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Autoimmune neuropsychiatric

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618965/peptide-sharing-between-viruses-and-dlx-proteins-a-potential-cross-reactivity-pathway-to-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#1
Guglielmo Lucchese, Benjamin Stahl
The present study seeks to determine potential associations between viral infections and neuropsychiatric diseases. To address this issue, we investigated the peptide commonalities between viruses that have been related to psychiatric and neurological disorders-such as rubella, human immunodeficiency virus, and herpesviruses-and human distal-less homeobox (DLX) proteins expressed in developing brain-namely, DLX1, DLX2, DLX5, and DLX6. Peptide matching analyses revealed a high degree of pentapeptide sharing...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609960/autoimmune-encephalitis-and-psychiatric-disorders
#2
REVIEW
J Honnorat, L O Plazat
Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) refers to a rare, newly described, group of diseases associated with specific circulating autoantibodies directed against neuronal proteins used as biomarkers of the disease. Characterization of the associated autoantibodies present in the patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or sera can differentiate the various AE subgroups, which have specific clinical presentations and prognoses, and is therefore essential for proposing appropriate treatments. As psychiatric symptoms may predominate at the onset or over the course of these diseases, the diagnosis is frequently delayed...
March 30, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606317/behavioral-disorders-the-blind-spot-of-neurology-and-psychiatry
#3
REVIEW
C Azuar, R Levy
Behavioral disorders occupy the crossroads between neurology and psychiatry, and emerging disorders, such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration of genetic origin and autoimmune encephalitis, can present with both neurological and psychiatric signs. Thus, the primary aim of this introductory article is to review frequently encountered behavioral clinical features, such as apathy and agitation, and their related syndromes, including frontal and anterior temporal syndromes. These behavioral states and their underlying etiologies are also here illustrated with clinical case reports...
March 29, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558350/-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-antiphospholipid-syndrome-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-problems
#4
Zbigniew Zdrojewski
Recognizing the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in patients with lupus (SLE) can be difficult and therefore underestimated. Detection of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) in each patient with SLE should be done as a rule. Introduction of the new classification criteria of this syndrome will certainly improve the recognition of APS in the future. The Sapporo APS classification criteria (1998) were replaced by the Sydney criteria in 2006. Based on the most recent criteria, classification with APS requires one clinical and one laboratory manifestation...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553037/cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-neuropsychiatric-and-non-neuropsychiatric-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Arantzazu Zabala, Monika Salgueiro, Oihane Sáez-Atxukarro, Javier Ballesteros, Guillermo Ruiz-Irastorza, Rafael Segarra
OBJECTIVES: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease. Its most prevalent manifestation is neuropsychiatric SLE (NP-SLE), which is characterized by increased involvement of the nervous system, with relevant symptoms, such as marked cognitive deficits, which are directly involved in subsequent functional disability. The objective of this study is to identify and compare the profile of cognitive deficits in patients with NP-SLE and patients with non-neuropsychiatric SLE (nonNP-SLE) by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539621/immune-cell-neurotrophin-production-is-associated-with-subcortical-brain-atrophy-in-neuropsychiatric-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients
#6
Alicja Kalinowska-Łyszczarz, Mikołaj A Pawlak, Aleksandra Wyciszkiewicz, Katarzyna Pawlak-Buś, Piotr Leszczyński, Mariusz Puszczewicz, Włodzimierz Paprzycki, Wojciech Kozubski, Sławomir Michalak
OBJECTIVE: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remains poorly understood. Damage within the CNS is driven by the autoimmune response; however, immunopathophysiology of neuropsychiatric (NP) SLE is multifactorial. Immune cell neurotrophin production could be neuroprotective against autoimmunity-driven CNS damage, as has been shown in multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to establish whether immune cell neurotrophin production is associated with damage severity in NPSLE...
March 14, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507012/sle-presenting-as-demyelinative-autoimmune-visual-loss
#7
Ami Schattner, Shilo Voichanski, Livnat Uliel
A healthy 38-year-old woman developed sudden unilateral vision loss due to retrobulbar optic neuritis in the wake of varicella-zoster virus infection. She had no further central nervous system (CNS) lesions. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies were found, consistent with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Later, serial MRIs showed dynamic short-segment and long-segment myelitis lesions, ANA titre increased and additional autoantibodies were found including anti-dsDNA, anti-chromatin/nucleosome and antiphospholipid antibodies...
March 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476014/positive-allosteric-modulation-as-a-potential-therapeutic-strategy-in-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis
#8
Natasha Warikoo, Samuel J Brunwasser, Ann Benz, Hong-Jin Shu, Steven M Paul, Michael Lewis, James Doherty, Michael Quick, Laura Piccio, Charles F Zorumski, Gregory S Day, Steven Mennerick
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are ionotropic glutamate receptors important for synaptic plasticity, memory, and neuropsychiatric health. NMDAR hypofunction contributes to multiple disorders, including anti-NMDAR encephalitis (NMDARE), an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system associated with GluN1 antibody-mediated NMDAR internalization. Here we characterize the functional/pharmacological consequences of exposure to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from female human NMDARE patients on NMDAR function, and we characterize the effects of intervention with recently described positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of NMDARs...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433523/a-clinical-approach-to-new-onset-psychosis-associated-with-immune-dysregulation-the-concept-of-autoimmune-psychosis
#9
Souhel Najjar, Johann Steiner, Amanda Najjar, Karl Bechter
Growing data point to the overlap between psychosis and pathological processes associated with immunological dysregulation as well as inflammation. Notably, the recent discovery of antibodies against synaptic and neuronal cell membrane proteins such as anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor provides more direct evidence of the etiological connection between autoimmunity and subsequent hazard of psychosis. Here, we advocate the use of term "autoimmune psychosis," as this term suggests that autoimmune disorders can masquerade as drug-resistant primary psychosis, and this subtype of psychosis has anatomical and immunological footprints in the brain, despite the frequent absence of structural abnormalities on conventional brain MRI...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431056/characteristics-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-in-a-sample-of-the-egyptian-population-a-retrospective-cohort-of-1109-patients-from-a-single-center
#10
K T El Hadidi, B M Medhat, N M Abdel Baki, H Abdel Kafy, W Abdelrahaman, A Y Yousri, D H Attia, M Eissa, D El Dessouki, I Elgazzar, F T Elgengehy, N El Ghobashy, H El Hadary, G El Mardenly, H El Naggar, A M El Nahas, R M El Refai, H Allah El Rwiny, R M Elsman, M Galal, S Ghoniem, L A Maged, S M Sally, H Naji, S Saad, M Shaaban, M Sharaf, N Sobhy, R M Soliman, T S El Hadidi
Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease that can vary among different ethnic and racial groups. Objective The objective of this paper is to study the prevalence of various manifestations of SLE in a sample of the Egyptian population. Patients and methods Information in this study was derived from the medical records of SLE patients who sought medical advice at a private clinic in Cairo from January 1980 to June 2016. Results This study included 1109 SLE patients, of whom 114 (10...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426955/uncoupling-the-widespread-occurrence-of-anti-nmdar1-autoantibodies-from-neuropsychiatric-disease-in-a-novel-autoimmune-model
#11
Hong Pan, Bárbara Oliveira, Gesine Saher, Ekrem Dere, Daniel Tapken, Marina Mitjans, Jan Seidel, Janina Wesolowski, Debia Wakhloo, Christina Klein-Schmidt, Anja Ronnenberg, Kerstin Schwabe, Ralf Trippe, Kerstin Mätz-Rensing, Stefan Berghoff, Yazeed Al-Krinawe, Henrik Martens, Martin Begemann, Winfried Stöcker, Franz-Josef Kaup, Reinhard Mischke, Susann Boretius, Klaus-Armin Nave, Joachim K Krauss, Michael Hollmann, Fred Lühder, Hannelore Ehrenreich
Autoantibodies of the IgG class against N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor subunit-NR1 (NMDAR1-AB) were considered pathognomonic for anti-NMDAR encephalitis. This view has been challenged by the age-dependent seroprevalence (up to >20%) of functional NMDAR1-AB of all immunoglobulin classes found in >5000 individuals, healthy or affected by different diseases. These findings question a merely encephalitogenic role of NMDAR1-AB. Here, we show that NMDAR1-AB belong to the normal autoimmune repertoire of dogs, cats, rats, mice, baboons, and rhesus macaques, and are functional in the NMDAR1 internalization assay based on human IPSC-derived cortical neurons...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423662/environmental-exposures-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders-what-role-does-the-gut-immune-brain-axis-play
#12
REVIEW
Shannon Delaney, Mady Hornig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Evidence is growing that environmental exposures-including xenobiotics as well as microbes-play a role in the pathogenesis of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Underlying mechanisms are likely to be complex, involving the developmentally sensitive interplay of genetic/epigenetic, detoxification, and immune factors. Here, we review evidence supporting a role for environmental factors and disrupted gut-immune-brain axis function in some neuropsychiatric conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies suggesting the involvement of an altered microbiome in triggering CNS-directed autoimmunity and neuropsychiatric disturbances are presented as an intriguing example of the varied mechanisms by which environmentally induced gut-immune-brain axis dysfunction may contribute to adverse brain outcomes...
February 8, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417305/anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-presenting-as-postpartum-psychosis-a-clinical-description-and-review
#13
Mukku Shiva Shanker Reddy, Harish Thippeswamy, Sundarnag Ganjekar, Madhu Nagappa, Anita Mahadevan, H R Arvinda, Prabha S Chandra, Arun B Taly
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is increasingly being recognised to be associated with protean neuropsychiatric manifestations. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is considered to be the most common amongst the autoimmune-mediated encephalitic disorders. It is caused by the autoantibodies against GluN1 subunits of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and manifests with prominent psychiatric symptoms, especially during the initial phase of illness. Literature anti-NMDAR encephalitis presenting with postpartum psychosis is scant...
February 7, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398245/cans-childhood-acute-neuropsychiatric-syndromes
#14
REVIEW
Federica Zibordi, Zorzi Giovanna, Carecchio Miryam, Nardocci Nardo
The terms Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS), Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS), and Childhood Acute Neuropsychiatric Symptoms (CANS) have been used to describe certain acute onset neuropsychiatric pediatric disorders. This clinical characteristic was unusually abrupt onset of obsessive compulsive symptoms and/or severe eating restrictions and concomitant cognitive, behavioral or neurological symptoms. Because the CANS/PANS criteria define a broad spectrum of neuropsychiatric conditions, the syndrome is presumed to result from a variety of disease mechanisms and to have multiple etiologies, ranging from postinfectious autoimmune and neuroinflammatory disorders to toxic, endocrine or metabolic disorders...
February 1, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382712/corticosterone-production-during-repeated-social-defeat-causes-monocyte-mobilization-from-the-bone-marrow-glucocorticoid-resistance-and-neurovascular-adhesion-molecule-expression
#15
Anzela Niraula, Yufen Wang, Jonathan P Godbout, John F Sheridan
Repeated social defeat (RSD) stress promotes the release of bone marrow-derived monocytes into circulation that are recruited to the brain, where they augment neuroinflammation and cause prolonged anxiety-like behavior. Physiological stress activates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) axis, and both of these systems play a role in the physiological, immunological, and behavioral responses to stress. The purpose of this study was to delineate the role of HPA activation and corticosterone production in the immunological responses to stress in male C57/BL6 mice...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379898/anti-ma-1-and-anti-ma-2-antibodies-in-isolated-fatal-hypothalamitis
#16
Mario Bustos, Hara Berger, Zeina Carolina Hannoush, Alejandro Ayala, Rochelle Freire, Atil Yilmaz Kargi
Lymphocytic hypothalamitis (LHT) is a rare disease characterized by pituitary dysfunction, autonomic instability, metabolic disturbances, and neuropsychiatric disorders. We report the case of a 30-year-old man found to have LHT that progressed despite treatment with methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). A literature review was conducted to identify prior studies pertaining to LHT. Our patient presented with several weeks of fatigue, cold intolerance, weight loss, confusion, and headache...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376438/n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-laboratory-diagnostics-and-comparative-clinical-features-in-adults-and-children
#17
Matteo Gastaldi, Margherita Nosadini, Marianna Spatola, Stefano Sartori, Diego Franciotta
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is the most common autoimmune encephalitis due to autoantibodies against neuronal surface antigens, can affect both children and adults, leading to neurological and neuropsychological sequelae. However, it is potentially treatable and the prompt start of immunotherapy associates with better prognosis. Conversely, misdiagnosis can be harmful. The detection of NMDAR antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid plays a pivotal role in the diagnostic work-up. Reliable methods for NMDAR antibody detection are thus fundamental to assure accurate diagnosis and allow early treatments...
February 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370834/highly-selective-inhibition-of-bruton-s-tyrosine-kinase-attenuates-skin-and-brain-disease-in-murine-lupus
#18
Samantha A Chalmers, Jing Wen, Jessica Doerner, Ariel Stock, Carla M Cuda, Hadijat M Makinde, Harris Perlman, Todd Bosanac, Deborah Webb, Gerald Nabozny, Jay S Fine, Elliott Klein, Meera Ramanujam, Chaim Putterman
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease that affects different end organs, including skin and brain. We and others have previously shown the importance of macrophages in the pathogenesis of cutaneous and neuropsychiatric lupus. Additionally, autoantibodies produced by autoreactive B cells are thought to play a role in both the skin and central nervous system pathologies associated with SLE. METHODS: We used a novel inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), BI-BTK-1, to target both macrophage and B cell function in the MRL-lpr/lpr murine model of SLE, and examined the effect of treatment on skin and brain disease...
January 25, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364387/non-inflammatory-cerebrospinal-fluid-delays-the-diagnosis-and-start-of-immunotherapy-in-anti-nmdar-encephalitis
#19
Mariana Espinola-Nadurille, Paola Bautista-Gomez, Jose Flores, Veronica Rivas-Alonso, Rodrigo Perez-Esparza, Rodolfo Solís-Vivanco, Steven Vargas-Cañas
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is a form of autoimmune encephalopathy that presents with a wide variety of symptoms, including neuropsychiatric manifestations. The authors' aim for this study was to analyze the results of paraclinical studies of patients with a diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis and the association between symptom onset and diagnosis, and start of immunotherapy. Retrospective data of 29 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis were gathered and analyzed. Abnormal EEG was found in 27 patients (93...
January 2018: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364334/extrahepatic-manifestations-associated-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#20
A Flores-Chávez, J A Carrion, X Forns, M Ramos-Casals
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been associated with both organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases, with cryoglobulinemia being the most frequent associated disease. Experimental, virologic, and clinical evidence have demon-strated a close association between HCV infection and some systemic autoimmune diseases, especially Sjögren's syndrome, but also rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. A higher prevalence of hematological processes has also been described in patients with HCV infection, including cytopenias and lymphoproliferative disorders (B-cell lymphoma)...
December 2017: Revista Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria
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