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Cellular physiology

Monica Terracciano, Michela Napolitano, Luca De Stefano, Anna Chiara De Luca, Ilaria Rea
Diatomite is a fossil material made of amorphous porous silica. In this work, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified diatomite NPs (PEG-DNPs) are decorated with gold NPs (AuNPs) by one-pot liquid-phase synthesis. Nanocomplexes (PEG-DNPs@AuNPs), with an average size of about 450 nm, are characterized by dynamic light scattering, electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis, UV-VIS and photoluminescence spectroscopies. Preliminary studies on the use of the nanocomplex in nanomedicine are also presented...
March 19, 2018: Nanotechnology
Matthew M Crane, Matt Kaeberlein
Aging is a fundamental aspect of life, yet also one of the most confounding. In individual cells, aging results in a progressive decline which affects all organelles and reduces a cell's ability to maintain homeostasis. Because of the interconnected nature of cellular systems, the failure of even a single organelle can have cascading effects. We are just beginning to understand the dramatic physiological changes that occur during aging. Because most aging research has focused on population dynamics, or differences between wild-type and mutant populations, single-cell behavior has been largely overlooked...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Systems Biology
Alexandra K Eicher, H Matthew Berns, James M Wells
Gastric diseases, including peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, are highly prevalent in human beings. Despite this, the cellular biology of the stomach remains poorly understood relative to other gastrointestinal organs such as the liver, intestine, and colon. In particular, little is known about the molecular basis of stomach development and the differentiation of gastric lineages. Although animal models are useful for studying gastric development, function, and disease, there are major structural and physiological differences in human stomachs that render these models insufficient...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Seeyoung Choi, Paul E Love
Oxidative inactivation of cysteine-dependent Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTPs) by cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a critical role in regulating signal transduction in multiple cell types. The phosphatase activity of most PTPs depends upon a 'signature' cysteine residue within the catalytic domain that is maintained in the de-protonated state at physiological pH rendering it susceptible to ROS-mediated oxidation. Direct and indirect techniques for detection of PTP oxidation have been developed (Karisch and Neel, 2013)...
January 5, 2018: Bio-protocol
Meenakshi Ravichandran, Steffen Priebe, Giovanna Grigolon, Leonid Rozanov, Marco Groth, Beate Laube, Reinhard Guthke, Matthias Platzer, Kim Zarse, Michael Ristow
Whether and how regulation of genes and pathways contributes to physiological aging is topic of intense scientific debate. By performing an RNA expression-based screen for genes downregulated during aging of three different species, we identified glycine-C-acetyltransferase (GCAT, EC Impairing gcat expression promotes the lifespan of C. elegans by interfering with threonine catabolism to promote methylglyoxal (MGO; CAS 78-98-8) formation in an amine oxidase-dependent manner. MGO is a reactive dicarbonyl inducing diabetic complications in mammals by causing oxidative stress and damaging cellular components, including proteins...
March 3, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Michael J Ziller, Juan A Ortega, Katharina A Quinlan, David P Santos, Hongcang Gu, Eric J Martin, Christina Galonska, Ramona Pop, Susanne Maidl, Alba Di Pardo, Mei Huang, Herbert Y Meltzer, Andreas Gnirke, C J Heckman, Alexander Meissner, Evangelos Kiskinis
The somatic DNA methylation (DNAme) landscape is established early in development but remains highly dynamic within focal regions that overlap with gene regulatory elements. The significance of these dynamic changes, particularly in the central nervous system, remains unresolved. Here, we utilize a powerful human embryonic stem cell differentiation model for the generation of motor neurons (MNs) in combination with genetic mutations in the de novo DNAme machinery. We quantitatively dissect the role of DNAme in directing somatic cell fate with high-resolution genome-wide bisulfite-, bulk-, and single-cell-RNA sequencing...
March 14, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
Chenju Yi, Jérémy Theillon, Annette Koulakoff, Hugues Berry, Christian Giaume
Intercellular communication through gap junction channels plays a key role in cellular homeostasis and in synchronizing physiological functions, a feature that is modified in number of pathological situations. In the brain, astrocytes are the cell population that expresses the highest amount of gap junction proteins, named connexins. Several techniques have been used to assess the level of gap junctional communication in astrocytes, but so far they remain very difficult to apply in adult brain tissue. Here, using specific loading of astrocytes with sulforhodamine 101, we adapted the gap-FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching) to acute hippocampal slices from 9 month-old adult mice...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Ningcheng Jiang, Minghai You, Yuhua Wang, Yide Huang, Shusen Xie, Yao Lin, Hongqin Yang
Mitosis is an important physiological event accompanying with dramatic changes of cellar biophysical properties. Failure of mitosis results in cell death or chromosome aneuploidy. In this study, we used atomic force microscopy to probe and compare the biophysical properties of tumor cells at different stages during mitosis. The rounding forces of MCF-7 cells oscillated during mitosis. At anaphase, the average elasticity of cells was higher than that at other phases. Cholesterol depletion with M[Formula: see text]CD led to an increase in the average elasticity, whereas the average roughness of membrane surface decreased at the absence of cholesterol...
March 17, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Olivier Villemain, Mafalda Correia, Elie Mousseaux, Jérome Baranger, Samuel Zarka, Ilya Podetti, Gilles Soulat, Thibaud Damy, Albert Hagège, Mickael Tanter, Mathieu Pernot, Emmanuel Messas
OBJECTIVES: The goal of our study was to investigate the potential of myocardial shear wave imaging (SWI) to quantify the diastolic myocardial stiffness (MS) (kPa) noninvasively in adult healthy volunteers (HVs) and its physiological variation with age, and in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) populations with heart failure and preserved ejection function (HFpEF). BACKGROUND: MS is an important prognostic and diagnostic parameter of the diastolic function. MS is affected by physiological changes but also by pathological alterations of extracellular and cellular tissues...
March 9, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Kehilwe C Nakedi, Bridget Calder, Mousumi Barnejee, Alexander Giddey, Andrew Jm Nel, Shaun Garnett, Jonathan M Blackburn, Nelson A Da Cruz Soares
Mycobacterial Ser/Thr kinases play a critical role in bacterial physiology and pathogenesis. Linking kinases to the substrates they phosphorylate in vivo, thereby elucidating their exact functions, is still a challenge. The aim of this work was to associate protein phosphorylation in mycobacteria with important subsequent macro cellular events by identifying the physiological substrates of PknG in Mycobacterium bovis BCG.  The study compared the phosphoproteome dynamics during the batch growth of M. bovis BGC versus the respective PknG knock-out mutant (ΔPknG-BCG) strains...
March 16, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Gabriele G Schiattarella, Rosalinda Madonna, Sophie Van Linthout, Thomas Thum, Rainer Schulz, Peter Ferdinandy, Cinzia Perrino
Vascular adaptations to either physiological or pathophysiological conditions commonly require gene expression modifications in the most represented cellular elements of the vessel wall, i.e. endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In addition to transcription factors, a number of mechanisms contribute to the regulation of gene expression in these cells including noncoding RNAs, histone and DNA modifications, collectively indicated as epigenetic modifications. Here, we summarize the state of art regarding the role of epigenetic changes in major vascular diseases, and discuss the potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications of epigenetic modulation in this context...
March 13, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Maria Eugenia Sabatino, Ezequiel Grondona, Liliana D V Sosa, Bethania Mongi Bragato, Lucia Carreño, Virginia Juarez, Rodrigo A da Silva, Aline Remor, Lucila de Bortoli, Roberta de Paula Martins, Pablo A Pérez, Juan Pablo Petiti, Silvina Gutiérrez, Alicia I Torres, Alexandra Latini, Ana L De Paul
The cellular transformation of normal functional cells to neoplastic ones implies alterations in the cellular metabolism and mitochondrial function in order to provide the bioenergetics and growth requirements for tumour growth progression. Currently, the mitochondrial physiology and dynamic shift during pituitary tumour development are not well understood. Pituitary tumors present endocrine neoplastic benign growth which, in previous reports, we had shown that in addition to increased proliferation, these tumours were also characterized by cellular senescence signs with no indication of apoptosis...
March 13, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Ariana Sherdil, Stéphan Chabardès, Isabelle Guillemain, Sandrine Michallat, Shivadatta Prabhu, Karine Pernet-Gallay, Olivier David, Brigitte Piallat
PURPOSE: Our objective was to propose a new on demand non-human primate model of mesial temporal lobe seizures suitable for pre-clinical innovative therapeutic research. METHODS: Five macaques were stereotaxically implanted unilaterally with a deep recording electrode in the hippocampus. For each experiment, penicillin was injected into the hippocampus and animals were monitored during five consecutive hours. A total of 12-27 experiments with a mean cumulative dose of 162644 ± 70190 UI of penicillin have been performed per animal Injections were repeated at least once a week over a period of 98-276 days...
March 9, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Meng Liu, Shiyang Shen, Di Wen, Mengru Li, Teng Li, Xiaojie Chen, Zhen Gu, Ran Mo
Protein therapeutics hold increasing interest with promise of revolutionizing the cancer treatment by virtue of potent specific activity and reduced adverse effect. Nonetheless, the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer proteins is highly compromised by multiple successive physiological barriers to protein delivery. Concurrent elimination of bulk tumor cells and highly-tumorigenic cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) has been evidenced as a promising strategy to improve cancer therapy. Here we show that a hierarchically-assembled nanocomposite can self-adaptively transform its particulate property in response to endogenous tumor-associated signals to overcome the sequential barriers and achieve enhanced antitumor efficacy by killing CSCs and bulk tumor cells synchronously...
March 16, 2018: Nano Letters
Corina T Madreiter-Sokolowski, Armin A Sokolowski, Markus Waldeck-Weiermair, Roland Malli, Wolfgang F Graier
Senescence is related to the loss of cellular homeostasis and functions, which leads to a progressive decline in physiological ability and to aging-associated diseases. Since mitochondria are essential to energy supply, cell differentiation, cell cycle control, intracellular signaling and Ca2+ sequestration, fine-tuning mitochondrial activity appropriately, is a tightrope walk during aging. For instance, the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) ensures a supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), but is also the main source of potentially harmful levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
March 16, 2018: Genes
Renata Gruszka, Magdalena Zakrzewska
The fundamental function of ribonucleic acids is to transfer genetic information from DNA to protein during translation process, however, this is not the only way connecting active RNA sequences with essential biological processes. Up until now, many RNA subclasses of different size, structure, and biological function were identified. Among them, there are non-coding single-stranded microRNAs (miRNAs). This subclass comprises RNAs of 19-25 nucleotides in length that modulate the activity of well-defined coding RNAs and play a crucial role in many physiological and pathological processes...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jimena López-Arrabé, Pat Monaghan, Alejandro Cantarero, Winnie Boner, Lorenzo Pérez-Rodríguez, Juan Moreno
Oxidative stress can contribute to an acceleration of telomere erosion, leading to cellular senescence and aging. Increased investment in reproduction is known to accelerate senescence, generally resulting in reduced future reproductive potential and survival. To better understand the role played by oxidative status and telomere dynamics in the conflict between maintenance and reproduction, it is important to determine how these factors are related in parents and their offspring. We investigated the relationship between oxidative status and telomere measurements in pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca)...
May 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Jian-Chao Zhao, Juan Cheng, Qi Zhang, Zi-Wei Gao, Meng-Yue Zhang, Yi-Xuan Zhang
A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, yellow-coloured, motile by gliding and elongated rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated SYP-B1015T , was isolated from the rhizosphere of Artemisia annua L. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SYP-B1015T belonged to the genus Flavobacterium and had highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Flavobacterium compostarboris JCM 16527T (98.1 %) and Flavobacterium procerum JCM 30113T (97.2 %). The predominant respiratory quinone for the strain was MK-6, and the major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Tony G Walsh, Alastair W Poole
Our understanding of platelet function has traditionally focused on their roles in physiological hemostasis and pathological thrombosis, the latter being causative of vessel occlusion and subsequent ischemic damage to various tissues. In particular, numerous in vivo studies have implicated causative roles for platelets in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury to the myocardium. However, platelets clearly have more complex pathophysiological roles particularly as a result of the heterogeneous nature of biologically active cargo secreted from their granules, or contained within released microparticles or exosomes...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Yutaka Ikeda, Yukio Nagasaki
Oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs as events in which living tissues contact certain materials. These events include cell cultures and implantation of materials. Because of the high reactivity of ROS, they damage cells by oxidizing DNA, lipids, and proteins. Conversely, ROS also act as signaling molecules regulating cellular morphology. In particular, mitochondrial ROS are involved in the regulation of cellular physiology, including differentiation, autophagy, metabolic adaptation, apoptosis, and immunity...
March 16, 2018: Biomedical Materials
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