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Cellular physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431199/staphylococcus-aureus-nitric-oxide-synthase-sanos-modulates-aerobic-respiratory-metabolism-and-cell-physiology
#1
Austin B Mogen, Ronan K Carroll, Kimberly L James, Genevy Lima, Dona Silva, Jeffrey A Culver, Christopher Petucci, Lindsey N Shaw, Kelly C Rice
Nitric oxide (NO) is generated from arginine and oxygen via NO synthase (NOS). Staphylococcus aureus NOS (saNOS) has previously been shown to affect virulence and resistance to exogenous oxidative stress, yet the exact mechanism is unknown. Herein, we report a previously-undescribed role of saNOS in S. aureus aerobic physiology. Specifically, aerobic S. aureus nos mutant cultures presented with elevated endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide levels, as well as increased membrane potential, increased respiratory dehydrogenase activity, and slightly elevated oxygen consumption...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430800/the-burden-of-trisomy-21-disrupts-the-proteostasis-network-in-down-syndrome
#2
Stefanos Aivazidis, Christina M Coughlan, Abhishek K Rauniyar, Hua Jiang, L Alexander Liggett, Kenneth N Maclean, James R Roede
Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder caused by trisomy of chromosome 21. Abnormalities in chromosome number have the potential to lead to disruption of the proteostasis network (PN) and accumulation of misfolded proteins. DS individuals suffer from several comorbidities, and we hypothesized that disruption of proteostasis could contribute to the observed pathology and decreased cell viability in DS. Our results confirm the presence of a disrupted PN in DS, as several of its elements, including the unfolded protein response, chaperone system, and proteasomal degradation exhibited significant alterations compared to euploid controls in both cell and mouse models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430591/poly-adenosine-diphosphate-ribose-polymerase-as-therapeutic-target-lessons-learned-from-its-inhibitors
#3
REVIEW
Anna Mária Cseh, Zsolt Fábián, Balázs Sümegi, Luca Scorrano
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases are a family of DNA-dependent nuclear enzymes catalyzing the transfer of ADP-ribose moieties from cellular nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide to a variety of target proteins. Although they have been considered as resident nuclear elements of the DNA repair machinery, recent works revealed a more intricate physiologic role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases with numerous extranuclear activities. Indeed, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases participate in fundamental cellular processes like chromatin remodelling, transcription or regulation of the cell-cycle...
April 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429788/the-hsp90-chaperone-machinery
#4
REVIEW
Florian H Schopf, Maximilian M Biebl, Johannes Buchner
The heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) chaperone machinery is a key regulator of proteostasis under both physiological and stress conditions in eukaryotic cells. As HSP90 has several hundred protein substrates (or 'clients'), it is involved in many cellular processes beyond protein folding, which include DNA repair, development, the immune response and neurodegenerative disease. A large number of co-chaperones interact with HSP90 and regulate the ATPase-associated conformational changes of the HSP90 dimer that occur during the processing of clients...
April 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429319/biochemistry-and-physiology-of-heavy-metal-resistance-and-accumulation-in-euglena
#5
Rafael Moreno-Sánchez, Sara Rodríguez-Enríquez, Ricardo Jasso-Chávez, Emma Saavedra, Jorge D García-García
Free-living microorganisms may become suitable models for removal of heavy metals from polluted water bodies, sediments, and soils by using and enhancing their metal accumulating abilities. The available research data indicate that protists of the genus Euglena are a highly promising group of microorganisms to be used in bio-remediation of heavy metal-polluted aerobic and anaerobic acidic aquatic environments. This chapter analyzes the variety of biochemical mechanisms evolved in E. gracilis to resist, accumulate and remove heavy metals from the environment, being the most relevant those involving (1) adsorption to the external cell pellicle; (2) intracellular binding by glutathione and glutathione polymers, and their further compartmentalization as heavy metal-complexes into chloroplasts and mitochondria; (3) polyphosphate biosynthesis; and (4) secretion of organic acids...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429317/biochemistry-and-physiology-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-euglena
#6
Takahiro Ishikawa, Shun Tamaki, Takanori Maruta, Shigeru Shigeoka
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are by-products of various metabolic processes in aerobic organisms including Euglena. Chloroplasts and mitochondria are the main sites of ROS generation by photosynthesis and respiration, respectively, through the active electron transport chain. An efficient antioxidant network is required to maintain intracellular ROS pools at optimal conditions for redox homeostasis. A comparison with the networks of plants and animals revealed that Euglena has acquired some aspects of ROS metabolic process...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428956/physiological-functions-of-the-cellular-prion-protein
#7
REVIEW
Andrew R Castle, Andrew C Gill
The prion protein, PrP(C), is a small, cell-surface glycoprotein notable primarily for its critical role in pathogenesis of the neurodegenerative disorders known as prion diseases. A hallmark of prion diseases is the conversion of PrP(C) into an abnormally folded isoform, which provides a template for further pathogenic conversion of PrP(C), allowing disease to spread from cell to cell and, in some circumstances, to transfer to a new host. In addition to the putative neurotoxicity caused by the misfolded form(s), loss of normal PrP(C) function could be an integral part of the neurodegenerative processes and, consequently, significant research efforts have been directed toward determining the physiological functions of PrP(C)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427949/parasitism-finds-many-solutions-to-the-same-problems-in-red-algae-florideophyceae-rhodophyta
#8
Jillian M Freese, Christopher E Lane
Parasitic red algae evolve from a common ancestor with their hosts, parasitizing cousins using familiar cellular mechanisms. They have independently evolved over one hundred times within the exclusively multicellular red algal class Florideophyceae. Reduced morphology, a lack of pigmentation, and direct cell-cell connections with their hosts are markers of red algal parasitism. With so many potential evolutionary pathways, red algal parasite diversity offers a unique test case to understand the earliest stages of this lifestyle transition...
April 17, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427436/a-3d-in-vitro-model-of-the-human-breast-duct-a-method-to-unravel-myoepithelial-luminal-interactions-in-the-progression-of-breast-cancer
#9
Edward P Carter, James A Gopsill, Jennifer J Gomm, J Louise Jones, Richard P Grose
BACKGROUND: 3D modelling fulfils a critical role in research, allowing for complex cell behaviour and interactions to be studied in physiomimetic conditions. With tissue banks becoming established for a number of cancers, researchers now have access to primary patient cells, providing the perfect building blocks to recreate and interrogate intricate cellular systems in the laboratory. The ducts of the human breast are composed of an inner layer of luminal cells supported by an outer layer of myoepithelial cells...
April 21, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426719/transcriptome-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-reveals-unique-and-selective-gene-signatures
#10
Moon Young Lee, Se Eun Ha, Chanjae Park, Paul J Park, Robert Fuchs, Lai Wei, Brian G Jorgensen, Doug Redelman, Sean M Ward, Kenton M Sanders, Seungil Ro
Transcriptome-scale data can reveal essential clues into understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms behind specific cellular functions and biological processes. Transcriptomics is a continually growing field of research utilized in biomarker discovery. The transcriptomic profile of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), which serve as slow-wave electrical pacemakers for gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle, has yet to be uncovered. Using copGFP-labeled ICC mice and flow cytometry, we isolated ICC populations from the murine small intestine and colon and obtained their transcriptomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426555/creating-artificial-lymphoid-tissues-to-study-immunity-and-hematological-malignancies
#11
Shivem B Shah, Ankur Singh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The specialized microenvironments of lymphoid tissue affect immune cell function and progression of disease. However, current animal models are low throughput and a large number of human diseases are difficult to model in animals. Animal models are less amenable to manipulation of tissue niche components, signalling pathways, epigenetics, and genome editing than ex vivo models. On the other hand, conventional 2D cultures lack the physiological relevance to study precise microenvironmental interactions...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426449/temperature-and-oxygenation-during-organ-preservation-friends-or-foes
#12
Nicholas Gilbo, Diethard Monbaliu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The liberalization of donor selection criteria in organ transplantation, with the increased use of suboptimal grafts, has stimulated interest in ischemia-reperfusion injury prevention and graft reconditioning. Organ preservation technologies are changing considerably, mostly through the reintroduction of dynamic machine preservation. Here, we review the current evidence on the role of temperature and oxygenation during dynamic machine preservation. RECENT FINDINGS: A large but complex body of evidence exists and comparative studies are few...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426175/differences-in-xylem-and-leaf-hydraulic-traits-explain-differences-in-drought-tolerance-among-mature-amazon-rainforest-trees
#13
Thomas L Powell, James K Wheeler, Alex A R de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos Lola da Costa, Scott R Saleska, Patrick Meir, Paul R Moorcroft
Considerable uncertainty surrounds the impacts of anthropogenic climate change on the composition and structure Amazon forests. Two large-scale ecosystem drought experiments in the eastern Brazilian Amazon observed increases in mortality rates among some tree species but not others; and therefore, the physiological traits underpinning these differential demographic responses were investigated. Xylem pressure at 50% conductivity (xylem-P50 ), leaf turgor loss point (TLP), cellular osmotic potential (πo ) and cellular bulk modulus of elasticity (ε), all traits mechanistically linked to drought tolerance, were measured on upper canopy branches and leaves of mature trees from selected species growing at the two drought experiment sites...
April 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425631/restraint-stress-increases-prolactin-mediated-phosphorylation-of-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-5-in-the-hypothalamus-and-adrenal-cortex-in-the-male-mouse
#14
S E Kirk, T Y Xie, F J Steyn, D R Grattan, S J Bunn
Prolactin is a pleiotropic peptide hormone produced by the lactotrophs in the anterior pituitary. Its rate of secretion is primarily regulated by a negative feedback mechanism whereby prolactin stimulates the activity of the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons, increasing their release of dopamine which accesses the pituitary via the median eminence to suppress further prolactin secretion. In addition to its well established role in lactation, circulating prolactin is secreted in response to stress, although the mechanism by which this is achieved or its cellular targets are unknown...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425561/creating-homogenous-strain-distribution-within-3d-cell-encapsulated-constructs-using-a-simple-and-cost-effective-uniaxial-tensile-bioreactor-design-and-validation-study
#15
Gayathri Subramanian, Mostafa Elsaadany, Callan Bialorucki, Eda Yildirim-Ayan
Mechanical loading bioreactors capable of applying uniaxial tensile strains are emerging to be a valuable tool to investigate physiologically-relevant cellular signaling pathways and biochemical expression. In this study, we have introduced a simple and cost-effective uniaxial tensile strain bioreactor for the application of precise and homogenous uniaxial strains to 3D cell-encapsulated collagen constructs at physiological loading strains (0-12%) and frequencies (0.01-1 Hz). The bioreactor employs silicone-based loading chambers specifically designed to stretch constructs without direct gripping to minimize stress concentration at the ends of the construct and preserve its integrity...
April 20, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425492/fluorescence-and-bioluminescence-imaging-of-angiogenesis-in-flk1-nano-lantern-transgenic-mice
#16
Jun Matsushita, Shigenori Inagaki, Tomomi Nishie, Tomoki Sakasai, Junko Tanaka, Chisato Watanabe, Ken-Ichi Mizutani, Yoshihiro Miwa, Ken Matsumoto, Kazuhiro Takara, Hisamichi Naito, Hiroyasu Kidoya, Nobuyuki Takakura, Takeharu Nagai, Satoru Takahashi, Masatsugu Ema
Angiogenesis is important for normal development as well as for tumour growth. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying angiogenesis are not fully understood, partly because of the lack of a good animal model for imaging. Here, we report the generation of a novel transgenic (Tg) mouse that expresses a bioluminescent reporter protein, Nano-lantern, under the control of Fetal liver kinase 1 (Flk1). Flk1-Nano-lantern BAC Tg mice recapitulated endogenous Flk1 expression in endothelial cells and lymphatic endothelial cells during development and tumour growth...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425446/yap-modulates-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-simultaneous-apoptosis-and-emt-through-upregulation-of-the-egf-receptor
#17
Yi Liu, Kai He, Ying Hu, Xiaojie Guo, Dongmei Wang, Weiwei Shi, Jingsong Li, Jianguo Song
YAP is a transcriptional co-regulator that plays important roles in various patho-physiological processes, including the survival and death of cells. However, the effect of YAP on apoptosis and EMT, simultaneously mediated by TGF-β1, is not known. In this study, we demonstrate that YAP can modulate cell fate of apoptosis versus EMT by acting as a surviving factor. Overexpression of YAP in mouse mammary epithelial (NMuMG) cells suppressed TGF-β1-induced apoptosis, which shifted the cellular response predominantly toward EMT...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425013/cannabinoids-as-modulators-of-cell-death-clinical-applications-and-future-directions
#18
B M Fonseca, N A Teixeira, G Correia-da-Silva
Endocannabinoids are bioactive lipids that modulate various physiological processes through G-protein-coupled receptors (CB1 and CB2) and other putative targets. By sharing the activation of the same receptors, some phytocannabinoids and a multitude of synthetic cannabinoids mimic the effects of endocannabinoids. In recent years, a growing interest has been dedicated to the study of cannabinoids properties for their analgesic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In addition to these well-recognized effects, various studies suggest that cannabinoids may affect cell survival, cell proliferation or cell death...
April 20, 2017: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424742/fret-from-single-to-multiplexed-signaling-events
#19
REVIEW
Gertrude Bunt, Fred S Wouters
Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful tool for the visualization of molecular signaling events such as protein activities and interactions in cells. In its different implementations, FRET microscopy has been mainly used for monitoring single events. Recently, there has been a trend of extending FRET imaging towards the simultaneous detection of multiple events and interactions. The concomitant increase in experimental complexity requires a deeper understanding of the biophysical background of FRET...
April 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424702/dual-role-of-fas-fasl-mediated-signal-in-peripheral-immune-tolerance
#20
REVIEW
Akiko Yamada, Rieko Arakaki, Masako Saito, Yasusei Kudo, Naozumi Ishimaru
Fas-mediated apoptosis contributes to physiological and pathological cellular processes, such as differentiation and survival. In particular, the roles of Fas in immune cells are complex and critical for the maintenance of immune tolerance. The precise pathways and unique functions associated with Fas/FasL-mediated signaling in the immune system are known. The dual character of Fas/FasL-mediated immune regulation that induces beneficial or harmful effects is associated with the onset or development of immune disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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