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Autoimmune neuropsychiatric

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031410/harnessing-gut-microbes-for-mental-health-getting-from-here-to-there
#1
REVIEW
Annadora J Bruce-Keller, J Michael Salbaum, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud
There has been an explosion of interest in the study of microorganisms inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract (gut microbiota) and their impact on host health and physiology. Accumulating data suggest that altered communication between gut microbiota and host systems could participate in disorders such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and autoimmune disorders as well as neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism, anxiety, and major depressive disorders. The conceptual development of the microbiome-gut-brain axis has facilitated understanding of the complex and bidirectional networks between gastrointestinal microbiota and their host, highlighting potential mechanisms through which this environment influences central nervous system physiology...
August 30, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993125/psychoneuroimmunology-of-mental-disorders
#2
Virginia Soria, Javiera Uribe, Neus Salvat-Pujol, Diego Palao, José Manuel Menchón, Javier Labad
The immune system is a key element in the organism's defence system and participates in the maintenance of homeostasis. There is growing interest in the aetiopathogenic and prognostic implications of the immune system in mental disorders, as previous studies suggest the existence of a dysregulation of the immune response and a pro-inflammatory state in patients with mental disorders, as well as an increased prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases or receiving immune treatments...
October 6, 2017: Revista de Psiquiatrí́a y Salud Mental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983730/associations-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-autoimmune-diseases-are-modified-by-sex-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#3
Tor-Arne Hegvik, Johanne Telnes Instanes, Jan Haavik, Kari Klungsøyr, Anders Engeland
Several studies have demonstrated associations between neuropsychiatric disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the immune system, including autoimmune diseases. Since ADHD and many autoimmune diseases show sex-specific properties, such associations may also differ by sex. Using Norwegian national registries, we performed a cross-sectional study based on a cohort of 2,500,118 individuals to investigate whether ADHD is associated with common autoimmune diseases. Associations between ADHD and autoimmune diseases in females and males were investigated with logistic regression and effect modification by sex was evaluated...
October 5, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952322/coexistence-of-antiphospholipid-antibodies-and-cephalalgia
#4
Md Asiful Islam, Fahmida Alam, Siew Hua Gan, Cinzia Cavestro, Kah Keng Wong
Background The occurrence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) and headache comorbidity in the presence or absence of underlying autoimmune diseases remains unclear. Aim The aim of this review was to summarize the relationship between headache and aPLs based on evidences from cohort studies and case reports, in addition to examining the treatment strategies that resolved headache in aPLs-positive individuals. Methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted through PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Google Scholar...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944113/psychiatric-symptoms-as-the-first-clinical-presentation-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-case-report
#5
Muhammad Aadil, Aitzaz Munir, Muhammad Jahanzaib Anwar, Hasnain Arshad, Ibrar Anjum, Aniqa Faraz
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune condition which affects the axon myelination in the brain. There can be multiple ways it can present initially, but physical signs and symptoms are the most common ones. We are reporting a case of MS from Pakistan which presented with neuropsychiatric features and was offered psychiatric care, but the patient declined treatment because of stigma related to psychiatric care. Four months later when her condition worsened, further investigation showed it to be a case of MS...
July 15, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938475/modeling-the-sex-differences-and-inter-individual-variability-in-the-activity-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#6
Rohit T Rao, Ioannis P Androulakis
Significant sex differences exist in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These differences are thought to contribute to the disparity in the prevalence of various autoimmune and infectious diseases between males and females. We use a mathematical model of the HPA axis to evaluate the hypothesis that differential sensitivity and negative feedback of the HPA axis network are causal factors for the observed sex differences in its activity. In doing so, we implicitly account for the differential influence of gonadal hormones on the HPA axis...
August 31, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919330/limbic-encephalitis-with-lgi1-antibodies-in-a-14-year-old-boy
#7
M Schimmel, M C Frühwald, C G Bien
Limbic encephalitis (LE) with antibodies against leucine-rich glioma inactivated protein 1 (LGI1) is an auto-antibody mediated disorder with characteristic symptoms as dysfunction of memory, faciobrachial dystonic seizures and neuropsychiatric symptoms as emotional lability. Limbic encephalitis with LGI1 antibodies has been known so far as a disease of adults. We describe the case of a 14-year-old boy presenting with typical dysfunction of memory and LGI1 antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest patient with LGI1 antibody mediated limbic encephalitis described so far...
September 2, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919236/biomarkers-for-diagnosis-of-pediatric-acute-neuropsychiatric-syndrome-pans-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-the-cunningham-panel
#8
Eva Hesselmark, Susanne Bejerot
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric Acute Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) are conditions marked by sudden onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), tics, or avoidant/restrictive food intake in combination with multiple psychiatric symptoms. A diagnosis of PANS or PANDAS may be supported by the Cunningham Panel, a commercially available set of immunologic assays currently in clinical use. However, the relationship between Cunningham Panel results and patient symptoms remains unclear...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904568/pediatric-autoimmune-encephalitis
#9
REVIEW
Massimo Barbagallo, Giovanna Vitaliti, Piero Pavone, Catia Romano, Riccardo Lubrano, Raffaele Falsaperla
Autoimmune (antibody mediated) encephalitis (AE) is emerging as a more common cause of pediatric encephalopathy than previously thought. The autoimmune process may be triggered by an infection, vaccine, or occult neoplasm. In the latter case, onconeural autoantibodies are directed against intracellular neuronal antigens, but a recent heterogeneous group of encephalitic syndromes has been found not to have underlying tumor but is associated with autoantibodies to the neuronal surface or synaptic antigens. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are very common in autoimmune encephalopathy; as a result, affected children may be initially present to psychiatrists...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894435/neuroactive-steroids-receptor-interactions-and-responses
#10
REVIEW
Kald Beshir Tuem, Tesfay Mehari Atey
Neuroactive steroids (NASs) are naturally occurring steroids, which are synthesized centrally as de novo from cholesterol and are classified as pregnane, androstane, and sulfated neurosteroids (NSs). NASs modulate many processes via interacting with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), N-methyl-d-aspartate, serotonin, voltage-gated calcium channels, voltage-dependent anion channels, α-adrenoreceptors, X-receptors of the liver, transient receptor potential channels, microtubule-associated protein 2, neurotrophin nerve growth factor, and σ1 receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890845/comorbidities-of-atopic-dermatitis-beyond-rhinitis-and-asthma
#11
REVIEW
Yuki M F Andersen, Alexander Egeberg, Lone Skov, Jacob P Thyssen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review article, we summarize the current evidence about atopic dermatitis (AD)-associated comorbidities, beyond the traditional atopic and allergic conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with AD may have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, certain malignancies, autoimmune diseases, and neuropsychiatric diseases. The causes of these associations are likely multifactorial and may include genetic predispositions, systemic low-grade inflammation, environmental exposures, medication, and lifestyle and behavioral risk factors...
2017: Current Dermatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882191/effects-of-sustained-i-c-v-infusion-of-lupus-csf-and-autoantibodies-on-behavioral-phenotype-and-neuronal-calcium-signaling
#12
Minesh Kapadia, Dunja Bijelić, Hui Zhao, Donglai Ma, Ljudmila Stojanovich, Milena Milošević, Pavle Andjus, Boris Šakić
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a potentially fatal autoimmune disease that is often accompanied by brain atrophy and diverse neuropsychiatric manifestations of unknown origin. More recently, it was observed that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients and lupus-prone mice can be neurotoxic and that acute administration of specific brain-reactive autoantibodies (BRAs) can induce deficits in isolated behavioral tasks. Given the chronic and complex nature of CNS SLE, the current study examines broad behavioral performance and neuronal Ca(2+) signaling in mice receiving a sustained infusion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from CNS SLE patients and putative BRAs (anti-NR2A, anti-ribosomal P, and anti-α-tubulin)...
September 7, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841275/neuropsychiatric-manifestations-of-pediatric-nmda-receptor-autoimmune-encephalitis-a-case-series-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-india
#13
Salah Basheer, Madhu Nagappa, Anita Mahadevan, Parayil Sankaran Bindu, Arun B Taly, Satish Chandra Girimaji
Objective: Although psychiatric manifestations are one of the most common presentations of pediatric N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, there is a lack of studies that characterize psychiatric aspects of this disorder. This study was designed to address this gap. Methods: Initial clinical presentations including psychiatric symptoms, treatment details, and outcome with respect to psychiatric symptoms were collected from medical case records of children aged less than 18 years with seropositive NMDAR encephalitis from a single tertiary care center (May 2010-November 2016)...
August 17, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840564/human-leukemia-antigen-a-0201-restricted-epitopes-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-w-family-envelope-herv-w-env-induce-strong-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-responses
#14
Xiaoning Tu, Shan Li, Lijuan Zhao, Ran Xiao, Xiuling Wang, Fan Zhu
Human endogenous retrovirus W family (HERV-W) envelope (env) has been reported to be related to several human diseases, including autoimmune disorders, and it could activate innate immunity. However, there are no reports investigating whether human leukemia antigen (HLA)-A*0201(+) restriction is involved in the immune response caused by HERV-W env in neuropsychiatric diseases. In the present study, HERV-W env-derived epitopes presented by HLA-A*0201 are described with the potential for use in adoptive immunotherapy...
August 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798699/schizophrenia-or-atypical-lupus-erythematosus-with-predominant-psychiatric-manifestations-over-25%C3%A2-years-case-analysis-and-review
#15
Axel Mack, Christiane Pfeiffer, E Marion Schneider, Karl Bechter
We observed a case over 25 years of relapsing-remitting schizophrenic spectrum disorder, varying regarding the main symptomatology between more depressive or more schizoaffective or rather typical schizophrenic syndrome. Diseased phases were repeatedly accompanied by minor skin lesions, which were initially classified as mixed tissue disorder. Psychotic phases were waxing-waning over years. During one later relapse, skin involvement was severe, classified to likely represent an allergic reaction to psychopharmaca; this generalized exanthema remitted rapidly with cortisone treatment and azathioprine...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761904/iglon5-antibody-neurological-accompaniments-and-outcomes-in-20-patients
#16
Josephe A Honorat, Lars Komorowski, Keith A Josephs, Kai Fechner, Erik K St Louis, Shannon R Hinson, Sabine Lederer, Neeraj Kumar, Avi Gadoth, Vanda A Lennon, Sean J Pittock, Andrew McKeon
OBJECTIVE: To describe the phenotypes, treatment response, and outcome of IgLON5 autoimmunity. METHODS: Archived serum and CSF specimens from 367 patients known to harbor unclassified antibodies which stained neural synapses diffusely (mimicking amphiphysin-IgG) were reevaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using a composite of mouse tissues and recombinant IgLON5-transfected cell-based assay (CBA, Euroimmun). RESULTS: Available specimens (serum, 25; CSF, 9) from 26/367 patients (7%) had identical IFA appearance and robust IgLON5 CBA positivity...
September 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750400/a-dopamine-hypothesis-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Denis Pavăl
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comprises a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits and stereotyped behaviors. While several theories have emerged, the pathogenesis of ASD remains unknown. Although studies report dopamine signaling abnormalities in autistic patients, a coherent dopamine hypothesis which could link neurobiology to behavior in ASD is currently lacking. In this paper, we present such a hypothesis by proposing that autistic behavior arises from dysfunctions in the midbrain dopaminergic system...
2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744230/primary-sjogren-s-syndrome-associated-with-treatment-resistant-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#18
Lawrence T C Ong, Gary Galambos, David A Brown
There is an increasing awareness that autoimmune diseases can present with neuropsychiatric manifestations. We present the case of a 17-year-old female requiring psychiatric hospitalization for obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depressive disorder with mixed affective features, who was subsequently diagnosed with primary Sjogren's syndrome. Treatment with potent immunosuppression resulted in remission of psychiatric illness. Due to a lack of awareness and/or the lack of specific biomarkers, clinicians may not associate psychiatric symptoms with autoimmune disease, including primary Sjogren's syndrome...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725222/neuronal-surface-autoantibodies-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders-are-there-implications-for-depression
#19
REVIEW
Shenghua Zong, Carolin Hoffmann, Marina Mané-Damas, Peter Molenaar, Mario Losen, Pilar Martinez-Martinez
Autoimmune diseases are affecting around 7.6-9.4% of the general population. A number of central nervous system disorders, including encephalitis and severe psychiatric disorders, have been demonstrated to associate with specific neuronal surface autoantibodies (NSAbs). It has become clear that specific autoantibodies targeting neuronal surface antigens and ion channels could cause severe mental disturbances. A number of studies have focused or are currently investigating the presence of autoantibodies in specific mental conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722481/clinical-management-of-pediatric-acute-onset-neuropsychiatric-syndrome-part-i-psychiatric-and-behavioral-interventions
#20
Margo Thienemann, Tanya Murphy, James Leckman, Richard Shaw, Kyle Williams, Cynthia Kapphahn, Jennifer Frankovich, Daniel Geller, Gail Bernstein, Kiki Chang, Josephine Elia, Susan Swedo
OBJECTIVE: This article outlines the consensus guidelines for symptomatic treatment for children with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Syndrome Associated with Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS). METHODS: Extant literature on behavioral, psychotherapeutic, and psychopharmacologic treatments for PANS and PANDAS was reviewed. Members of the PANS Research Consortium pooled their clinical experiences to find agreement on treatment of PANS and PANDAS symptoms...
September 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
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