in humans, and each miRNA binds an average of 200 RNAs. Specific immunomodulatory miRNAs can regulate a set of RNAs in a coordinated manner, suggesting that effective miRNA-based therapeutic manipulations for neuroinflammatory conditions may be revealed...
July 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737011/a-distinctive-patchy-osteomalacia-characterises-phospho1-deficient-mice
#3
Alan Boyde, Katherine A Staines, Behzad Javaheri, Jose Luis Millan, Andrew A Pitsillides, Colin Farquharson
The phosphatase PHOSPHO1 is involved in the initiation of biomineralisation. Bones in Phospho1 knockout (KO) mice show histological osteomalacia with frequent bowing of long bones and spontaneous fractures: they contain less mineral, with smaller mineral crystals. However, the consequences of Phospho1 ablation on the microscale structure of bone are not yet fully elucidated. Tibias and femurs obtained from wild-type and Phospho1 null (KO) mice (25-32 weeks old) were embedded in PMMA, cut and polished to produce near longitudinal sections...
August 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736855/-lnc-ing-wnt-in-female-reproductive-cancers-therapeutic-potential-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-wnt-signaling
#4
REVIEW
Mei S Ong, Wanpei Cai, Yi Yuan, Hin C Leong, Tuan Z Tan, Asad Mohammad, Ming L You, Frank Arfuso, Boon C Goh, Sudha Warrier, Gautam Sethi, Nicholas S Tolwinski, Peter E Lobie, Celestial T Yap, Shing C Hooi, Ruby Y Huang, Alan P Kumar
Recent discoveries in the non-coding genome have challenged the original central dogma of molecular biology; non-coding RNAs and related processes have been found to be important in regulating gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are amongst some that have gained attention recently in human diseases, including cancer, with the involvement of many more ncRNAs waiting to be discovered. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a group of ribonucleic acids transcribed from regions of the human genome, which do not become translated into proteins, despite having essential roles in cellular physiology...
July 24, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736529/detection-of-ros-induced-proteomic-signatures-by-mass-spectrometry
#5
REVIEW
Brian McDonagh
Reversible and irreversible post-translational modifications (PTMs) induced by endogenously generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in regulatory enzymes and proteins plays an essential role in cellular signaling. Almost all cellular processes including metabolism, transcription, translation and degradation have been identified as containing redox regulated proteins. Specific redox modifications of key amino acids generated by ROS offers a dynamic and versatile means to rapidly alter the activity or functional structure of proteins in response to biochemical, environmental, genetic and pathological perturbations...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736435/extracellular-vesicles-in-renal-disease
#6
REVIEW
Diana Karpman, Anne-Lie Ståhl, Ida Arvidsson
Extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes and microvesicles, are host cell-derived packages of information that allow cell-cell communication and enable cells to rid themselves of unwanted substances. The release and uptake of extracellular vesicles has important physiological functions and may also contribute to the development and propagation of inflammatory, vascular, malignant, infectious and neurodegenerative diseases. This Review describes the different types of extracellular vesicles, how they are detected and the mechanisms by which they communicate with cells and transfer information...
July 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736426/modulation-of-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-and-ros-generation-by-nicotinamide-in-a-manner-independent-of-sirt1-and-mitophagy
#7
Seon Beom Song, So-Young Jang, Hyun Tae Kang, Bie Wei, Un-Woo Jeoun, Gye Soon Yoon, Eun Seong Hwang
Nicotinamide (NAM) plays essential roles in physiology through facilitating NAD+ redox homeostasis. Importantly, at high doses, it protects cells under oxidative stresses, and has shown therapeutic effectiveness in a variety of disease conditions. In our previous studies, NAM lowered reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and extended cellular life span in primary human cells. In the treated cells, levels of NAD+/NADH and SIRT1 activity increased, while mitochondrial content decreased through autophagy activation...
July 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736333/synthesis-and-characterization-of-a-multifunctional-gold-doxorubicin-nanoparticle-system-for-ph-triggered-intracellular-drug-release
#8
Ganesh V Khutale, Alan Casey
A nanoparticle drug carrier system has been developed to alter the cellular uptake and chemotherapeutic performance of an available chemotherapeutic drug. The system comprises of a multifunctional gold nanoparticle based drug delivery system (Au-PEG-PAMAM-DOX) as a novel platform for intracellular delivery of doxorubicin (DOX). Spherical gold nanoparticles were synthesized by a gold chloride reduction, stabilized with thiolated polyethylene glycol (PEG) and then covalently coupled with a polyamidoamine (PAMAM) G4 dendrimer...
July 20, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736303/the-good-and-the-bad-collagens-of-fibrosis-their-role-in-signaling-and-organ-function
#9
M A Karsdal, S H Nielsen, D J Leeming, L L Langholm, M J Nielsen, T Manon-Jensen, A Siebuhr, N S Gudmann, S Rønnow, J M Sand, S J Daniels, J H Mortensen, D Schuppan
Usually the dense extracellular structure in fibrotic tissues is described as extracellular matrix (ECM) or simply as collagen. However, fibrosis is not just fibrosis, which is already exemplified by the variant morphological characteristics of fibrosis due to viral versus cholestatic, autoimmune or toxic liver injury, with reticular, chicken wire and bridging fibrosis. Importantly, the overall composition of the ECM, especially the relative amounts of the many types of collagens, which represent the most abundant ECM molecules and which centrally modulate cellular functions and physiological processes, changes dramatically during fibrosis progression...
July 20, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736205/developmental-and-extrahepatic-physiological-functions-of-srebp-pathway-genes-in-mice
#10
REVIEW
Luke J Engelking, Mary Jo Cantoria, Yanchao Xu, Guosheng Liang
Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), master transcriptional regulators of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis, have been found to contribute to a diverse array of cellular processes. In this review, we focus on genetically engineered mice in which the activities of six components of the SREBP gene pathway, namely SREBP-1, SREBP-2, Scap, Insig-1, Insig-2, or Site-1 protease have been altered through gene knockout or transgenic approaches. In addition to the expected impacts on lipid metabolism, manipulation of these genes in mice is found to affect a wide array of developmental and physiologic processes ranging from interferon signaling in macrophages to synaptic transmission in the brain...
July 20, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735973/in-vitro-study-on-the-regulation-of-cellular-mrna-levels-by-changes-in-transcription-rate-and-transcript-stability-in-fish-red-blood-cells
#11
Miriam Götting, Mikko Nikinmaa
The interplay of transcriptional and posttranscriptional processes in the regulation of gene expression has been extensively studied in mammals but little is known in other vertebrates so far. Most non-mammalian vertebrates are faced with environmental cues and stressors distinct from those experienced by mammals and thus it is likely that the gene expression strategies differ from those of mammals. Here we performed experiments to study in vitro the various levels of gene expression regulation in nucleated fish red blood cells...
July 20, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735418/gap-junction-communication-between-chromaffin-cells-the-hidden-face-of-adrenal-stimulus-secretion-coupling
#12
REVIEW
Nathalie C Guérineau
From birth to death, catecholamine secretion undergoes continuous adjustments, allowing the organism to adapt to homeostasis changes. To cope with these stressful conditions, the neuroendocrine cells of the adrenal medulla play an immediate and crucial role. Chromaffin cell-driven catecholamine release is chiefly controlled by a neurogenic command that arises from the sympathetic nervous system, which releases acetylcholine at the splanchnic nerve terminal-chromaffin cell synapses. In addition to receiving several synaptic inputs individually, chromaffin cells are coupled by gap junctions...
July 22, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735187/progress-in-targeting-the-bcl-2-family-of-proteins
#13
REVIEW
Thomas P Garner, Andrea Lopez, Denis E Reyna, Adam Z Spitz, Evripidis Gavathiotis
The network of protein-protein interactions among the BCL-2 protein family plays a critical role in regulating cellular commitment to mitochondrial apoptosis. Anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins are considered promising targets for drug discovery and exciting clinical progress has stimulated intense investigations in the broader family. Here, we discuss recent developments in small molecules targeting anti-apoptotic proteins and alternative approaches to targeting BCL-2 family interactions. These studies advance our understanding of the role of BCL-2 family proteins in physiology and disease, providing unique tools for dissecting these functions...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735097/protecting-the-heart-through-mk2-modulation-toward-a-role-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-and-lipid-metabolism
#14
REVIEW
Matthieu Ruiz, Lise Coderre, Bruce Gordon Allen, Christine Des Rosiers
Various signaling pathways have been identified in the heart as important players during development, physiological adaptation or pathological processes. This includes the MAPK families, particularly p38MAPK, which is involved in several key cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation, metabolism and survival. Disrupted p38MAPK signaling has been associated with several diseases, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD) as well as diabetes and its related complications...
July 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735027/translation-of-an-injectable-triple-interpenetrating-network-hydrogel-for-intervertebral-disc-regeneration-in-a-goat-model
#15
Sarah E Gullbrand, Thomas P Schaer, Prateek Agarwal, Justin R Bendigo, George R Dodge, Weiliam Chen, Dawn M Elliott, Robert L Mauck, Neil R Malhotra, Lachlan J Smith
Degeneration of the intervertebral discs is a progressive cascade of cellular, compositional and structural changes that is frequently associated with low back pain. As the first signs of disc degeneration typically arise in the disc's central nucleus pulposus (NP), augmentation of the NP via hydrogel injection represents a promising strategy to treat early to mid-stage degeneration. The purpose of this study was to establish the translational feasibility of a triple interpenetrating network hydrogel composed of dextran, chitosan, and teleostean (DCT) for augmentation of the degenerative NP in a preclinical goat model...
July 19, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734771/new-advances-in-autophagy-in-plants-regulation-selectivity-and-function
#16
REVIEW
Ping Wang, Yosia Mugume, Diane C Bassham
Autophagy is a major and conserved pathway for delivering unwanted proteins or damaged organelles to the vacuole for degradation and recycling. In plants, it functions as a housekeeping process to maintain cellular homeostasis under normal conditions and is induced by stress and senescence; it thus plays important roles in development, stress tolerance and metabolism. Autophagy can both execute bulk degradation and be highly selective in targeting cargos under specific environmental conditions or during certain developmental processes...
July 19, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734076/ensemble-characterization-of-an-intrinsically-disordered-fg-nup-peptide-and-its-f-a-mutant-in-dmso-d6
#17
Korey M Reid, Punnepalli Sunanda, S Raghothama, V V Krishnan
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDP) lack a well-defined 3D-structure under physiological conditions, yet, the inherent disorder represented by an ensemble of conformation plays a critical role in many cellular and regulatory processes. Nucleoporins, or Nups, are the proteins found in the nuclear pore complex (NPC). The central pore of the NPC is occupied by Nups, which have phenylalanine-glycine domain repeats and are intrinsically disordered, and therefore are termed FG-Nups. These FG-domain repeats exhibit differing cohesiveness character and differ from least (FG) to most (GLFG) cohesive...
July 22, 2017: Biopolymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733762/reconsidering-betaine-as-a-natural-anti-heat-stress-agent-in-poultry-industry-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Muhammad Saeed, Daryoush Babazadeh, Muhammad Naveed, Muhammad Asif Arain, Faiz Ul Hassan, Sun Chao
Betaine is found ubiquitously in plants, animals, microorganisms, and rich dietary sources including seafood, spinach, and wheat bran. The chief physiological role of betaine is to function as a methyl donor and an osmolyte. Betaine also acts as an osmolyte, to maintain the avian's cellular water and ion balance to improve the avian's capacity against heat stress via preventing dehydration and osmotic inactivation. It helps in maintaining the protective osmolytic activity, especially in heat-stressed birds...
July 21, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733645/hdac3-is-a-molecular-brake-of-the-metabolic-switch-supporting-white-adipose-tissue-browning
#19
Alessandra Ferrari, Raffaella Longo, Erika Fiorino, Rui Silva, Nico Mitro, Gaia Cermenati, Federica Gilardi, Béatrice Desvergne, Annapaola Andolfo, Cinzia Magagnotti, Donatella Caruso, Emma De Fabiani, Scott W Hiebert, Maurizio Crestani
White adipose tissue (WAT) can undergo a phenotypic switch, known as browning, in response to environmental stimuli such as cold. Post-translational modifications of histones have been shown to regulate cellular energy metabolism, but their role in white adipose tissue physiology remains incompletely understood. Here we show that histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) regulates WAT metabolism and function. Selective ablation of Hdac3 in fat switches the metabolic signature of WAT by activating a futile cycle of de novo fatty acid synthesis and β-oxidation that potentiates WAT oxidative capacity and ultimately supports browning...
July 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733588/neurogenesis-from-sox2-expressing-cells-in-the-adult-cerebellar-cortex
#20
Julia Ahlfeld, Severin Filser, Felix Schmidt, Annika K Wefers, Daniel J Merk, Rainer Glaß, Jochen Herms, Ulrich Schüller
We identified a rare undifferentiated cell population that is intermingled with the Bergmann glia of the adult murine cerebellar cortex, expresses the stem cell markers Sox2 and Nestin, and lacks markers of glial or neuronal differentiation. Interestingly, such Sox2(+) S100(-) cells of the adult cerebellum expanded after adequate physiological stimuli in mice (exercise), and Sox2(+) precursors acquired positivity for the neuronal marker NeuN over time and integrated into cellular networks. In human patients, SOX2(+) S100(-) cells similarly increased in number after relevant pathological insults (infarcts), suggesting a similar expansion of cells that lack terminal glial differentiation...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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