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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918545/increased-postharvest-life-of-tomlox-b-silenced-mutants-of-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-var-ta234
#1
Elizabeth León-García, Gilber Vela-Gutiérrez, Oscar A Del Ángel-Coronel, Cristobal Torres-Palacios, Javier De La Cruz-Medina, Miguel A Gómez-Lim, Hugo Sergio García
A healthy lifestyle includes fruits and vegetables consumption. Tomato is one of the most consumed vegetables, although it is susceptible to physical damage through postharvest handling, thus leading to important losses. Softening is an important variable during tomato ripening; excessive softening is undesirable and leads to postharvest losses. TomloxB plays an important role in ripening, mainly in the loss of cellular integrity caused by fatty acids released from the lipid matrix of membranes that initiate oxidative deterioration, which is in turn carried into senescence...
September 16, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918538/genetic-manipulation-of-borrelia-spp
#2
Dan Drecktrah, D Scott Samuels
The spirochetes Borrelia (Borreliella) burgdorferi and Borrelia hermsii, the etiologic agents of Lyme disease and relapsing fever, respectively, cycle in nature between an arthropod vector and a vertebrate host. They have extraordinarily unusual genomes that are highly segmented and predominantly linear. The genetic analyses of Lyme disease spirochetes have become increasingly more sophisticated, while the age of genetic investigation in the relapsing fever spirochetes is just dawning. Molecular tools available for B...
September 17, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917815/mitigation-of-nitrite-toxicity-by-increased-salinity-is-associated-with-multiple-physiological-responses-a-case-study-using-an-economically-important-model-species-the-juvenile-obscure-puffer-takifugu-obscurus
#3
Jun Wang, Hengxing Tang, Xingxing Zhang, Xiaofeng Xue, Xuexia Zhu, Yafen Chen, Zhou Yang
Nitrite is a common pollutant in water and is highly toxic to aquatic animals. To reveal the mechanism of salinity in attenuating nitrite toxicity to fish, we measured the physiological responses of juvenile Takifugu obscurus exposed to nitrite concentrations (0, 10, 20, 50, and 100 mg/L) under different salinity levels (0, 10, and 20 ppt) for 96 h. Salinity increased the survival rates of juvenile T. obscurus exposed to nitrite. Changes in key hematological parameters, antioxidant system, malondialdehyde, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, and HSP70 indicated that nitrite induced considerable damage to juveniles; salinity mitigated the harmful effects...
September 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917143/glutathione-induced-alleviation-of-cadmium-toxicity-in-zea-mays
#4
Mei Li, Pengfei Hao, Fangbin Cao
Glutathione (GSH) is known to alleviate cadmium (Cd) stress in many plant species. However, the comprehensive mechanisms responsible for this effect in maize are still need more investigation. Here, a combination of physiological and molecular approaches was utilized in GSH-Cd treated maize seedlings, which revealed that GSH reversed the adverse effects of Cd, as reflected by plant growth, plant hormones, vacuole, stoma development, gene expression, etc. Plant growth, root cell viability, photosynthetic capacity, redox equilibrium, and cell ultrastructure recovery following GSH treatment, coupled with the strong up-regulation of Cd tolerance-related genes (e...
September 8, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915433/trans-golgi-network-early-endosome-a-central-sorting-station-for-cargo-proteins-in-plant-immunity
#5
REVIEW
Erica D LaMontagne, Antje Heese
In plants, the trans-Golgi network (TGN) functionally overlaps with the early endosome (EE), serving as a central sorting hub to direct newly synthesized and endocytosed cargo to the cell surface or vacuole. Here, we focus on the emerging role of the TGN/EE in sorting of immune cargo proteins for effective plant immunity against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Specific vesicle coat and regulatory components at the TGN/EE ensure that immune cargoes are correctly sorted and transported to the location of their cellular functions...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915415/transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-hepatopancreas-induced-by-eyestalk-ablation-in-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#6
Ji-Hyun Lee, Indyaswan T Suryaningtyas, Tae-Ho Yoon, Jeong Min Shim, Hyun Park, Hyun-Woo Kim
Although eyestalk ablation (ESA) is currently considered the most effective method to facilitate molting and maturation, its physiological responses are still not clearly explained in decapod crustaceans. In this study, we analyzed the hepatopancreatic transcriptomes of Litopenaeus vannamei after ESA using the Illumina Miseq platform. After screening 53,029 contigs with high cutoff values (fold change>|10|; P-value<0.05; RPKM>1), we were able to identify 105 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 100 were up-regulated and five were down-regulated...
September 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915410/aiegens-for-biological-process-monitoring-and-disease-theranostics
#7
REVIEW
Xinggui Gu, Ryan T K Kwok, Jacky W Y Lam, Ben Zhong Tang
Biological processes are of great significance for the normal physiological functions of living organisms and closely related to the health. Monitoring of biological processes and diagnosis of diseases based on fluorescent techniques would provide comprehensive insight into mechanism of life and pathogenesis of diseases, precisely guiding therapeutic effect in theranostics. It largely relied on fluorophores with the properties of excellent photostability, large Stokes shift, high signal-to-noise ratio and free of aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect...
September 4, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915329/mitophagy-as-a-protective-mechanism-against-myocardial-stress
#8
Jihoon Nah, Shigeki Miyamoto, Junichi Sadoshima
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that can undergo fusion, fission, biogenesis, and autophagic elimination to maintain mitochondrial quality control. Since the heart is in constant need of high amounts of energy, mitochondria, as a central energy supply source, play a crucial role in maintaining optimal cardiac performance. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with the pathophysiology of heart diseases. In non-dividing, post-mitotic cells such as cardiomyocytes, elimination of dysfunctional organelles is essential to maintaining cellular function because non-dividing cells cannot dilute dysfunctional organelles through cell division...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915327/adipose-tissue-in-hiv-infection
#9
John R Koethe
HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment exert diverse effects on adipocytes and stromal-vascular fraction cells, leading to changes in adipose tissue quantity, distribution, and energy storage. A HIV-associated lipodystrophic condition was recognized early in the epidemic, characterized by clinically apparent changes in subcutaneous, visceral, and dorsocervical adipose depots. Underlying these changes is altered adipose tissue morphology and expression of genes central to adipocyte maturation, regulation, metabolism, and cytokine signaling...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915318/applications-of-high-resolution-magic-angle-spinning-mrs-in-biomedical-studies-ii-human-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Christopher Dietz, Felix Ehret, Francesco Palmas, Lindsey A Vandergrift, Yanni Jiang, Vanessa Schmitt, Vera Dufner, Piet Habbel, Johannes Nowak, Leo L Cheng
High-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) MRS is a powerful method for gaining insight into the physiological and pathological processes of cellular metabolism. Given its ability to obtain high-resolution spectra of non-liquid biological samples, while preserving tissue architecture for subsequent histopathological analysis, the technique has become invaluable for biochemical and biomedical studies. Using HRMAS MRS, alterations in measured metabolites, metabolic ratios, and metabolomic profiles present the possibility to improve identification and prognostication of various diseases and decipher the metabolomic impact of drug therapies...
September 15, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914501/andrology-of-male-to-female-transsexuals-influence-of-cross-sex-hormone-therapy-on-testicular-function
#11
REVIEW
F Schneider, S Kliesch, S Schlatt, N Neuhaus
Patients with gender dysphoria are offered cross-sex hormone therapy and sex reassignment surgery to achieve the transition between the sex assigned at birth and gender identity. According to international guidelines, cross-sex hormone therapy in trans-women should lead to a psychologically and physiologically healthy body with feminized serum hormone levels, resulting in suppression of spermatogenesis. However, in a recently published multi-center study, we discovered a high proportion of patients with male serum hormone levels and qualitatively intact spermatogenesis on the day of sex reassignment surgery...
September 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914406/manganese-induced-neurotoxicity-and-alterations-in-gene-expression-in-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells
#12
Deepa Gandhi, Saravanadevi Sivanesan, Krishnamurthi Kannan
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element required for many physiological functions including proper biochemical and cellular functioning of the central nervous system (CNS). However, exposure to excess level of Mn through occupational settings or from environmental sources has been associated with neurotoxicity. The cellular and molecular mechanism of Mn-induced neurotoxicity remains unclear. In the current study, we investigated the effects of 30-day exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of Mn (100 μM) in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) using transcriptomic approach...
September 15, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913346/live-fast-die-fast-principle-in-a-single-cell-of-fission-yeast
#13
COMMENT
Hidenori Nakaoka
Growth and death are both fundamental macroscopic properties for all living matters, and thus cell division and mortality rates are good parameters for characterizing cellular physiology in a given environment. While population growth rates in various conditions have been reported in literature, death rate is rarely measured, especially in favorable culture conditions where cells grow exponentially. In our recent study (Nakaoka and Wakamoto, 2017), we developed a microfluidics-based platform to track multiple single cell lineages until death...
August 13, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913178/modeling-cancer-cell-growth-dynamics-in-vitro-in-response-to-antimitotic-drug-treatment
#14
Alexander Lorz, Dana-Adriana Botesteanu, Doron Levy
Investigating the role of intrinsic cell heterogeneity emerging from variations in cell-cycle parameters and apoptosis is a crucial step toward better informing drug administration. Antimitotic agents, widely used in chemotherapy, target exclusively proliferative cells and commonly induce a prolonged mitotic arrest followed by cell death via apoptosis. In this paper, we developed a physiologically motivated mathematical framework for describing cancer cell growth dynamics that incorporates the intrinsic heterogeneity in the time individual cells spend in the cell-cycle and apoptosis process...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912686/roles-of-microglial-phagocytosis-and-inflammatory-mediators-in-the-pathophysiology-of-sleep-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Agnes Nadjar, Henna-Kaisa M Wigren, Marie-Eve Tremblay
Sleep serves crucial learning and memory functions in both nervous and immune systems. Microglia are brain immune cells that actively maintain health through their crucial physiological roles exerted across the lifespan, including phagocytosis of cellular debris and orchestration of neuroinflammation. The past decade has witnessed an explosive growth of microglial research. Considering the recent developments in the field of microglia and sleep, we examine their possible impact on various pathological conditions associated with a gain, disruption, or loss of sleep in this focused mini-review...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912501/transcription-regulation-of-cdkn1a-p21-cip1-waf1-by-trf2-is-epigenetically-controlled-through-the-rest-repressor-complex
#16
Tabish Hussain, Dhurjhoti Saha, Gunjan Purohit, Anirban Kar, Anand Kishore Mukherjee, Shalu Sharma, Suman Sengupta, Parashar Dhapola, Basudeb Maji, Sreekanth Vedagopuram, Nobuko T Horikoshi, Nobuo Horikoshi, Raj K Pandita, Santanu Bhattacharya, Avinash Bajaj, Jean-François Riou, Tej K Pandita, Shantanu Chowdhury
We observed extra-telomeric binding of the telomere repeat binding factor TRF2 within the promoter of the cyclin-dependent kinase CDKNIA (p21/CIP1/WAF1). This result in TRF2 induced transcription repression of p21. Interestingly, p21 repression was through engagement of the REST-coREST-LSD1-repressor complex and altered histone marks at the p21 promoter in a TRF2-dependent fashion. Furthermore, mutational analysis shows p21 repression requires interaction of TRF2 with a p21 promoter G-quadruplex. Physiologically, TRF2-mediated p21 repression attenuated drug-induced activation of cellular DNA damage response by evading G2/M arrest in cancer cells...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912355/diverse-p53-dna-binding-modes-expand-the-repertoire-of-p53-response-elements
#17
Pratik Vyas, Itai Beno, Zhiqun Xi, Yan Stein, Dmitrij Golovenko, Naama Kessler, Varda Rotter, Zippora Shakked, Tali E Haran
The tumor suppressor protein p53 acts as a transcription factor, binding sequence-specifically to defined DNA sites, thereby activating the expression of genes leading to diverse cellular outcomes. Canonical p53 response elements (REs) are made of two decameric half-sites separated by a variable number of base pairs (spacers). Fifty percent of all validated p53 REs contain spacers between 1 and 18 bp; however, their functional significance is unclear at present. Here, we show that p53 forms two different tetrameric complexes with consensus or natural REs, both with long spacers: a fully specific complex where two p53 dimers bind to two specific half-sites, and a hemispecific complex where one dimer binds to a specific half-site and the second binds to an adjacent spacer sequence...
September 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912162/regional-cellular-environment-shapes-phenotypic-variations-of-hippocampal-and-neocortical-chandelier-cells
#18
Yugo Ishino, Michael J Yetman, Serena M Sossi, André Steinecke, Yasufumi Hayano, Hiroki Taniguchi
Different cortical regions processing distinct information, such as the hippocampus and the neocortex, share common cellular components and circuit motifs but form unique networks by modifying these cardinal units. Cortical circuits include diverse types of GABAergic interneurons (INs) that shape activity of excitatory principal neurons (PNs). Canonical IN types conserved across distinct cortical regions have been defined by their morphological, electrophysiological, and neurochemical properties. However, it remains largely unknown whether canonical IN types undergo specific modifications in distinct cortical regions and display "regional variants"...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912160/dopamine-d2-receptors-modulate-pyramidal-neurons-in-mouse-medial-prefrontal-cortex-through-a-stimulatory-g-protein-pathway
#19
Sarah E Robinson, Vikaas S Sohal
Dopaminergic modulation of prefrontal cortex is believed to play key roles in many cognitive functions and to be disrupted in pathological conditions such as schizophrenia. We have previously described a phenomenon whereby dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) activation elicits afterdepolarizations (ADPs) in subcortically-projecting (SC) pyramidal neurons within L5 of the prefrontal cortex. These D2R-induced ADPs only occur following synaptic input which activates NMDA receptors (NMDARs) even when the delay between the synaptic input and afterdepolarizations is relatively long, e...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911967/applications-of-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-in-lipid-analyses-an-emerging-powerful-tool-for-lipidomics-studies
#20
REVIEW
Jingbo Li, Thomas Vosegaard, Zheng Guo
The role of lipids in cell, tissue, and organ physiology is crucial; as many diseases, including cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative, and infectious diseases, are closely related to absorption and metabolism of lipids. Mass spectrometry (MS) based methods are the most developed powerful tools to study the synthetic pathways and metabolic networks of cellular lipids in biological systems; leading to the birth of an emerging subject lipidomics, which has been extensively reviewed. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), another powerful analytical tool, which allows the visualization of single atoms and molecules, is receiving increasing attention in lipidomics analyses...
September 11, 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
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