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Autoimmune neuropsychiatric

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215577/acute-encephalitis-in-an-adult-with-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-with-secondary-involvement-of-the-central-nervous-system-infectious-or-non-infectious-etiology
#1
Surinder S Moonga, Kenneth Liang, Burke A Cunha
Both infectious and non-infectious etiologies of acute encephalitis have been described, as well as their specific presentations, diagnostic tests, and therapies. Classic findings of acute encephalitis include altered mental status, fever, and new lesions on neuroimaging or electroencephalogram (EEG). We report an interesting case of a 61-year-old male with a history of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with secondary involvement of the central nervous system (SCNS-DLBCL). He presented with acute encephalitis: altered mental status, fever, leukocytosis, neuropsychiatric symptoms, multiple unchanged brain lesions on computed tomography scan of the head, and EEG showed mild to moderate diffuse slowing with low-moderate polymorphic delta and theta activity...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201025/regulation-of-neuroinflammation-what-role-for-the-tumor-necrosis-factor-like-weak-inducer-of-apoptosis-fn14-pathway
#2
REVIEW
Audrey Boulamery, Sophie Desplat-Jégo
Observed in many central nervous system diseases, neuroinflammation (NI) proceeds from peripheral immune cell infiltration into the parenchyma, from cytokine secretion and from oxidative stress. Astrocytes and microglia also get activated and proliferate. NI manifestations and consequences depend on its context and on the acute or chronic aspect of the disease. The tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK)/Fn14 pathway has been involved in chronic human inflammatory pathologies such as neurodegenerative, autoimmune, or malignant diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167408/conjugated-linoleic-acid-prevents-age-dependent-neurodegeneration-in-a-mouse-model-of-neuropsychiatric-lupus-via-the-activation-of-an-adaptive-response
#3
Antonio Monaco, Ida Ferrandino, Floriana Boscaino, Ennio Cocca, Luisa Cigliano, Francesco Maurano, Diomira Luongo, Maria Stefania Spagnuolo, Mauro Rossi, Paolo Bergamo
Oxidative stress is a key mediator of autoimmune/neurodegenerative disorders. The antioxidant/anti-inflammatory effect of a synthetic conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) mixture in MRL/MpJ-Faslpr mice (MRL/lpr), an animal model of neuropsychiatric lupus, was previously associated with the improvement of Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) defences in the spleen and liver. However, little is known about the neuroprotective ability of CLA mixture. This study investigates the age-dependent progression of oxidative stress and the hyperactivation of redox-sensitive compensatory pathways (macroautophagy, Nrf2) in old/diseased MRL/lpr mice brains, and examines the effect produced by dietary CLA supplementation...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157501/evaluation-and-management-of-autoimmune-encephalitis-a-clinical-overview-for-the-practicing-child-psychiatrist
#4
REVIEW
GenaLynne C Mooneyham, William Gallentine, Heather Van Mater
Medical conditions that present with psychiatric symptoms are becoming increasingly well-recognized in response to the emergence of the field of neuroimmunology. As the availability of testing for novel antineuronal antibodies has increased, so too has the clinical awareness of this diagnostic spectrum. Psychiatrists may have little exposure to this area of expertise, yet may be called on to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with complex neuropsychiatric syndromes secondary to autoimmune encephalitis...
January 2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119912/the-glutamate-and-the-immune-systems-new-targets-for-the-pharmacological-treatment-of-ocd
#5
Donatella Marazziti, Umberto Albert, Federico Mucci, Armando Piccinni
BACKGROUND: In the last decades the pharmacological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been significantly promoted by the effectiveness of selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the subsequent development of the 5-HT hypothesis of OCD. However, since a large majority of patients (between 40% and 60 %) do not respond to SSRIs or strategies based on the modulation of the 5-HT system, it is now essential to search for other possible therapeutic targets...
November 8, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119300/longitudinal-outcomes-of-children-with-pediatric-autoimmune-neuropsychiatric-disorder-associated-with-streptococcal-infections-pandas
#6
Jill Leon, Rebecca Hommer, Paul Grant, Cristan Farmer, Precilla D'Souza, Riley Kessler, Kyle Williams, James F Leckman, Susan Swedo
Little is known about the natural history of children with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). This study prospectively followed 33 children with PANDAS for up to 4.8 years (mean 3.3 ± 0.7 years) after enrollment in a 24-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (N = 35). Fourteen of eighteen children randomized to placebo received open label IVIG 6 weeks after the blinded infusion, so follow-up results reported below largely reflect outcomes in a population of children who received at least one dose of IVIG...
November 8, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113860/dramatic-psychiatric-and-behavioral-symptoms-following-a-subthalamic-lesion
#7
Byung Sun Choi, Guangxun Shen, Guangxian Nan, Jong-Min Kim, Ki-Young Jung, Beomseok Jeon
Neuropsychiatric symptoms have been well documented after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS), but those following a subthalamic lesion have been rarely reported. Herein, we present a 43-year-old woman with sudden-onset dramatic psychiatric and behavioral symptoms with hemiballism. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence during the acute phase demonstrated extensive hyperintensity in the left STN and adjacent regions. Contrast-enhanced MRI showed no abnormal areas of enhancement...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112476/cross-sectional-evaluation-of-plasma-vitamin-d-levels-in-a-large-cohort-of-italian-patients-with-pediatric-autoimmune-neuropsychiatric-disorders-associated-with-streptococcal-infections
#8
Stefano Stagi, Gemma Lepri, Donato Rigante, Marco Matucci Cerinic, Fernanda Falcini
BACKGROUND: Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) are immune-mediated diseases characterized by obsessive-compulsive symptoms and/or tics triggered by group A Streptococcus infections. Despite the well-known action of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] on different conditions driven by systemic inflammation, there are no data about the 25(OH)D status in patients with PANDAS. AIMS: To evaluate plasma 25(OH)D levels in a large cohort of children and adolescents with PANDAS and comparing the results with healthy controls...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099544/catatonia-update
#9
Kanwarjeet Brar, Sachin S Kaushik, Steven Lippmann
Catatonia is a neuropsychiatric condition characterized by physical presentations ranging from profound immobility to excessive motor activity. Emotional aspects of catatonia vary clinically between psychomotor retardation and extreme excitability. In the past, catatonia was considered to be a variant of schizophrenia. However, the disorder actually occurs as a clinical expression of many different psychiatric, neurologic, or medical diagnoses. A prompt diagnostic evaluation should identify any underlying diseases with consideration of somatic pathologies, especially those affecting central nervous system function...
October 26, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076930/electroconvulsive-therapy-as-an-intervention-for-autoimmune-neuropsychiatric-disease
#10
Peter Chamberlin, Nabil Kotbi, Pablo Sanchez-Barranco, Laura Kragt, Dora Kanellopoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072508/the-aquaporin-4-water-channel-as-a-potential-drug-target-in-neurological-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Alan S Verkman, Alex J Smith, Puay-Wah Phuan, Lukmanee Tradtrantip, Marc O Anderson
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a water transporting protein expressed at the plasma membrane of astrocytes throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Analysis of AQP4 knockout mice has suggested its broad involvement in brain water balance, neuroexcitation, glial scarring, neuroinflammation, and even neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Broad clinical utility of AQP4 modulators has been speculated. Area covered: This review covers the biology of AQP4, evidence for its roles in normal CNS function and neurological disorders, and progress in AQP4 drug discovery...
December 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031410/harnessing-gut-microbes-for-mental-health-getting-from-here-to-there
#12
REVIEW
Annadora J Bruce-Keller, J Michael Salbaum, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud
There has been an explosion of interest in the study of microorganisms inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract (gut microbiota) and their impact on host health and physiology. Accumulating data suggest that altered communication between gut microbiota and host systems could participate in disorders such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and autoimmune disorders as well as neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism, anxiety, and major depressive disorders. The conceptual development of the microbiome-gut-brain axis has facilitated understanding of the complex and bidirectional networks between gastrointestinal microbiota and their host, highlighting potential mechanisms through which this environment influences central nervous system physiology...
August 30, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993125/psychoneuroimmunology-of-mental-disorders
#13
Virginia Soria, Javiera Uribe, Neus Salvat-Pujol, Diego Palao, José Manuel Menchón, Javier Labad
The immune system is a key element in the organism's defence system and participates in the maintenance of homeostasis. There is growing interest in the aetiopathogenic and prognostic implications of the immune system in mental disorders, as previous studies suggest the existence of a dysregulation of the immune response and a pro-inflammatory state in patients with mental disorders, as well as an increased prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases or receiving immune treatments...
October 6, 2017: Revista de Psiquiatrí́a y Salud Mental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983730/associations-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-autoimmune-diseases-are-modified-by-sex-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#14
Tor-Arne Hegvik, Johanne Telnes Instanes, Jan Haavik, Kari Klungsøyr, Anders Engeland
Several studies have demonstrated associations between neuropsychiatric disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the immune system, including autoimmune diseases. Since ADHD and many autoimmune diseases show sex-specific properties, such associations may also differ by sex. Using Norwegian national registries, we performed a cross-sectional study based on a cohort of 2,500,118 individuals to investigate whether ADHD is associated with common autoimmune diseases. Associations between ADHD and autoimmune diseases in females and males were investigated with logistic regression and effect modification by sex was evaluated...
October 5, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952322/coexistence-of-antiphospholipid-antibodies-and-cephalalgia
#15
Md Asiful Islam, Fahmida Alam, Siew Hua Gan, Cinzia Cavestro, Kah Keng Wong
Background The occurrence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) and headache comorbidity in the presence or absence of underlying autoimmune diseases remains unclear. Aim The aim of this review was to summarize the relationship between headache and aPLs based on evidences from cohort studies and case reports, in addition to examining the treatment strategies that resolved headache in aPLs-positive individuals. Methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted through PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Google Scholar...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944113/psychiatric-symptoms-as-the-first-clinical-presentation-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-case-report
#16
Muhammad Aadil, Aitzaz Munir, Muhammad Jahanzaib Anwar, Hasnain Arshad, Ibrar Anjum, Aniqa Faraz
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune condition which affects the axon myelination in the brain. There can be multiple ways it can present initially, but physical signs and symptoms are the most common ones. We are reporting a case of MS from Pakistan which presented with neuropsychiatric features and was offered psychiatric care, but the patient declined treatment because of stigma related to psychiatric care. Four months later when her condition worsened, further investigation showed it to be a case of MS...
July 15, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938475/modeling-the-sex-differences-and-interindividual-variability-in-the-activity-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#17
Rohit T Rao, Ioannis P Androulakis
Significant sex differences exist in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These differences are thought to contribute to the disparity in the prevalence of various autoimmune and infectious diseases between males and females. We used a mathematical model of the HPA axis to evaluate the hypothesis that differential sensitivity and negative feedback of the HPA axis network are causal factors for the observed sex differences in its activity. In doing so, we implicitly accounted for the differential influence of gonadal hormones on the HPA axis...
November 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919330/limbic-encephalitis-with-lgi1-antibodies-in-a-14-year-old-boy
#18
M Schimmel, M C Frühwald, C G Bien
Limbic encephalitis (LE) with antibodies against leucine-rich glioma inactivated protein 1 (LGI1) is an auto-antibody mediated disorder with characteristic symptoms as dysfunction of memory, faciobrachial dystonic seizures and neuropsychiatric symptoms as emotional lability. Limbic encephalitis with LGI1 antibodies has been known so far as a disease of adults. We describe the case of a 14-year-old boy presenting with typical dysfunction of memory and LGI1 antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest patient with LGI1 antibody mediated limbic encephalitis described so far...
September 2, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919236/biomarkers-for-diagnosis-of-pediatric-acute-neuropsychiatric-syndrome-pans-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-the-cunningham-panel
#19
Eva Hesselmark, Susanne Bejerot
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric Acute Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) are conditions marked by sudden onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), tics, or avoidant/restrictive food intake in combination with multiple psychiatric symptoms. A diagnosis of PANS or PANDAS may be supported by the Cunningham Panel, a commercially available set of immunologic assays currently in clinical use. However, the relationship between Cunningham Panel results and patient symptoms remains unclear...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904568/pediatric-autoimmune-encephalitis
#20
REVIEW
Massimo Barbagallo, Giovanna Vitaliti, Piero Pavone, Catia Romano, Riccardo Lubrano, Raffaele Falsaperla
Autoimmune (antibody mediated) encephalitis (AE) is emerging as a more common cause of pediatric encephalopathy than previously thought. The autoimmune process may be triggered by an infection, vaccine, or occult neoplasm. In the latter case, onconeural autoantibodies are directed against intracellular neuronal antigens, but a recent heterogeneous group of encephalitic syndromes has been found not to have underlying tumor but is associated with autoantibodies to the neuronal surface or synaptic antigens. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are very common in autoimmune encephalopathy; as a result, affected children may be initially present to psychiatrists...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
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