keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Cellular physiology

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335589/global-functional-analysis-of-butanol-sensitive-escherichia-coli-and-its-evolved-butanol-tolerant-strain
#1
Haeyoung Jeong, Seung-Won Lee, Sun Hong Kim, Eun-Youn Kim, Sinyeon Kim, Sung Ho Yoon
Butanol is a promising alternative to ethanol and is desirable for use in transportation fuels and additives to gasoline and diesel fuels. Microbial production of butanol is challenging primarily due to its toxicity and low titer of production. Herein, we compared the transcriptome and phenome of wild-type Escherichia coli and its butanol-tolerant evolved strain to understand the global cellular physiology and metabolism responsible for butanol tolerance. When the ancestral butanol-sensitive E. coli was exposed to butanol, gene activities involved in respiratory mechanisms and oxidative stress were highly perturbed...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335481/genetic-variants-contributing-to-colistin-cytotoxicity-identification-of-tgif1-and-hoxd10-using-a-population-genomics-approach
#2
Michael T Eadon, Ronald J Hause, Amy L Stark, Ying-Hua Cheng, Heather E Wheeler, Kimberly S Burgess, Eric A Benson, Patrick N Cunningham, Robert L Bacallao, Pierre C Dagher, Todd C Skaar, M Eileen Dolan
Colistin sulfate (polymixin E) is an antibiotic prescribed with increasing frequency for severe Gram-negative bacterial infections. As nephrotoxicity is a common side effect, the discovery of pharmacogenomic markers associated with toxicity would benefit the utility of this drug. Our objective was to identify genetic markers of colistin cytotoxicity that were also associated with expression of key proteins using an unbiased, whole genome approach and further evaluate the functional significance in renal cell lines...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335253/soft-interaction-in-liposome-nanocarriers-for-therapeutic-drug-delivery
#3
REVIEW
Domenico Lombardo, Pietro Calandra, Davide Barreca, Salvatore Magazù, Mikhail A Kiselev
The development of smart nanocarriers for the delivery of therapeutic drugs has experienced considerable expansion in recent decades, with the development of new medicines devoted to cancer treatment. In this respect a wide range of strategies can be developed by employing liposome nanocarriers with desired physico-chemical properties that, by exploiting a combination of a number of suitable soft interactions, can facilitate the transit through the biological barriers from the point of administration up to the site of drug action...
June 25, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335006/a-platform-for-functional-assessment-of-large-variant-libraries-in-mammalian-cells
#4
Kenneth A Matreyek, Jason J Stephany, Douglas M Fowler
Sequencing-based, massively parallel genetic assays have revolutionized our ability to quantify the relationship between many genotypes and a phenotype of interest. Unfortunately, variant library expression platforms in mammalian cells are far from ideal, hindering the study of human gene variants in their physiologically relevant cellular contexts. Here, we describe a platform for phenotyping variant libraries in transfectable mammalian cell lines in two steps. First, a landing pad cell line with a genomically integrated, Tet-inducible cassette containing a Bxb1 recombination site is created...
March 15, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334689/design-characterization-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-linalool-loaded-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-as-potent-tool-in-cancer-therapy
#5
Boris Rodenak-Kladniew, German A Islan, Margarita G de Bravo, Nelson Durán, Guillermo R Castro
Linalool (LN) is a monoterpene found in essential oils of plants and herbs that produces multiple effects on the mevalonate pathway and interesting antiproliferative activity in cancer cells. However, due to its poor aqueous solubility, an efficient vehicle is needed to improve its administration and bioavailability in physiological media. LN encapsulation in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) with different compositions was explored and in vitro tested in two cancer cell lines. SLN of myristyl myristate (MM), cetyl esters (SS) and cetyl palmitate (CP) were prepared by sonication in the presence of Pluronic(®)F68 as surfactant...
March 9, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334331/alterations-of-immune-parameters-on-trichoplusia-ni-lepidoptera-noctuidae-larvae-exposed-to-extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-fields
#6
Jose A Valadez-Lira, Nahui O Medina-Chavez, Alonso A Orozco-Flores, J Antonio Heredia-Rojas, Abraham O Rodriguez-de la Fuente, Ricardo Gomez-Flores, Juan M Alcocer-Gonzalez, Patricia Tamez-Guerra
Worldwide mobile telephone and microwave use have resulted in an increasing presence of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field radiations (ELF-EMFs) in ecosystems. ELF-EMFs have been associated with altered physiological processes that can adversely affect exposed organisms. In this study, Trichoplusia ni Hübner larvae were exposed for 24, 48, or 72 h to ELF-EMFs (60 Hz and 2.0 mT) to assess effects on immune response parameters and fertility. Trichoplusia ni life cycle and fertility were not affected by 24-h exposure...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334216/deletion-of-mazf-increases-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-formation-in-an-ica-dependent-manner
#7
Fuminori Kato, Yusuke Yabuno, Yoshihiro Yamaguchi, Motoyuki Sugai, Masayori Inouye
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are composed of a toxin that inhibits an essential cellular process (e.g., DNA replication, transcription, membrane integrity) and its cognate antitoxin that neutralizes the effect of the toxin. Staphylococcus aureus harbors two types of chromosomally encoded TA systems, namely mazEFsa encoding a UACAU-specific mRNA interferase and two paralogous genes of yefM-yoeBsa encoding a ribosome-dependent endoribonuclease system. However, little is known about the physiological role of MazEFsa and YefM-YoeBsa in S...
March 8, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334174/dna-damage-response-in-hematopoietic-stem-cells-an-evolutionary-trade-off-between-blood-regeneration-and-leukemia-suppression
#8
Shahar Biechonski, Muhammad Yassin, Michael Milyavsky
Self-renewing and multipotent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain lifelong hematopoiesis. Their enormous regenerative potential coupled with lifetime persistence in the body, in contrast with the Progenitors, demand tight control of HSCs genome stability. Indeed, failure to accurately repair DNA damage in HSCs is associated with bone marrow failure and accelerated leukemogenesis. Recent observations exposed remarkable differences in several DNA-damage response (DDR) aspects between HSCs and Progenitors, especially in their DNA-repair capacities and susceptibility to apoptosis...
March 15, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333578/hormetic-heat-shock-and-hsf-1-overexpression-improve-c-elegans-survival-by-inducing-autophagy
#9
Caroline Kumsta, Malene Hansen
The cellular recycling process of macroautophagy/autophagy is an essential homeostatic system induced by various stresses, but it remains unclear how autophagy contributes to organismal stress resistance. In a recent study, we report that a mild and physiologically beneficial ("hormetic") heat shock as well as overexpression of the heat-shock responsive transcription factor HSF-1 systemically increases autophagy in C. elegans. Accordingly, we found HSF-1- and heat stress-inducible autophagy to be required for C...
March 23, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333307/formation-physiology-ecology-evolution-and-clinical-importance-of-bacterial-persisters
#10
Bram Van den Bergh, Maarten Fauvart, Jan Michiels
Persisters are transiently tolerant variants that allow populations to avoid eradication by antibiotic treatment. Their antibiotic tolerance is non-genetic, not inheritable and results from a phenotypic switch from the normal, sensitive cell type to the tolerant, persister state. Here we give a comprehensive overview on bacterial persistence. We first define persistence, summarize the various aspects of persister physiology and show their heterogeneous nature. We then focus on the role of key cellular processes and mechanisms controlling the formation of a subpopulation of tolerant cells...
February 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333278/quantifying-ribosome-dynamics-in-escherichia-coli-using-fluorescence
#11
Jurek Failmezger, Julian Ludwig, Alexander Nieß, Martin Siemann-Herzberg
Ribosomes are a crucial component of the physiological state of a cell. Therefore, we aimed to monitor ribosome dynamics using a fast and easy fluorescence readout. Using fluorescent-labeled ribosomal proteins, the dynamics of ribosomes during batch cultivation and during nutritional shift conditions were investigated. The fluorescence readout was compared to the cellular rRNA content determined by capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection during exponentially accelerating and decelerating growth...
March 8, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333198/a-tetracycline-inducible-integrative-expression-system-for-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#12
Marina Meiers, Anke Laux, Daniela Eichinger, Anne Sexauer, Patrick Marx, Ralph Bertram, Reinhold Brückner
Inducible gene expression systems are very useful to analyze cellular processes. The ability to switch the expression state of genes of interest may even be crucial if essential traits or genetic instability are involved. An integrative plasmid, pTEX2, was designed using the (anhydro)tetracycline-inducible promoter Pxyl/tet from staphylococcal plasmid pRAB11 to control gene expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae. The system was evaluated by expressing genes of the two-component regulatory system ciaRH of S...
February 21, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333140/metabolic-and-molecular-insights-into-an-essential-role-of-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase
#13
Li Q Zhang, Leon Van Haandel, Min Xiong, Peixin Huang, Daniel P Heruth, Charlie Bi, Roger Gaedigk, Xun Jiang, Ding-You Li, Gerald Wyckoff, Dmitry N Grigoryev, Li Gao, Linheng Li, Min Wu, J Steven Leeder, Shui Qing Ye
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is a pleiotropic protein implicated in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome, aging, cancer, coronary heart diseases, diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, and sepsis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of NAMPT in these physiological and pathological processes are not fully understood. Here, we provide experimental evidence that a Nampt gene homozygous knockout (Nampt(-/-)) resulted in lethality at an early stage of mouse embryonic development and death within 5-10 days in adult mice accompanied by a 25...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333031/new-approaches-regarding-the-in-vitro-maturation-of-oocytes-manipulating-cyclic-nucleotides-and-their-partners-in-crime
#14
REVIEW
Ramon Cesar Botigelli, Eduardo Montanari Razza, Elisa Mariano Pioltine, Marcelo Fábio Gouveia Nogueira
Several discoveries have been described recently (5-10 years) about the biology of ovarian follicles (oocyte, cumulus cells and granulosa cells), including new aspects of cellular communication, the control of oocyte maturation and the acquisition of oocyte competence for fertilization and further embryo development. These advances are nourishing assisted reproduction techniques (ART) with new possibilities, in which novel culture systems are being developed and tested to improve embryo yield and quality. This mini-review aims to describe how the recent knowledge on the physiological aspects of mammalian oocyte is reflecting as original or revisited approaches into the context of embryo production...
February 1, 2017: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332716/mir-124-and-mir-9-mediated-downregulation-of-hdac5-promotes-neurite-development-through-activating-mef2c-gpm6a-pathway
#15
Xi Gu, Congcong Fu, Lifang Lin, Shuhu Liu, Xiaohong Su, Aili Li, Qiaoqi Wu, Chunhong Jia, Peidong Zhang, Lu Chen, Xinhong Zhu, Xuemin Wang
The class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) play important roles in the central nervous system during diverse biological processes such as synaptic plasticity, axon regeneration, cell apoptosis, and neural differentiation. Although it is known that HDAC5 regulates neuronal differentiation, neither the physiological function nor the regulation of HDAC5 in neuronal differentiation is clear. Here, we identify HDAC5 as an inhibitor of neurite elongation and show that HDAC5 is regulated by the brain enriched microRNA miR-124 and miR-9...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330995/hepatic-fcrn-regulates-albumin-homeostasis-and-susceptibility-to-liver-injury
#16
Michal Pyzik, Timo Rath, Timothy T Kuo, Sanda Win, Kristi Baker, Jonathan J Hubbard, Rosa Grenha, Amit Gandhi, Thomas D Krämer, Adam R Mezo, Zachary S Taylor, Kevin McDonnell, Vicki Nienaber, Jan Terje Andersen, Atsushi Mizoguchi, Laurence Blumberg, Shalaka Purohit, Susan D Jones, Greg Christianson, Wayne I Lencer, Inger Sandlie, Neil Kaplowitz, Derry C Roopenian, Richard S Blumberg
The neonatal crystallizable fragment receptor (FcRn) is responsible for maintaining the long half-life and high levels of the two most abundant circulating proteins, albumin and IgG. In the latter case, the protective mechanism derives from FcRn binding to IgG in the weakly acidic environment contained within endosomes of hematopoietic and parenchymal cells, whereupon IgG is diverted from degradation in lysosomes and is recycled. The cellular location and mechanism by which FcRn protects albumin are partially understood...
March 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330839/evolutionary-insights-into-t-type-ca-2-channel-structure-function-and-ion-selectivity-from-the-trichoplax-adhaerens-homologue
#17
Carolyn L Smith, Salsabil Abdallah, Yuen Yan Wong, Phuong Le, Alicia N Harracksingh, Liana Artinian, Arianna N Tamvacakis, Vincent Rehder, Thomas S Reese, Adriano Senatore
Four-domain voltage-gated Ca(2+) (Cav) channels play fundamental roles in the nervous system, but little is known about when or how their unique properties and cellular roles evolved. Of the three types of metazoan Cav channels, Cav1 (L-type), Cav2 (P/Q-, N- and R-type) and Cav3 (T-type), Cav3 channels are optimized for regulating cellular excitability because of their fast kinetics and low activation voltages. These same properties permit Cav3 channels to drive low-threshold exocytosis in select neurons and neurosecretory cells...
March 22, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330647/hypoxia-and-hif-pathway-in-cancer-and-the-placenta
#18
Philip S Macklin, James McAuliffe, Christopher W Pugh, Atsushi Yamamoto
In this review we note that the placenta and cancer both develop in microenvironments in which there are gradients of oxygen availability. Whilst fundamentally different in that placental development is organised and physiological whilst cancer is chaotic and pathological, there are similarities in their respective capacities to proliferate, invade adjacent tissues, generate a blood supply and avoid rejection by the immune system. We provide a brief description of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway and indicate the ways by which HIF activity can be regulated to achieve oxygen homeostasis...
March 16, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328921/versatile-modes-of-cellular-regulation-via-cyclic-dinucleotides
#19
REVIEW
Petya Violinova Krasteva, Holger Sondermann
Since the discovery of c-di-GMP almost three decades ago, cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) have emerged as widely used signaling molecules in most kingdoms of life. The family of second messengers now includes c-di-AMP and distinct versions of mixed cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) compounds. In addition to these nucleotides, a vast number of proteins for the production and turnover of these molecules have been described, as well as effectors that translate the signals into physiological responses. The latter include, but are not limited to, mechanisms for adaptation and survival in prokaryotes, persistence and virulence of bacterial pathogens, and immune responses to viral and bacterial invasion in eukaryotes...
March 22, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328745/gpcr-signaling-via-%C3%AE-arrestin-dependent-mechanisms
#20
Pierre-Yves Jean-Charles, Suneet Kaur, Sudha K Shenoy
β-arrestin1 (or arrestin2) and β-arrestin2 (or arrestin3) are ubiquitously expressed cytosolic adaptor proteins that were originally discovered for their inhibitory role in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling via heterotrimeric G proteins. However, further biochemical characterization revealed that β-arrestins do not just 'block' the activated GPCRs, but trigger endocytosis and kinase activation leading to specific signaling pathways that can be localized on endosomes. The signaling pathways initiated by β-arrestins were also found to be independent of G protein activation by GPCRs...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
keyword
keyword
104664
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"